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many among them, who have received no instruction but what the common schools above-mentioned have been able to give them, have, by the agencies of life itself been prompted by their own exertions to acquire such an amount of knowledge, and their mental faculties have been so much developed, that they in the Storthing make most pithy and eloquent speeches upon all political and social subjects.
Of the 10,000 children who do not belong to the district schools about 4,000 may be supposed to receive instruction at home from parents, tutors, or governesses. Of the remaining 6,000, about one-half attend private schools, which are about on a par with, or very little superior to, the better class of district schools in the towns. The other half, or about 3,000, may be supposed to attend higher public or private schools, both for girls and boys, but principally the latter. Among these schools the so-called Burgher-schools should be first mentioned, of which there are more than twenty in different towns. There are public schools, in many of which girls are also educated, but in separate classes or sections. The branches of instruction in these schools, which in the smaller towns have two or three, and in the larger towns four or five or more teachers, are usually reading, writing, arithmetic, religion, orthography and grammar of the mother-tongue, one or more of the foreign languages--German, French, and English-history, geography, the rudiments of mathematics, and sometimes the rudiments of drawing, natural history, and physics. The most completely endowed Burgher schools are called “Real” schools. Thus, Christiania, Trondhjem, and Bergen have each a Real" school, established partly by the public, and partly by private legacies. In Christiania there are also several more or less complete private “Real” schools. The whole amount of expenses for the Burgher schools is about 30,000 sp. dollars.
In eleven towns there exists (usually instead of, but sometimes esides, the Burgher schools) public Real schools, established by the State, which are placed in connection with the learned schools (Latin schools) established by the State. The peculiarity of the arrangement of these schools is, that the lower classes (until the pupils complete their twelfth year as a normal age) form, as it were, a common trunk or stem, from which there after. wards issue two branches, the Latin school and the Real school. The first of these, the Latin or learned school, imparts during five or six years, to those who desire to go to the University, a special preparatory instruction, of which the classical languages and their literature form an essential part. The other branch, or the Real school, imparts a suitable preparatory instruction to those pupils who are destined, after completing their fifteenth or sixteenth year, to enter on practical life,or to attend higher technical or commercial special schools, (of which there are scarcely any in this country,) or to enter the military school. The branches of instruction in the united Latin and Real schools are in the common classes—the mother-tongue, writing and drawing, singing and gymnastics, arithmetic, religious instruction, geography, history, natural history, German, and French. In the Latin classes of the united schools the branches of instruction are as fol. lows—the mother-tongue, religious instruction, geography, history, German, French, mathematics, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. In the Real classes the instruction is given in the mother-tongue, religious instruction, geography, history, natural history, German, French, English, mathematics, natural philosophy, writing, and drawing. In some of these schools the highest Real class gives the pupils a special preparation for commercial life by instruction in commercial correspondence, book-keeping, the properties of goods, &c.
In Christiania there are some private Latin and Real schools, the organization of which is in all essential points the same as the public schools. It must, however, be remembered, that while all the classes in the private school described have annual courses, the classes in the public Latin and Real schools have generally biennial courses, whence it follows that the number of classes in the latter is reduced to about half the number adopted in the former; and the total course of the learned school is likewise, on account of its less perfect organization with biennial classes, accomplished in six years. Five of these schools have also a less complete arrangement in the higher classes, the highest biennial Latin class being wanting; they can not, therefore, send pupils directly to the University, and are frequently called, to distinguish them from the others, “Middelog Real skoler.” In the eleven public Latin and Real schools the number of pupils is altogether 700. There are also three public learned or Latin schools, which are not connected with the Real schools, viz., in Christiania, Trondhjem, and Bergen. They are destined, as well as the Latin schools which are connected with Real schools, to prepare those who intend to complete their education at the University. Their organization differs from that of the united Latin schools only inasmuch as they have retained the old arrangement in the study of languages, according to which the Latin language is to be rned before the modern languages; this order being reversed in the Latin schools which are connected with Real schools. The number of pupils in the three independent Latin schools is altogether somewhat over 300. These three schools are supported by their own resources, which they have obtained partly by legacies, and partly by endowments from the State in former times. Their yearly income arising from interests and from payments of pupils amounts altogether to about 28,000 specie dollars, which amount is, however, not wholly expended for the necessities of the schools. Adding to this 36,000 sp. drs., which sum represents the income of the combined Latin and Real schools, arising from pupils, payments, and contributions from the public and the State. The result is 64,000 sp. drs. as the total sum annually devoted to the support of the public learned and Real schools. As to the masters in the public Latin and Real schools, it must be
observed that nobody can be appointed as a “Rector" (or manager) of such a school unless he has first passed the first two examinations, com. mon for all students in the university, namely, in the ancient and modern languages, history, geography, mathematics, and natural history, and after that the so-called philological examination. Vide “Academiske Love for Studerende ved det Kongelige Norske Fredriks Universitet," p. 18, sec. 12, and p. 40. Nobody can be appointed an “ Overlærer" unless he has passed the examinations just mentioned, or the examination in divinity, or the examination by law, of 15th September, 1851, required to be passed by all who wish to be Real teachers.
The highest academy for public instruction is the University in Christiania. It has 31 professors, a very considerable library, and several valuable collections, 60,000 specie dollars per annum is the amount devoted to the University.
Besides the schools hitherto enumerated, there should also be mentioned, as belonging to the general system of education, the Asylums, established in many towns, where little children from two to seven years old, stay during the daytime, while their parents are at work; and where they are not only taken care of, but also instructed in the first elements. These Asylums are supported partly by the public funds, but chiefly by voluntary annual contributions. The amount applied to the support of Asylums in the country can not, on the whole, be estimated at more than 6,000 sp. dollars.
An institution for the instruction and education of the deaf and dumb has been established by the State at Trondhjem, and there are also three private institutions for the instruction of deaf and dumb children, which are supported by the State.
Among those schools whose instruction takes a more special direction, must be named agricultural schools, drawing schools, and sailors' schools, which are all calculated for adult pupils, who have passed through the ordinary primary schools. Of agricultural schools there are fourteen. They receive young men at the age of about eighteen to twenty years. A more comprehensive account of the organization of agricultural schools may be found in the detailed description of the agricultural school at Munkvold, near Trondhjem. Of public drawing schools there are eight, which are supported partly by the public, and partly by the State. Their aim is chiefly to impart to mechanics' apprentices the necessary knowledge of drawing; besides which there are usually lectures on the rudiments of practical mathematics and physics. The yearly cost of these drawing schools is about 6,000 sp. dols., whereof one-half is applied to the drawing school at Christiania, which on this account is far more completely endowed than the others. From this school, various means of instruction and several works executed by the pupils, were exhibited at St. Martin's Hall. Of sailors' schools, to which both the state and the respective
communities furnish contributions, there are as yet only few. In many places, especially in the towns, there are Sunday schools, whose object is to impart to adults that elementary instruction, which they had not opportunities of acquiring in their childhood. For this purpose instruction is usually given during a few hours in the morning or evening in reading, writing, and arithmetic, sometimes also in the orthography, and grammar of the mother-tongue, and likewise in history and geography. Besides this, instruction is generally given in religion, or portions of Scripture are read. The cost of the Sunday schools is very inconsiderable, and is defrayed either from gifts or by public subscription.
On establishing a calculation of what the country devotes on the whole to the support of the lower and higher schools, both public and private, before mentioned, the amount must be supposed to be about 350,000 dols., not including the land possessed by the masters of the permanent schools in the country
XVII. MODES OF IMPROVING A FACTORY POPULATION.
The following Paper was read by Edward Akroyd, M. P., before the “National Association for the Promotion of Social Science,” in 1857.
In detailing my own exertions to improve the intellectual, moral, and physical condition of my work-people, numbering nearly 5000, I must premise that I am not singular in these efforts, nor do I take credit to myself for all that has been done in my establishment. My late father, who founded the business, took an active part in improving the condition and promoting the education of his work-people. He built a large school, attached to the works at Halifax, in the year 1839, and personally instructed a Sunday-school class. My brother co-operated with me in every beneficent provision for those in our employ, until he withdrew from business, a few years ago. Other manufacturers also have done, and are doing, their parts most cheerfully and energetically in the same direction.
My works are situated at Copley and at Halifax, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Copley lies in a valley, on the banks of the river Calder, and the situation is one of great natural beauty. The trunk-line of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway passes within a few yards of the works, and parallel thereto runs the Calder and Hebble Canal.
At Copley mill, the manufactory is exclusively worsted, and the process that of spinning. The works may be called self-contained ; that is, they are shut in, and form a small hamlet of themselves, in which there are no residents except those in my employ. The cottages of the work-people are intended to be model cottages; fitted up with every convenience required in such babitations, each having its garden-plot, and the whole well supplied with water, conveyed to each house in pipes. The village is also lighted with gas. About 1000 persons are employed in the mill, and every effort is made to secure their comfort, and the education of their families.
Many of the work-people are not residents in the village, and a large dining-room, capable of accommodating 700 persons, has been provided. The room is fitted up with every necessary and convenient apparatus, and the culinary department is presided over by a cook and assistants. As it has ever been an object with me rather to develop the power, and to encourage the self-reliance, of the people