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stimulating him to activity, and thus to the development of all his faculties.
Education by means of men is in part unintentional and purposeless, in part designed, and conducted according to certain rules, conceived with a consciou ness more or less clear.
It is this latter to which particularly the name of education is applied ; and it is this education which a man needs in order to be truly welltrained.
If all education were left to the operation of nature and of accident, men might, it is true, do well physically, but mentally would remain exceedingly undeveloped.
Education however must be natural; that is, must be adapted to the nature of man as a corporeal, reasoning and free being; and therefore must not be mechanical, merely directory or drilling, as with beasts, but reasonable and admitting of free activity, and neither pampering nor over refining.
Instruction is an important part of this education; inasmuch as it must itself communicate education; that is, must be stimulating, developing, and training, and must not merely hand over to the memory for safe keeping a multitude of words and facts.
Education begins with birth; and is therefore at the beginning, of course, merely physical or corporal; it soon however becomes moral and intellectual also—or, to speak generally, mental; for the mind of the child very soon becomes active; as soon as he answers to the smiles of his mother, and begins to stammer out words.
The mother is therefore the first and most natural teacher.
The father, however, and others who are round the child, partly involuntarily and partly voluntarily, take a part in it.
For this reason the first education must be domestic.
Public education takes place later; and partly continues the former, and partly supplies its deficiencies; especially for boys, who by virtue of their natural destiny enter so much more into public life than girls.
When the youth attains his majority, he becomes his own educator; although the external world continues to have an incessant influence upon him.
This stage of education continues until man, having become a more or less ripe fruit upon the stem of humanity; falls from it and sinks into his grave.
KRUG.. Man consists of two opposite natures, neither of which should be sacrificed to the other, but which should live in harmony with each other.
The corporeal nature is not merely the unessential and refuse shell of the extra-corporeal ; it is not merely the prison of the mind, worth no care or protection; but it is the material root of the spirit; the independ. ent ground and basis from which the mental forces spring up and which secures them their efficiency.
In like manner, the intellectual nature is not the mere blossom and fruit of the body; it is a separate independent power, recognizing laws by the reason, and governing itself by the free force of the will; in a manner quite opposed to the nature of the corporeal life, which acts and produces without knowing or willing, under the laws of blind necessity.
As man is equally an animal and mental being, and ca only attain to both the natural and intellectual purposes of his life, by living in a completely harmonious condition, therefore his whole education must bring about an equal development and improvement of the powers both of the body and the mind. Physical education and mental training must go
hand in hand, in order that neither may be carried to an extreme of irreparable injury to men in this life.
ROTTECK and WELCKER, State Lexicon. It is worth more to be possessed of but few of the lessons of wisdom, but to apply these diligently, than to know many, but not to have them at hand.
The object of education is not external show and splendor, but inward development
What is the use of a great number of books, when their possessor knows only their names ?
An enormous mass of materials is not instructive to the learner, but discouraging.
It is better to study thoroughly a few good authors, than to wander. about among many.
It is in the possession of the greatest idlers that we find the largest libraries—as ornaments to their walls.
From everything noble the mind receive seeds, which are vivified by admonition and instruction, as a light breath kindles up the spark in the ashes.
Youth will correct itself, under management and stimulus.
The powers of the mind are nourished by instruction, and increase, under its influence, in proportion as new ideas are added to those innate, and bad ideas are made better.
Short lessons, in sentences or verses, are of especial importance in education. They are instructive, in proportion as they awaken the attention, and stimulate the will.
Youth, moreover, ought not to pluck first in one place and then in another, nor to rasp too eagerly after everything at once.
We attain to the whole, through the parts. The burden must be proportioned to the strength; and no greater ones laid on than the pupil can bear.
No greater tasks should be imposed on the pupils, than they can comprehend and master.
Seneca. But how is it, that the most careful education often miscarries ; that sometimes, even from the best families, there come individuals, if not worthless, at least of weak character; whilo very eminent men develop without any education at all, and accomplish everything for themselves ?
The reasons for this state of things are:
1. The most careful instruction is not always the wisest; and the best intentioned parents often do the greatest harm by the means from which they expected the greatest good. For example; many sorts of religious instruction make the recipients irreligious; virtue always watched over does not maintain itself when not watched; strictness and kindness, both of which are indispensable in education, accomplish their purpose only when mingled in right proportions.
2. It is very commonly the case in faniilies where education is carefully attended to, that there is a too great uniformity in the mode of managing the children, though the children may be of very various characters; and thus it follows that what helps one, harms another.
3. The education which the individual receives from his parents and instructors, as he grows up, is not the only influence at work upon him; and the influence of other persons, and of circumstances, is often only too great; and moreover it acts upon him from all sides ; while education can operate only on one side.
4. The fact that eminent men have seemed to do everything for themselves, only shows that education given by other men is not the only influ
ence which develops; and that some few—and the cases are very rare have sufficient innate powers to penetrate through all obstacles; and that even in these cases we must not overlook the external circumstances in which they were placed, and which were perhaps precisely those best suited to them, and therefore best fitted to fill the place of the education, in the ordinary sense of the word—which they lacked.
5. While a few remarkable instances may be cited of men who have succeeded without education, we must, in order to correctness, take into account also the great number of those who have been entirely ruined by the want of a wise education.
6. It must also be remembered, that under the influence of a proper education, such men would not only have been still more accomplished, but that they would have escaped many dangers which have been very harmful to them, though perhaps also useful.
NIEMEYER. There is, in the present organization of the world, but one single species of instruction which is applicable to all classes, and embraces all human relations-namely, religion.
This, being restricted to no particular period of life, not visibly interfering with the course of civil occupations, and governing and training the heart more than the head, and therefore requiring no artificial preparation from its pupils, finds its operations no where limited.
It awakens and maintains the consciousness of an inner and higher existence, which no chains can reach and no oppression can subdue; and thus is the most efficient teacher of true freedom, and of the recognition of that only equality which sustains all the civic relations, and exists in the sentiments even of the poorest.
Von GENTZ. You have everything, if you have citizens.
For the fatherland can not exist without virtue; and virtue can not exist without citizens.
But to train citizens is not the work of a day.
Men must become accustomed, even in childhood, to consider themselves only as individuals related to the State; and thus they will at last come to feel themselves parts of a whole; members of one fatherland.
It will afterwards be too late to change them, when once they have come under the dominion of the passions of that degraded and hateful mode of life which rejects virtue.
How shall love for the fatherland be developed, under the many passions which choke it up ?
And when ambition, vanity and pleasure have once established themselves in a heart, how much of that heart will remain to be devoted to fellow-citizens ?
French Encyclopædia. Education and instruction are, according to the use of language, two different things; the former including the whole of physical, moral and intellectual development, but the latter applicable more properly to the training of the intellect.
Instruction must include everything which relates to the development and training of the man and the citizen.
Up to this time, in most countries, more has been done for knowledge and practical ability, than for faith and love ; and of the two chief human feelings, far more regard has been paid to selfishness than to the moral
Therefore it is that in politics equality is not maintained; because, with men of mere intellect, material forces govern, and the spiritual forces of justice and truth are subordinated; shrewdness and not right feeling being the ruling trait.
A man whose feelings are properly trained is always a good citizen, and under a free constitution will always both enjoy happiness and promote it in others.
We have enough of laws for men; now let us train some men for the laws.
ARETINUS. Our children are by natural endowment reasonable and moral beings; and under our guidance and supervision must become men capable of self-government, and of making it their constant duty to act according to the action of their understandings and the principles of their reason.
To bring them up to this capacity is the aim of moral instruction.
When we have brought them to it, they will endeavor to keep themselves unspotted from the world, to lay out their own path in it, and not to fail of finding their happiness in it, in the way of uprightness.
BEDAY. When any one undertakes to educate a child according to the rules of a true system of pedagogy, he must of course see that all mere imitation, and mere pouring in of knowledge and rules for life, are opposed to nature and to the object of education.
The ideal rule laid down by Rousseau, “Follow the indications of nature," must mean, if rightly interpreted, “Manage your child as a being whose independent existence will not receive an arbitrary direction, limitation or expansion from you, but who will lay out his own direction, and enlarge his own sphere of life, and who is to receive from you, or from the whole of nature without him, only assistance, preparation, and removal of obstructions.
O Pedagogy, how long wilt thou continue to darken wisdom with thy rules, leading-strings and machineries ?
Why is it that in the sphere of humanity, so much is labored at, and so little is done ?
Why do so many suns set without having given light?
Why do such masses of power disappear without leaving a trace of their operations ?
And why do such numbers of men stand still like rows of stunted trees?
The reason is that the faculties are crippled when they first awaken; because man makes it his first business to fetter the impulse of development.
The chief principle of education should be, man must train himself; must develop himself. But other men, without him, can and should promote this self-training, by external influences.
As the physical man develops itself, but not without the preceding act of generation, so does the intellectual man also develop himself; but not without the influence of other intellectual beings without him.
And as the physical man is nourished by food furnished him by means of others external to himself, so is the intellectual man, by intellectual nutriment furnished to him.
Ph. Car. REINHARD. That was a true and noble expression which was made use of by Scherer, Royal Bavarian Court Librarian, in his “Retrospect of the Twenty-five years
' Reign of my King," when he said " What is the use of the wealth of materials for thought and discussion, if the principal faculty—of action -is crippled? Or of talent and intellectual cultivation, when the heart is not attracted to what is great and noble ? Or of the extermination of error, if faith is exterminated with it? It is not the Spirit of the Age, but the Pest of the Age—this half-knowledge and sciolism in all departments and of everything susceptible of thought—this concern and interest with whatever is far off, and indifference to what is more useful—this escape of every one from his own proper sphere. If the state is to improve, it must be by the improvement of its single members ; and this can take place only when a true popular education, based in the discipline of every home, shall act upon the special life of separate men and conditions; when the chasm between knowing and acting, between thought and will, between school and life, shall forever disappear; when the eternal holy life of morals and religion shall no more be an affair merely of the understanding; shall no longer be merely laid down, but acted out also ;" &c.
In these words, Scherer expresses the truly great and holy idea of a further education of the people, beyond the narrow limits of the common school; of an education which does not rely upon the various limited and one-sided experiences of practical life, or upon chance, or the influence of a party seeking its own aggrandizement merely ; but which would effect the necessary changes, and set forth the means by which may be secured the most truly comprehensive and profitable education as men, citizens and Christians; which shall be distinct from all false enlightenment, all hurtful illuminism, both in substance and form, and as extensive as the immovable limits of social condition and of vocation in life, shall permit.
Such a training, of which only the first foundation can be or is commonly laid, at home and at the common school, is not only the most undeniable right of every man in virtue of his destiny and dignity as man, but is becoming every year more absolutely necessary; we might even say every day ; in proportion as it is daily more out of the question for any one, without intelligent comprehension and investigation of his business to meet the demands of the progress of general education. The time is already long past, when the mechanic could get well through the world with the ordinary technical knowledge which he gained in the workshop of any master, when the merchant needs nothing except the routine which he had mastered during his short stay behind an employer's counter, and when the farmer was certain of a quiet living if he knew how to plough and sow and was an able workman.
This time, of which so many speak as the golden age, is so long past, that now a carpenter, for instance, does work which used to require a cabinet-maker; and the cabinet-maker produces what would formerly have required an artist. This time is past and will never return; for every practical pursuit, even farming, is now a science, and every trade has its science.
But a really profound and thorough investigation, in the true sense of the words, into these various pursuits, a rational comprehension and pursuit of these separate trades, whatever their names, is only possible when attempted upon the basis of a higher general education. Without this foundation the fixed point is lacking from which it is necessary to proceed; without this foundation, the isolated pursuit of a single occupation can by necessity only result in producing a routinist instead of a
Thus we find, as the sacred requirement of morals and of all the conditions of our vocations in life, this continued education of all classes in city and country—an education, universal in scope, comprehensive and thorough.
It was not yesterday that this demand was first heard. Not to go back to a more ancient period, Christ, first of all, expressed this necessity, when as the messenger of God, he proposed for himself the great task of bringing the whole human race to a knowledge of the truth, and through truth to virtue; and through truth and virtue to the higher happiness destined for him.
(To be continued.)