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IN ANDALUSIA WITH A BICYCLE. By Joseph Pennell....... Contemporary Review .......

INVENTOR OF DYNAMITE, THE. By Henry de Mosenthal... Nineteenth century....

IN YEARS OF STORM AND STRESS. By Karl Blind.......... Cornhill Magazine ........

IS THERE AN ANGLO-AMERICAN UNDERSTANDING? By

Diplomaticus........ ................................ Fortnightly Review.....

KIPLING, THE WORKS OF MR.....

. Blackwood's Magazine

KLONDIKE, ADVENTURERS AT THE. By T. C. Down.... ..Fortnightly Review...

LAW OF NATIONS, The. By J. E. R. Stephens, ...Gentleman's Magasine...

LI HUNG CHANG's FURS...

... Spectator ..............

LIVING, THE FINE-ART OF By Martin Conway

.Nineteenth Century....

" LLOYD's." By William C. Mackenzie...

. Good Words.............

LOURDES. By A. Fraser Robertson.........

... Gentleman's Magazine...

"MADE IN JAPAN"......................

.. Chambers's Journal.
MADEIRA WATERWAYS. By Rye Owen....

..... Blackwood's Magazine....

MARCH HARE, A. By Charles Strachey..

... Longman's Magazine......

MBISSONIER, E.-PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS AND ANEC-

DOTES. By Charles Yriarte......

...Nineteenth Century....

MILITARY TERROR IN FRANCE, THE. By L. J. Maxse......National Review......

MICROBE IN AGRICULTURE, The. By C. M. Āikman.......Nineteenth Century...

MINE-SALTING......

Chambers's Journal.

MODERN LANGUAGE TEACHING. By Elizabeth Lecky...... Longman's Magazine....

NAPOLEON AND JOSEPHINE AT BAYONNE. By W. Hill

James..........

Macmillan's Magazine....

NAPOLEON IN EGYPT. By J. G. Alger. .................. Westminster Review......

NATURALIST, A GREAT......

..... Blackwood's Magasine

NIGHT IN TIME OF WAR, A. By Edmund Gosse............

New AMERICAN IMPERIALISM, The. By Edward Dicey....Nineteenth century........

NEW JAPAN AND HER CONSTITUTIONAL OUTLOOK, By

Tokiwo Yokoi.....

.......... Contemporary Review..........

NOTES FROM THE COUNTRY OF "ADAM BEDE." By John

Hyde.....................

...Gentleman's Magazine ............

ON STYLE IN ENGLISH PROSE. By Frederic Harrison......Nineteenth Century............

OPPORTUNITY. By John J. Ingalls.....

OXFORD. By Cecil J. Mead Allen....

....... Gentleman's Magazine.....

PACIFIC, THE COMING STRUGGLE IN THE By Benjamin

Taylor.... ...........

...... Nineteenth Century.....

PAINTING IN ENAMELS By Hubert Herkomer... ...... Fortnightly Review....

PANICS AND PRICES. By George Yard ....... ....... Cornhill Magazine........

PAPER WAR, A. By Charles K. Moore...

......... Gentleman's Magasine...

PHILIPPINES, THE FATE OF THR..........

...Spectator.....

PHILIPPINE ISLANDERS, THE. By Lucy M. J. Garnett. ... Fortnightly Review....

PHILIPPINES, A VISIT TO THE By Claes Ericsson.... ... Contemporary Review.....

PLEA FOR THE BETTER TEACHING OF MANNERS, A, By

Florence Bell...

Nineteenth Century.........

PLEA FOR THE LIBERTY OF THE INDIVIDUAL, A. By J.
Parrington Poole........

...... Westminster Review...
POETRY, POETS, AND POETICAL Powers. By Judius...... Westminster Review.....
PRESERVATION OF HEARING, THE. By William B. Dalby..Longman's Magazine ...
QUACK's TRIUMPH, A.....

...... Chambers's Journal.....
READE AND His Books, CHARLES. By W. J. Johnson... Gentleman's Magazine..
REMINISCENCES OF THE GREAT SEPOY REVOLT. By S.

Dewé White............................................Westminster Review....

RETREAT FROM Moscow, THE. By A. J. Butler...........Cornhill Magasine.......

REVOLT IN ITALY, THE. By Giovanni Dalla Vecchia....... Contemporary Review .......

ROAD IN ORCADY, A. By Duncan J. Robertson........... Longman's Magazine.......

ROMANCE OF A SCHOOL INSPECTION, THE By Norah

Powys....................... ..............

...... Temple Bar........

ROCK IN THE BRITISH ATLANTIC, A.........

...... Spectator.....
"RUBA'IVAT" OF OMAR KHAYYÁM, THE.... ........ Gentleman's Magazine.......
RUSSIAN EMPIRE, THE PROGRESS OF THE. By Edward
Lunn.................

.....Gentleman's Magazine....

SHOULD EUROPE DISARM? By Sidney Low..

...Nineteenth Century....

SORROWS OF WAITING, The..
SPAIN, THE RUIN OF. By E. J. Dillon....

.... Contemporary Revicw...

SPAIN AND THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. By John Foreman... Contemporary Review ...

SPAIN, THE CARLIST POLICY IN. By Ruvigny and Cran-

stoun Metcalfe.......

....... Fortnightly Review.........

SPANIARDS IN CUBA, THE. By Antonio Gonzalo Perez,

LL.D., Havana University...

...Nineteenth Century..........

SPANIARD AT HOME, THE By Hannah Lynch.... ...... Blackwood's Magasine...
SPANISH PEOPLE, THE. By Charles Edwardes....... .......Macmillan's Magazine....
"SPLENDID ISOLATION" OR WHAT? By Henry M. Stanley. Nineteenth Century ....
STEVENSON, R. L.: CHARACTERISTICs. By J. A. Mac-
Culloch........... .

......... Westminster Review..
SUMMER. By Mary A. M. Marks.....

..... Good Words.........
SURPRISE IN WAR, FROM A MILITARY AND A NATIONAL
POINT OF VIEW. By T. Miller Maguire.

.. National Review..........
TEMAGAMI. By Archibald Lampman...
TENNYSON, THE MAN. By C. Fisher .....

..Gentleman's Magazine...

THE COMPANY AND THE INDIVIDUAL......

. Blackwood's Magazine...

THE DAYS THAT WERE. By William Morris...

THE ETHICS OF THE TRAMP. By F. M. F. Skene.... Cornhill Magazine.......

THE GUARDS OF RIGHT..........

Punch.......

THE Two COBBLERS OF BRUGES. By Ranger Gull ... Saturday Review.....

VIOLINS AND GIRLS. By H. R. Haweis.....

Contemporary Review..

VITALISM. By John Haldane....

Nineteenth Century..

WANTED-AN OPERA. By J. A. Fuller Maitland ....Nineteenth Century ....
WASTED GENIUS. By Robert J. Sturdee.....

.....Westminster Review...
WAYSIDE TRAFFICKERS. By Charles Hill Dick.... ...Gentleman's Magazine
WEAKEST POINT OF REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT, THE..Spectator.....
WILD BEASTS' SKINS IN COMMERCE....

..Spectator...........
WILL-MAKERS' WHIMS......

..... Household Words....
WINTER IN A DEER-FOREST. By Hector Fraser............Gentleman's Magazine...

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Axoxo all our national treasures the helm had made a version of the Psalter, greatest is the English Bible. Its pri- King Alfred of the four Evangelists, mary appeal, as every one would ad- Ælfric of the seven first books of the mit, is to our common Christianity; Old Testament. But for our present bat it appeals also, and with scarcely purpose we may set on one side the less power, to our common patriotism. merely fragmentary renderings that Transcending every difference and dis. have come down to us. Adaptations tinction of rank, and sect, and party, rather than translations of the more it unites us all as Englishmen. His familiar portions of the Vulgate, they torically it is interwoven with the are full of interest as witnessing to the growth of our political liberties, and continuity of our literature ; but what its successive versions are indissolubly with the costliness of early manuscripts, linked with names forever memorable the tardiness with which copies were in our annals. In its moral and social multiplied, and the absence of any influence it lies at the root of what is reading public, their circulation must strongest and best in the national char- hare been practically confined to ciracter. Unique among books in its un- cles of private friends or of brother ecapproachable dignity and grandeur, it clesiastics. It is not antil we reach holds among us an undisputed pre-emi- the fourteenth century that we find a nence as the most splendid literary really close translation of any one commonument that we possess of the gen- plete book of Scripture. Dating from ius of our pative tongue.

the first half of that century we have For nearly eight hundred years the two such translations of the Psalms, only Bible from which paraphrases or the one by William de Schorham, the metrical versions could be made was other by Richard Rolle, the author of the Latin Vulgate, the knowledge of The Pricke of Conscience, and better Greek and Hebrew being during that known as the Hermit of Hampole. To period practically non-existent. In the the last half of the century belong two famous abbey on the cliffs at Whitby, works whose widespread and lasting Cædmon had sung the scripture story influence it would be difficult to exagof man's creation and of his fall, of gerate, and which, by their rapid disIsrael and of Christ. The dying hours semination among the common people, of Bæde, the grand old monk of Jar- contributed in no inconsiderable degree row, had been devoted to the comple- to that great religious revolution in tion of a translation into English of England which we call the Reformathe Gospel according to St. John. Ald. tion. The one is Langland's Vision

NEW SERIES.--Vol. LXVIII., No. 1.

of Piers the Ploughman, the other is blemishes it is of imperishable interest. Wyclif's Bible (1380). The extent of Many of its phrases, “the straight his own personal share in it is not quite gate," “ the narrow way,'' “ the beam satisfactorily determined, but the and the mote," have passed forever greater part of the New Testament and into our language. It is, above all part of the Old are from his pen. His things, our first and oldest Bible. friend Nicholas de Hereford is respon- Even were it of less literary merit than sible for the first portion of the Old it is, it would still be secure of immorTestament as far as the book of Baruch, tality as an integral part of English iii. 20. At this point his manuscript, history. It was born in an age of innow in the Bodleian Library, breaks tense national excitement. It is the off abruptly, owing no doubt to the “provocatio ad populum" of our first peremptory action of the ecclesiastical Reformer. It is the dying legacy to authorities, for we know that in the the people of England of the sturdiest summer of 1382 he was excommuni- fighter of his day. It is from the hand cated. What remained to be done was of the father of English prose. It emmost probably done by Wyclif. This bodies the great principle that the Bifirst edition was soon seem to be in ble is the people's book, and should many ways defective, and Wyclif was speak the language of the people. still working at a revision of it in De- The fourteenth century, if we stand cember, 1384, when he died from a back and endeavor to take a comprestroke of paralysis. It was completed hensive view of it, may be best deunder the direction of his faithful scribed as a time of transition. Medfriend and curate, John Purvey, with iævalism was slowly passing away, but “ myche trauaile,” as he tells us, and the new world was not yet plainly in with the aid of “ diuerse felawis and sight. We are reminded, as we watch helperis," not earlier, it is supposed, the sweep of events, of a dissolving thap 1390..

view where the picture that is departBoth the original and the revised ing is fading into indistinctness, while version are reproduced in parallel col- the lines of the picture that is to take umns in the splendid work of Forshall its place have still to come into focus. and Madden which issued from the We seem to be looking at a blurred imClarendon Press in 1850. Two short age which is neither picture because it quotations will show how comparative- is both. Pope and Emperor are both ly little our language has changed in there, but not the empire or the papacy the course of five centuries.

as they were of old. The Emperor But in o day of the woke ful earli thei has become a mere shadow of his forçamen to the grave and broughten swete smell. nier self. The Pope is a fugitive from ing spices that thei hadden arayed, and thei Rome. Under many forms and in founden the stoone turnyd away from the many lands a spirit of disquiet and ungrave. And thei geden in and founden not the Lord Jhesus—(Luke xxiv.)

not rest, be it social, political, or religious, And after these thingis he seide to his dis- is moving over the long stagnant waciplis, Go we eft in to Judee. The disciplis ters, and rufling their repose. Rome seien to hym, Maister, now the Jewis soughten is confronted with rising nationalities for to stoone thee and eft goist thou thidir ? impatient of her authority and claims. - (John xi.)

The long supremacy of the Latin tongue Wyclif's Bible was indeed a notable is threatened by the rivalry of modern beginning, but it could lay no claim languages, for it is the century of Peto tinality. As a translation it is a no- trarch, of Froissart, and of Chalcer. ble work, but it lacks uniformity of The old order and the new stand face style and is of very uneven merit. to face. Over against the king stands The diction is homely, rugged, and the parliament, over against the mailed primitive, for our language was only knight and the feudal lord stand the in process of formation, and the ex- burgess and the merchant, the artisan pressions are often of refreshing naïveté and the peasant. Under the influence and quaintness. Furthermore, the of great political thinkers and writers whole version is at best but a transla- like Marsilius of Padua and William tion of a translation. Yet w.th all its of Occam, there is dawning in men's

minds the idea of an orderly indepen- ment. It was the last straw. Half dent state organized with a view to the ruined by the awful ravages of the common weal. All along the line Black Death, owing to which the poputhere is an awakening of the human lation had been reduced from five milspirit to a sense of individuality, a feel- lions to two millions and a half, and ing not of the moral impotence, but by the slow drain of the never-ending of the moral dignity of man. The su- wars with France, the Estates were pernatural claims of a sacerdotal hier not unnaturally disposed to rebel archy from whom all spirituality and against sending out English gold for unworldliness seem to have died out the support of the liegeman of their are being challenged by an appeal to hereditary foe. “Ils resisteront,” they the instincts of the conscience and the unanimously decided, " et contre esterheart. Everywhere great principles ont ove toute leur puissance.” This are in antagonism, Latin Christianity decision was expanded and supported and Teutonic, tradition and Scripture, by Wyclif, then one of the King's realism and nominalism, anthority and chaplains, in a most vigorous and able experience, capital and labor.

pamphlet. That he should have had In an age thus profoundly agitated this task imposed on him by the Court John Wyclif's lot was cast, and it is shows in what reputation he was held, his attitude toward the papacy, with and how his anti-papal opinions were its materialized oligarchy of luxurious even then notorious. In 1378 occurred and lazy ecclesiastics, which gives the the Great Schism. The moral effect key to his life. “I take it as a hole- on Wyclif was electrical. It was of some counsell," he says, “ that the the very essence of the papacy that the Pope leeve his worldly lordship to suprenie Pontiff claimed to personify worldly lords as Christ gave him and the indivisibility of truth. In him move all his Clerks to do so."

men saw the symbol and the guarantee In 1360 he was Master of Balliol, of religious unity. Suddenly to exand waging unceasing war against the hibit to the world the seamless vesture Mendicant Orders, whose shameless of Latin Christianity as rent in twain, eavesdropping and brazen-faced beg- and the papacy as a self-advertised imgary made them the target of poet and posture, was to give to religious faith preacher and pamphleteer alike. It a shock such as, at this distance of was in 1366 that, famous already as an time, we can scarcely realize. Torn Oxford divine, he came first into pub- from its old moorings, spiritual obedilic and political prominence. The ence drifted away into a divided allegipapacy had fallen on evil days. It ance, with no better bond of cohesion was the period of the Babylonish cap- than the, mere accident of country. tivity. Exiles from Rome, the Popes Wyclif's impetuous spirit at once urged at Avignon were at a threefold disad- him to the only logical inference. If vantage. There had been a magic and there could be two Popes why not a witchery in the very name of Rome. twenty ? Why any Pope at all? The Avignon was only Avignon. But be whole system was a fraud. It was not sides the loss of prestige there was the of God, but of man. It had no warmaterial loss of the Italian revenues, ranty of Holy Scripture. It was Antiand, finally, there was the humiliating christ. They who should have been descent from the proud position of the the faithful shepherds of the sheep had world's umpire to that of a mere tool not only fleeced, but had deceived their of the King of France. Still the flocks. The accredited guide of ChrisCourt at Avignon was prodigiously ex- tendom had been tried and found wantpensive, and England had long occu- ing. Whither, then, in their bewilderpied the unenviable position of the ment of mind were men to turn ? milch cow of the papacy. Urban the Wyclif's answer was to translate the Fifth accordingly preferred a demand Bible. When we remember that his on Edward the Third for all the arrears heretical tracts and pamphlets, written of the tribute to the Papal See annually in pithiest English, were being scatdne since the death of King John. tered broadcast over England, and that The demand was referred to Parlia- in 1381 he went on even to assail the central citadel itself, and to deny the A reaction against, his opinions soon doctrine of Transubstantiation so far set in, and the constitution of Archas it included miraculous power in the bishop Arundel was so far successful consecrating priest, it is astonishing that no new translation of any book of that he should have died in his bed. Scripture was published in this coun

life.

It is because in Wyclif we have the try for a hundred years. But if the embodiment and the representative of flames were extinguished the embers the great cause of independence, wheth- smouldered on. The probibited tracts er in Church or State or in the tribunal, and pamphlets passed secretly in many of conscience, the champion of intel- a quiet parish from hand to hand, and lectual and spiritual freedom from the when in 1529 a royal proclamation aptyranny of foreign dominion, the voice peared against unorthodox books, it is that gave due form and utterance to not surprising to find “ Lollardies" what thousands of smaller minds were grouped with other “ hereties and erthinking, that his Bible, which is in a rors." With the reign of Henry the sense himself, is of such abiding inter- Eighth we come in sight of the second est to a nation to whom freedom and of our great translators, William Tynindependence are as the very breath of dale (1484-1536), perhaps the noblest

figure among them all. Let us briefly summarize the objects The times were fully ripe for a new nathat Wyclif had in view in organizing tional Bible. The English of Wyclif's his army of “poor preachers" to dis- version had become antiquated and out tribute the Scriptures among his fel- of date. Intellectual development in low-countrymen. He was anxious in Europe had made great strides. Upon the first place that a fragmentary Bible the Roman renaissance of the precedshould be superseded by a complete ing centuries had followed the revival one. He was convinced that the best of Greek letters, and Greece, as it has remedy for the sybaritism of the Church been finely said, “ had arisen froin the was to go back to the simplicity that grave with the New Testament in her was in Jesus Christ and in His apos- hand.” No longer tied down to the tles. He believed that a study of the Latin Scriptures of the Church, scholChristian records would satisfy any ars were now qualified for the study of honest mind that the papal claims, the the origiva) Greek and Hebrew. The position taken up by each and every Bible had been translated into all the grade of the Pope's representatives, principal languages of Europe. The the existing system of miracle-working printing-press, long since established priests, of compulsory penances, com- throughout the continent, had been pulsory confessions, compulsory pil- introduced in 1477 by Caxton into grimages, and the like, had no Divine England. The stimulating revelations right behind them to support them. of maritime enterprise under the ausHe hoped that the many-sided disor- pices of such men as Columbus, Magelders of his age might in some degree lan, and Vasco di Gama, had caused a be abated by bringing men face to face great ferment in the human mind. with the inspired source of purity and The new learning was everywhere exsimplicity, of loyalty and justice. No tending its influence. The world of doubt he was over-sanguine, was in no the west was ringing from end to end sense a “ wise master builder," was with the name of Luther. not sufficiently alive to the revolution- William Tyndale was born near ary tendency of his abstract doctrine of Berkeley, in Gloucestershire, in or • Dominion." But he was a brave, about 1484. His brief life of tifty-two single-hearted, sincere man, and the years comprises a period of the first keenness of his intellectual powers was historical importance. Within it are happily allied with a character against included the breach of Henry with which not even his enemies ventured Rome, the rise and fall of Wolsey, the to throw a stone. His influence, trans- reign of terror under Thomas Cronimitted though it was through Huss to well, the dissolution of the monasteries, Luther, did not long retain prominence the fermentation all over England of in England. He was before his day. the idea of impending religious revolu

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