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men across the harbor and led them called the Velasco battery. Thus in to the attack of the British works with Spain, the land of chivalry, is preserved intrepid gallantry in one last and des- the inspiring memory of great deeds perate sortie; but the British soldiers, and a noble example. under Brigadier-General Carlton, who With the fall of Fort Moro, the was wounded in the arm, held their chief defence of Havana, came of neown, and driving the attackers back cessity the fall of that city; for alfrom the Cavanos heights, swept them though the Spanish commander, true into the harbor with a loss of 400 killed to the last to the instincts of a soldier, and many wounded or prisoners. refused at first the terms offered him

A week later the long-looked-for re- by Albemarle with a view to sparing inforcements from America arrived, unnecessary loss of life, the bombardjust in time to take part in the clos- ment of the city, which his refusal ening act of the siege.

tailed, placed the issue beyond doubt. It was on the 30th of July that a Commenced on the 10th of August, breach was successfully made, but so this bombardment by forty-five cannon narrow was it as to admit but one man and eight mortars, among which were at a time, and it was but the im- ten 32-pounders manned by seamen, petuosity of the British soldiers that resulted in the entry into Havana of enabled the work to be stormed and the victorious British forces on the captured. Equally brave, however, 14th of the month. were the defenders, who sold their lives To the victors belonged the spoils, and most dearly and left dead or wounded very rich and important these were. upon the ground most of their num Besides the nine Spanish men-ofber, including more than one of their war found intact in the harbor—which, chief leaders. Conspicuous among added to the three sunk at the entrance these were the Marquis de Gonsalez, and to one or two others captured the Spanish second in command, who outside in the course of the operations, was killed, and one Don Luis de Vel- formed about one-fifth of the naval asco, the commander of the Spanish power of Spain, and seriously crippled ship of war the Reina, who established her for the rest of the war—no less himself in an inner entrenchment with an amount than three millions sterling about 100 men and, after offering a was realized in prize money by the most determined resistance, fell mor- capture of this wealthy city. tally wounded. The courtesy of the Of this great sum we are told that British commander allowed this gal- Albemarle and Pocock, as commanding lant officer to be removed to the city of respectively the land and sea forces, Havana, where he died a few days received no less than 122,6971., each, later.

while Commodore Keppel's share So struck was the King of Spain amounted to as much as 24,5391., and with the heroism displayed by Don doubtless his brother, Major-General Luis on this occasion, that he not only Keppel, received an almost equal sum. created his son Viscount Moro, but or- Thus the Keppel family benefited by dained that henceforth, in memory of this expedition to the tune of considhis brilliant example, there should al- erably over 150,0001., and it is recorded ways be one vessel in the Spanish navy that General Eliott, with his share of bearing his name. Whether this com- the prize money, purchased the estate mand has been observed ever since or of Heathfield in Sussex, from which no I am unable to say, but it is certain he afterward took his title. Such were that among the vessels captured by Ad- the solid rewards obtainable in war in miral Dewey at Manila at the com- the last century, when the profession of mencement of the present war was one arms was for the successful soldier bearing the name of Velasco, and it is considerably more lucrative than it is further remarkable that to this day at the close of the nineteenth century. one of the works outside Havana is The losses incurred in the course of this short, successful, but trying cam. It is recorded that its loss was twelve paign are given in Albemarle's official rank and file killed, and one officer and account as being, from the 7th of June twenty-three rank and file wounded, to the 8th of October, no less than 560 while many more died of disease. men killed or died of wounds, and But if it was thus put to a fiery or4,708 died of sickness. These are for deal at the commencement of what has the army alone, and show the enor- proved to be a distinguished career, mous loss—for it can be called by no this regiment can at least boast of a other name-inflicted on the compar- distinction conferred, so far as I know, atively small force by operations con- upon no other regiment in the British ducted under most trying conditions Army, for it bears upon its colors to at the most unfavorable time of year. this day as the first of a long roll of

A careful analysis of the Spanish re- battle names the word “Moro," in turns for their forces in Cuba during celebration of the baptism of fire it rethe last two or three years bears out ceived before the city of Havana and these figures, and must give pause to at the taking of the fort of that name even the most warlike Americans at in 1762. the present juncture.

Thus 136 years ago Spain, now at Cuba may be the Pearl of the An- war with the greatest English-speaking tilles, but it is a jewel for which an un- child of Great Britain, found herself commonly high price must be paid, engaged with the parent nation, and and it has ever proved the grave of the coincidences observable in the two many a brave man not inured to its campaigns in Cuba may perhaps afford deadly climate, at the present, the sufficient justification for this resurrecworst season of the year.

tion of an almost forgotten record of The 56th Regiment of Foot, which one among the many British expedihad only been raised a few years, saw tions of the past. active service for the first time upon By the peace concluded in 1763 Cuba this occasion, and was fortunate in do- was restored by Great Britain to ing so at this the outset of its career. Spain.—Nineteenth Century.


ANY one who attentively reads M. a foe instead of a friend. Thus there de Pressensé's last interesting paper in is permanent danger to the British Emthe Nineteenth Century will perceive pire, which may at any moment be torn on mature reflection that it amounts to pieces owing to her obduracy in not in effect to this: Russia and France taking beforehand one side or the other. have, in his opinion, just succeeded in This being so, M. de Pressensé further forming a counterbalance to the Triple enters into the question, Which side Alliance, and the only uncomfortable ought Great Britain for her own safety part of the arrangement is that the to take? Shall it be Short or Codlin ? weight of Great Britain thrown on Of course these great questions of either side would disturb the equipoise; State before they become acute are, in hence both alliances, or both branches a large measure, solved in petto by the of the precarious balance, uneasy at statesmen in power for the time being their own hazardous position, are in each State. There are diplomatists equally apt to view the deciding factor, to act as buttons to the garment which, Great Britain, with hostile feelings, so we are told, decently covers the jealous long as they feel the possibility that contortions of that naked monster, the the latter may in a given emergency be European Concert; then there is the

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public Press alternately to stimulate exclusive English temperament; the and repress public opinion; there are equally dogged but clannish Scotch, financiers, socialists, adventurers, and vivacious, intelligent, but capricious others with axes of their own to grind, Irish; all welded into one active whole. to agitate the slackening strings; and Taking ourselves, however, in this last, but not least, there are now and mixed sense, we are decidedly inferior again restless monarchs, with much to the French in lucidity, precision, autocratic power, who can do a great and wit; to the Germans in physique, deal of mischief, despite the wishes of patience, discipline, and thoroughness; their Ministers and their people. But to the Americans in inventiveness and although the governing powers and the versatility; to the Spaniards in soPress are always in evidence, and may briety; to the Russians in humanity; seem to monopolize the leading rôles and to the Italians in finesse. What is of the human stage, it must not be forgot- it, then, in the national character ten that, in these times of universal which accounts for Great Britain being popular education, there is a large sub- the only country free from passports, stratum of “general public” which political spies, police bullying, trade thinks for itself, and when the time protection, religious domination; the comes for action, or for voting, decides only country in which administrative for itself. Just as in religion the power effaces itself by instinct in place priest and the parson may exhort and of asserting itself; where would be denounce to their hearts' content be- subverters are protected as tenderly as fore respectful audiences assembled ac- those who wish to preserve the existing cording to custom in places appointed state of things? It is difficult, and for sermonizing, so in politics this or perhaps unnecessary, to define what it that leader may confidently air his is that infallibly produces the same views before a regulation audience by characteristics everywhere under Britthe prescriptive right of personal re- ish rule; but it may be doubtful if the pute or of office. But, after all, most Scotch and Irish contributions would persons in every congregation who have either of them succeed so well in formany thinking capacity at all go home in ing part of the successful compound these days and make a practical relig- were it not that the dispassionate Engion for themselves. And the same way lish hand has always been the one at in politics: there is a vast body of the helm. Germans have their own plain unpretentious individuals, pos- colonies, but will not go there; Frenchsessing no prescriptive right to speak men protect everything in their colas literary men or as politicians, who, onies except their own credit balances; when it comes to taking a resolution, the Americans, in spite of millionaireknow perfectly well at least what they creating resources, somehow fail to will not do; and these men in Great make the two ends of government meet. Britain form the latent power which It is only in Great Britain and her creates and overthrows ministries. dependencies that full scope is given

First, let us review in a few words to all energies; where Europeans of all the position of Great Britain during kinds have absolutely equal rights with the sixty years of her Majesty's reign. Englishmen themselves; in short, The increase in population, railway where a man can do what he likes, and development, sea-borne trade, area say what he likes, free of administragoverned, etc., etc., between 1837 and tive censoriousness and meddlesome in1897, has been on a scale absolutely terference. Even in the United States, unparalleled elsewhere in ancient or executive power is often irritating almodern times. There is nothing on most to the point of seeming tyranthe surface of the British character to nical. account for this clearly; and moreover It is naturally galling to other nathat character is a complex one, con- tionalities, oppressed by conscription, sisting as it does of the dogged, cold, police prying, financial collapses, Press

inquisitions, and what not, to see so and the “colored rights” difficulty. In much national prosperity attained at this sea of political trouble Great such a little cost to individual liberty; Britain drifts about like the rest of and to this feeling of universal envy them, and the question is suggested to is superadded one of personal dislike, her by M. de Pressensé, “What shall when the somewhat contemptuous at- she do to be saved ?” titude of calm indifference uncon- I have intentionally left out Russia, sciously displayed by Englishmen for Russia has nothing whatever to abroad is taken into consideration. In fear from external foes, except, perother words, England, though almost haps, from Germany. She might posthe only place where all men live on sibly be wounded in the Black Sea or equal terms, or at least have equal at Vladivostock, but in neither case chances, is an object of jealousy to would the life pulsations of the Emevery one outside. Luckily, however, pire be seriously affected. Russia reEngland has looked after her defences quires nothing but peace; looking back with increased energy of recent years: upon her past history, she quite underpowerful rivals have had their own stands that her development has been special difficulties to keep them in most unhappily retarded by unnecescheck, and we have so far survived the sary wars; and apart from the fact ordeal without any considerable dimi- that the Czar Alexander III. was by nution of prosperity and power.

temperament personally inclined towBut at present things are in a very ard peace and quiet for their own parlous state in Europe. France, sakes, it was in his reign that circumthough the wealthiest country in the stances combined to force clearly upon world in productivity, is taxed in leading Russians generally the convicmoney and men to the utmost of her tion that in the peaceful development capacity; she would probably be more of their own resources lay the only restless than she is, had she not prac- true road to happiness and success. tically ceased to breed. Germany is a For the present purposes let us leave poor country with rich pretensions; at out of consideration the past. In the the rate she is breeding she will soon relations of Russia and England, in be unable to sustain her population connection with Turkey and Central without more elbow-room. Italy is Asia, mistakes may have been made, prematurely played out and bankrupt; and probably were made, on both sides, without a long period of national rest for which both sides have been equally and prudent finance she can never se- to blame. Let us merely consider the cure ease and prosperity for the over- present and the future. There is abweighted units of her population, solutely no point in which we cannot Austria, divided as she is into three treat, independently of all other nadistracted nationalities—one affiliated tions, direct with Russia upon matters to Germany, anotherto Russia, and one concerning our joint interests with her. standing alone-continues to exist as There is really no cause for hostility an empire only by force of habit. Tur- or suspicion. So far as the North Sea key, at least in Europe, cannot possibly and the Baltic Sea are concerned, there be tolerated as an independent State is every prospect of trade development for another generation, no matter what between the two countries on mutually is said to the contrary. Another ad- advantageous terms. England is Rusministrative carcase, in the shape of sia's best customer for food products; China, will soon be ready for the vul- and even if Russia's protective system tures hanging around her, unless she were an ungenerous one to us—which, can manage to galvanize a little life on the whole, it is not-it is to Russia's into herself. The United States have interest as much as to ours that the many irons in the fire: Cuba and Spain, trade should be on fair give-and-take Hawaii and Japan, various disputes principles. The way in which Captain with ourselves, the financial question, Wiggins and Mr. Popham have been

encouraged to assist in developing the along with us, as a possible determined Siberian river trade holds out every hope rival. It has been suggested that the that increased national friendliness will German occupation of Kiao Chao be one of the results. In the Black points to an understanding with RusSea we can now hardly be said to have sia; but in the present capricious state any interest beyond that of shipping of German policy, when no man, even The future of Turkey is an insoluble in Germany, knows what the morrow riddle at present, and much depends may bring forth, it is extremely unupon the fate of the Austrian Empire. likely that Russia would be instruNo wars or alliances can well modify mental in encouraging such a leap in one result: whether the German ele- the dark, though certain in any event ment of Austria does or does not merge to weaken Germany's naval position at itself into Germany, what remains of home, and one which can scarcely be the Austro-Hungarian Empire must said to threaten Russia. If we look in the end gravitate toward the East; back at Russia's dealings with China, and whether Austria shares with Rus- we see that her relations have always sia, or abandons to Russia, the ap- been friendly and fair. In the Amur proaches to the Black Sea, it is certain boundary question, 200 years ago, the that Great Britain will never be es- Russians and the Manchus were tablished anywhere on the Constantin equally conquerors and explorers. It nople side of the Sea of Marmora. In is, indeed, said that the Russians once a word, if Russian statesmen will only removed the boundary stones in a be reasonable to British trade pros- tricky way; but that is also a very old pects in and near the Black Sea, there Chinese trick, and, in any case, one of is no reason why England should at- which local officers on a remote frontempt to thwart Russia's policy in Tur- tier might easily on either side be key, whatever arrangements she may guilty. On the whole, the history of make with Austria.

the Russo-Chinese trade relations up In Central Asia the recent settlement to our own times points to prudence, of the Pamirs question practically loyalty, and even considerate gentlecloses all difficulties except that of ness on the Russian side. It is often Persia; or, at any rate, it prevents any said that the Russians did a smart reopening of difficulties so long as both thing in filching Primorsk from the parties maintain the sincere desire to Manchus after our last war with be friendly. And as to Persia, that is China. Perhaps they did; but there no pressing matter; we cannot map out was no violence; it was all a matter of the future of the world for our grand fair negotiation. In the Ili question, sons. In any case, there is no reason eighteen years ago, the Russians rewhy, if we come to a general under stored certain territory, and honorably standing with Russia all round, that swallowed the leek in a way which no question should not be included in the one expected to see. Here, again, they bargain. Though no one thinks much had “smartly" and successfully neof Tibet now, it is certain that before gotiated with an incapable Manchu envery long there will be a Tibetan ques- voy in Russia. But his work was distion, in connection with which Russia, avowed; Ili was demanded in accordin her present reasonable mood, may ance with Russia's promise, and was be fairly expected to regard the Bra- duly given back. In the same way maputra, and all the other rivers which with Bokhara, which, as a vassal State, flow south to the sea, as beyond her is now much more helpless than was sphere of action. The most difficult China in 1880: Russia has honorably question of all is Russia's naval posi- abandoned to her the States of Roshan tion in the China seas, and this one and Shignan, in accordance with old might have become more acute had it claims justified by Bokhara. not been for the sudden rise of Japan, I do not for a moment mean to take which State must now be counted with, a brief for Russia, whose statesmen are

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