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The results of the moral and religious instruction, communicated in and out of school, are fully shown in the character of the people of Holland; and these must be deemed satisfactory. Sectarian instruction is carefully kept out of the schools, while the historical parts of the Bible and its moral lessons are fully dwelt upon. There are various collections of Bible stories for this purpose, which are commented on by the teacher, and all the incidental instruction, so important in a school, has the same tendency. Doctrinal instruction is given, according to an arrangement made with the churches of the various denominations when the school law was promulgated; this instruction is imparted out of the school, on the half-holidays and Sundays. Sometimes, when, as at the Hague, the pupils nearly all belong to one communion, a catechist attends at the school; but even then, only those children whose parents wish it are present at the exercises.

Musio is taught by note, and most of the schools have a blackboard, with the ledger lines painted in white or red upon it, to assist the teacher. The songs are of very various characters, as moral, religious, patriotic, grave, gay, and loyal ; and very considerable attainment is made in vocal music.

I return now to the school of the Hague, to give an account of the manner in which the various exercises are accomplished, within the six or eight years devoted to elementary instruction. As the law requires but three classes in each school, these are sub-divided. Each division is, in fact, a separate class, with a distinct course of study, and an industrious pupil can pass through one division each year. The number of hours marked, are those devoted per week to the several subjects.



Hours. Exercises of thought and reason,..

2 Individual reading,.. Prinsen's Tables, ....

6 Reading different printed characters, ........ Vowels and consonants from the letter-box,., 1 Mental arithmetic,. Composition of words on the reading-board,. 3 Exercises in arithmetic,. General exercises with the letter-box, 1 Learning Roman and Arabiac numerals, 1 Spelling from memory,.. 1 Sitting quiet,

.. 1 Explanation of words and sentences, 2 Exercises of thought and reason, continued,.. 2 Simultaneous reading from books,...


BECOND DIVISION. Vowels and consonants from the letter-box, Reading written characters,....... continued,

1 Writing on the blackboard, Spelling from memory, continued,... 3 Arithmetic by induction, continued, Explanation of words and sentences, contin- Mental arithmetic, continued, ued, ........

3 Writing and reading numbers, Simultaneous reading from books, continued,. 7 Reading Roman numerals, Composition of sentences on the reading. Elements of form,. board,...

1 Sitting quiet,..

Exercises of thought and reason, continued,.. 2 Writing out verses to learn by rote,..
Spelling from memory, continued,..... i Linear drawing,..
Explanation of words and sentences, con- Arithmetic by induction, continued,

1 Mental arithmetic, continued,
Simultaneous reading from books, continued.. 7 Practical arithmetic,
Composition of sentences on the reading- Writing and reading numbers, continued,.
board, continued,.

1 Reading Roman numerals, continued,
Writing on the blackboard, continued,. 1 Elements of form, continued,.
Reading written characters, continued, i Table of coisas,.......
Grammar, the conjugations.

1 Catechism, Writing on slates.....




Exercises of thought and reason, continued,.. 2 | Writing small hand on paper,..
Analysis of sentences,..

1 Mental arithmetic, continued.. Explanation of words and sentences, contin- Practical arithmetic, continued,

1 Tuble of coins, continued,.. Composition of sentences continued,

1 Elements of form, continued, Simultaneous reading, continued,.

5 Linear drawing, continued,. Correct rending..

1 Moral and religious instruction, continued,. Parsing.

1 Singing,.. Writing on slates,....


ved, ..



Hours Exercises of thought and reason continued.... 1 Geography of Holland, .

1 Simultaneous reading from books, continued. 5 Arithmetic by induction, continued,

1 Correct reading, continued,. . 1 Mental arithmetic, continned,...

1 Composition of sentences, continued, 1 Practical arithmetic, continued...

3 Writing on the slate, continued,. 1 Rules of arithmetic,

1 Writing on paper, continued,. 4 Decimal fractions,

1 Writing capital letters,.. 1 Elements of form, continued,...

1 Linear drawing, continued,.

1 Moral and religious instruction, continued,.. 1 History of Holland, 1 Vocal music, continued,..




1 1 1 1

Exercises of thought and reason, continued... 1 Writing on blackboard,..
Simultaneous reading, continued.

1 Mental arithmetic, continued, Correct reading of prose and poetry,.

1 | Practical do. do. Writing from dictation, for orthography,

Rules of do. do. Grammar, continued,..

1 System of weights and measures. History of Holland, continued,.

1 Theory of numbers,. Chronology of Holland,

1 Moral and religious instruction, continued, Geography of Holland,

2 Catechism, continued,. Writing of small band from copy slips,... 2 Vocal music, continued,.. Writing capital letters and figures,....

The half-yearly examination of the pupils, at which I was present, enabled me to hear their progress in arithmetic with the cubes, in reading and spelling, in forming words and sentences, in numerating written numbers, making Roman numerals, in higher reading, in the elements of form, in higher arithmetic, in mental arithmetic, in the geography of Holland, and in vocal music. Their attainments in these branches were, in general, quite respectable, and in some of them very satisfactory indeed.

The system of weights and measures is taught in the schools of Holland, not only by learning tables, but by reference to the standards themselves, a complete set of copies of which is expected to be preserved in every school. The advantages of this method are very great.

The branches taught in the schools for the poor, are carried further in the burgher schools. Thus the course of grammar is extended, and general history and geography are added. The essentials are, however, the same, and there is no new train of study.

The instruction in the so called, French schools, may be illustrated by that in the one established by the school committee of Utrecht. This school consists of three divisions : two for boys and one for girls. Of those for boys, the first is a Dutch elementary school, which takes its pupils at about five years of age, and carries them through a course very similar to that already described.* At from ten to eleven, they pass to the French school. Here they make further attainments in the Dutch language, study general geography and history in detail, carry their arithmetic further, and begin algebra, continue the course of geometry, make greater progress in the theory and practice of music, and above all, study the French language grammatically, and by using it as the language of recitation, and learning much of the other branches through its medium, acquire a great facility in speaking it. In some of these schools, physics and natural history are taught, and Latin is begun by those who intend to enter the grammar school.

* I was much pleased to see the method of teaching geography, by delineating maps on the blackboard in use in this school. The master himself must be practiced in the art, in order that the pupils may learn by imitation.


PLAN OF INSTRUCTION; PLAN OF LABOR. Translated from Deisterweg's "Manual for Teachers," for the Am. Journal of Education.]

Can we hope for a conclusive discussion of school discipline?

Many teachers have occupied themselves on the subject, and there is no end to their discussion on it. We have not thought proper to devote to it an extended chapter, for the very plain reason that we do not consider it a separate, independent department; but as one and the same with instruction. In our opinion, it coincides with didactics; and, if not identical with it, is still a consequence of it. The true didacticist is also a disciplinarist; he who holds clear views as to instruction, does the same as to discipline; he who instructs well, disciplines well; subjects of instruction are, according to the ancient but often forgotten opinion, “disciplines.”

These views—which it would be easy to extend—were not received so long as the old dogmatic way of teaching was recognized as the sole duty of the teacher. Then, a man might know much, speak well, and “teach" well, and yet know nothing of maintaining discipline. Such (to mention a name whose reputation will not be injured by it) was Schleiermacher, at the Gray-friars' Gymnasium, at Berlin; and such were many other learned men, even down to the present day. But since we have come to include in the idea of teaching something more than, and indeed something entirely different from, the mere communication of knowledgenamely, to stimulate, to develop, to lead into a condition of independent activity; in a word, to instruct, according to the rational modern meaning of the term-since this has been the case, there have been no longer good teachers who have not understood how to discipline their schools. As far as his capacity and power of instruction go, just so far do his educating power and efficiency go. Whoever agrees with the previous posi. tions in this book will agree with this assertion.* The schoolmaster of the present day does nothing except to teach, from one day's end to an. other. He is entirely a teacher, and is therefore with propriety called by that name and by no other. It is not an arbitrarily invented name,

* Compare this: “ Discipline is not the art of rewarding and punishing, of making pupils speak and be silent; it is the art of making them perform, in the most appropriate, easy, and useful manner, all the duties of the school.” The definition of school discipline," by the Conference Society of Capellan, (see above,) is evidently too broad. "The elementary school ought, by the spirit ruling within it, and by its instruction, so to operate upon the children that they shall receive a preparation, adapted to their ages and capacities, for temporal and eternal life.''



which may be exchanged for a better. The ancient "schoolmaster” has nowadays advanced to the grade of “teacher.” As teacher, he calls into activity the observation, industry, love of learning, capacity for it, power of language, capacity for independent action, and self-control of his pupil; all his faculties, not merely those of acquiring knowledge, but the feelings and the character. That is, he directs, corrects, and disciplines him, outwardly and inwardly. The pupil attends school. Here, order, propriety, morality, good manners, obedience, regularity in coming, going, standing, and sitting, and in preparing and delivering his work, love of his occupation, his teacher, and his school, and also truthfulness and credibility, appear as the consequences of the influence of the living, educating principle of the school; that is, of a teacher whose intellect and will are active, vivid, and strong; who, just as Schiller composed, philosophized, and labored as a character, does every thing, inspires every thing with character. The whole matter of disciplinary means therefore concentrates itself in this requirement from the teacher. Teach with didactical—and consequently also with disciplinary-power and skill. The principle of teaching is the principle of school education. *

Thus it appears that the teacher, while bestowing attention upon his system of instruction, must also pay attention to whatever outside matters relate to it, must adjust his views and practice as to them, and, must cause his scholars to conform to them. And in like manner it is self-evident that, where several teachers are laboring together in one school, there must be an agreement upon subjects of this kind, that there may be a harmony of action among them, and one may not pull down what another builds up. The right spirit of instruction will lead the teacher to right action. Shall we go into particulars under this subject ? Their name is legion—but we will refer to a few.

1. Strict enforcement of regularity in teaching school, neither too soon nor too late, but before the stroke of the bell. The teacher therefore to be in the school before it is struck. This is indispensable. Any one coming late to remain standing during the first hour, and to go to the foot of the class.

2. Pupils to be quiet in their places, and to be quiet while preparing their lessons.

3. Exercises to commence at the stroke of the bell, with singing or prayer, or both, but briefly. One stanza of a hymn is enough. Unprogressives have all or half of a hymn sung. But the object of singing is to be a stimulus for work.

4. Position of the teacher before the class, at his post; not to be wandering about. To see all, to address all, to question all, to stimulate all, as one man.

5. Indication of readiness to answer by lifting the forefinger or right hand, not the arm : one to be selected to answer.

• Curtmann gives, as the principal requisites of a teacher as disciplinarian, watchfulness, love of order, consistency, and fairness.


6. Such one to stand up and speak in a clear, distinct, definite, strong

No error, stammering, slowness, half-answer, or slothful answers to be allowed. No telling—that school-pest! Why?

7. For repetition, the pupils to leave their places; not otherwise. The teacher who always needs this means of stimulating the attention is fond of ease, or a feeble teacher.

8. Recognition of every endeavor after success, according to the amount of effort, even if the results are small. Such recognition encourages; while blame, especially if undeserved, is prostrating.

9. No moralizing. Give brief and clear orders, laconic praise* and blame. The laconic teacher is the best.

10. Patience with the feeble, unweariedness with those who try, peremptoriness with those who do not do all they can.

11. The pupil's eye to follow his teacher as a planet the sun, or as a satellite its planet. This must happen of itself, or else it is a made-up action, and valueless.t Erect but not stiff carriage of the body, the feet to be kept still, the hands off the table.

12. Pupils to leave school quietly and orderly, before the teacher, with a silent salute to him; and to go quietly home.

Will this dozen of hints be sufficient? Must we instruct the teacher how the scholars should behave when a stranger, or the pastor, or a school-inspector, &c., visits the school? or how to meet the complaints of parents ? or how to punish, with what, whether with a stick, and a thousand other questions? Where should we end? Those desiring information on those points, should study the books already named, on school discipline, especially that of Dobschall. As seeking the kingdom of God is the first thing, and to be replaced by nothing else whatever, and guides into all truth, so does a right spirit in teaching lead to right action. This, accordingly, is what the teacher should endeavor after. Without it, all else is wood, hay, stubble, which the fire will consume.

With it, it is impossible to go wrong, although “man errs so long as he struggles” it is true; but he will not, on the whole, ever fail of the right way. Experience purifies and directs. Not all things are for all. “Though two do the same thing, it is not the same;" and this is true both of delinquent scholars and of disciplinary teachers. “No one thing is suited to all." What one man applies with success, will fail in the hands of another. There is no receipt-book for the thousand and thousand cases which arise in discipline. “What the understanding of no wise man sces, childlike feeling will practice in simplicity.” These teachers are born rich. Others learn from them, by their example, by obsery

'Praise, that is the approbation of some respected person, (Laudari a viro laudato.) elevates the soul, and encourages it to noble sentiments. See Jean Paul Richter's Life," iii., 13: “Even the greatest miods, however much consciousness of power and self-reliance they may have, still sometimes, even from their youth up, seel the need of an encouraging recognition of their talents, and of the successful application of them. The estimate of oth. ers is indispensable to a man's correct appreciation of his own worth.” Every teacher who educates should continually remember this. The Hamburger, Gurlitt, is a model.

4"A made up educated man is the most foolish creature under the sun."—(Bettina.)

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