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made it altogether superfluous for him to seriously defend himself in the court-martial of January, 1898.
Passing over “ the many minor infamies that have followed in the wake of this great crime," “ Huguenot "proceeded to make “some concluding reflections on the general situation as it presents itself to the eyes of a minority of loyal but despairing Frenchmen.” These were fortified by a remarkable extract from an article in the Law Journal of St. Petersburg, from the pen of M. Ignatius Zakrewski, President of the Russian Court of Appeals, to whom one would imagine the French would listen if they can tolerate any foreign opinion:
" The trials of Dreyfus and Zola could not otherwise than deeply distress the true friends of France. The first of these trials presented a variety of improbabilities and irregulari. ties, of which the most flagrant was the production before the judges alone in the courtmartial itself of a secret document by order of the military authorities. This astonishing infraction of the rules of all correct procedure renders the condemnation of Dreyfus null and void. Guilty or not guilty, he has not been fairly tried. They have simply deported and imprisoned him according to administrative procedure in countries where despotism reigns. It is the bringing back again of
of lettres de cachet and of the Bastille under the pretext, it is true, of subserving reasons of State, as if that was not the pretext which shielded the most iniquitous acts of the an. cient régime.'
But the passages in “Huguenot's” article to which attention is principally directed are the following, which the reader should bear in mind as they have borne surprising fruit:
“ The affection of the French for their army is as ardent and romantic as that of a woman for her lover. But what if by a sudden revelation it were brought home to the masses, who now parade the streets, crying, • Vive l'Armée, mort aux Juifs !' that their confidence has been betrayed, that the swag gering officers whom they cheered so madly at the trial of M. Zola are the real traitors to France, and that Dreyfus is the victim of their base conspiracy ? For the Emperor William holds in his hands a weapon with which, when the occasion arises, he can smite the entire Etat Majeur, and destroy the confidence of the French people in their army for at least a generation. The series of secret documents sold by Esterhazy does not stop in October, 1894, the date of Dreyfus' arrest, but extends on into the year 1896. (It in cluded many important documents of later
origin than October, 1894, all in the land. writing of the bordereau. Dreyfus cannot have written these, for he was already in prison. The defenders of Dreyfus have them. selves a list of these documents, obtained evidently through some well informed person ; for in the middle of April the Siècle, in an open letter to General Billot, gave details of several of them, among others signalizing the plan of mobilization of the Third Army Corps at Rouen, to which Esterhazy was attached in 1896, when he communicated the plan to Schwartzkoppen.) Now the Emperor William, by communicating to the French or European Press in facsimile any one of these documents of origin later than 1894, can, whenever he likes, tear across the web of lies with which the French War Office is now striving to hide its misdeeds. Perhaps the dénouement will come in this way; for the Emperor has, it appears, already authorized Schwartzkoppen, at the close of the last year, to communicate to Count Casella, for publication in the Siècle, on April 8th last, many hints of the truth (and these hints were enough, in the elegant phrase of the Socialist paper, Les Droits de l'Homme, to cause the members of the État Majeur to 'sweat with fear') How long will it be before William II. draws tight the noose into which all the leading French generals and colonels and nearly all the leading politicians of every party, save the Socialists, have so obligingly adjusted their necks. Happy for the French if, without such intervention, they can recover their own self-respect and the regard of the civilized world. ... The judges of this Higher Court (Court of Cassation) are irremovable by the Government, and have already, in the decree which annulled Zola's first trial, gone out of their way to in. timate that they will also annul the illegally obtained sentence on Dreyfus whenever they get an opportunity. So there is still some hope for France. This Higher Court keeps the conscience of France alive, and every real friend of France hopes that the day will soon come when its voice and authority will be asserted, and the country forced to awake to the sense of right, throwing off the horrible cauchemar of crime which now broods over it."
The prominent points of the article may thus be summarized :
1. In 1894 Captain Dreyfus, an unpopular Jew, was rashly assumed to be the traitorous author of the bordereau. and legally convicted by means of a trick.
2. In 1897 the French War Office realized that Esterhazy had written the document for which Dreyfus had been transported, but elected to protect the traitor rather than confess their own crime.
3. That the German Government
possesses documents in the handwrit. Duchies, the Kingdom of Hanover, ing of the bordereau, delivered to the Frankfort, Hesse, and Vassau. As the German Military Attaché in Paris, by author of the Prussian-Italian AlEsterhazy, after Dreyfus was trans- liance, Louis Napoleon claimed as a reported) which will enable the Ger- ward or set off “la rive gauche du mans, at their own convenience, to ruin Rhin jusqu'a et y compris Mayence.” the reputation of the French headquar- This proposal was promptly declined in ter staff by showing that for their own Berlin. Whereupon the French Eminterests they kept an innocent man in peror offered the Prussian King an ofprison after they became aware of his fensive and defensive alliance on the innocence.
following terms: That recent Prussian 4. An urgent appeal to the French conquests should be recognized, that to undo a great wrong of their own the Emperor should not oppose the motion, and in their own interests. federation of Northern and Southern
Germany, that in return Prussia II.-“ LES ENSEIGNEMENTS DE L'His
should use her good offices to facilitate TOIRE.”
the acquisition of Luxembourg by
France, and should aid the latter with On June 4th, 1898, there appeared arms to conquer Belgium. When these a long article of three columns in the cynical overtures were made to Prussia, French paper Le Siècle, entitled, “ Les France was in friendly relations with Enseignements de l'Histoire,” from the Belgium, whose neutrality and indepen of that able and brilliant French- pendence she had solemnly guaranteed, man, M. Joseph Reinach, whose de- and had promised her protection to the votion to the cause of justice cost him Southern States of Germany. his seat at the recent elections. He French policy was at this time imcommenced by contrasting the dictum prudent as well as unscrupulous. that “the Prussian schoolmaster won When Count Benedetti, the French the Battle of Sadowa," with the rival Minister in Berlin, proposed the alview that “ victory goes to the big bat- liance to Prince Bismarck (August talions," with which, as a keen soldier, 20th, 1866), and broached the secret he agreed, adding: “Nevertheless ma terms, he was actually induced to tranterial force is not everything; moral scribe the latter on a sheet of Embassy force counts for something, and the paper, which with childlike faith he country which on the opening of a war entrusted to Bismarck. A few days is frowned upon by the public opinion later, having effected an understanding of the civilized world is placed at a with Russia, Bismarck abruptly broke dangerous disadvantage.” He enforced off the pour parler with Benedetti; this doctrine by recalling the moral Prussia kept all her conquests without damage inflicted upon France when offering France a square yard of comBismarck published the famous cir- pensation; and Bismarck's personal cular of July 29th, 1870, and thus at prize was the bordereau signed by the a critical moment rallied the wavering French Ambassador. verdict of Europe in favor of Germany In 1870 Bismarck had this docuat the outset of the war.
ment photographed, and on the outThis revelation certainly placed break of war with France he submitted France in a disagreeable light, and was it to the foreign diplomatists in Berlin. of the utmost value to her enemy. For He caused it to be published in The it appeared that after the Battle of Times on July 25th, and annexed it to Sadowa (1866), which had smashed his circular of July 29th, which conAustria and exalted Prussia into a tained the following declaration: first-class military and political Power, “ These proposals are from beginthe Emperor Napoleon III. had ad- ning to end in the handwriting of dressed demands for “compensation ” Count Benedetti, on the official paper to the victorious King William who of the French Embassy; the Ambashad recently acquired the Danish sadors of Austria, England, Russia,
New SERIES. – VOL. LXVIII., No. 3. 21
Baden, Bavaria, Belgium, Hesse, Italy, contending armies will find themselves Saxony, Turkey, and Wurtemburg have charged with imposture and felony, seen the original and recognize the and in any case convicted of the most handwriting.” The effect of this dis- unjustifiable blunder.” closure was electrical and stupefying, The writer inquires “Who will not and France found herself confronting groan at the thought of a moral Sedan not only Prussia, armed to the teeth, lost before the first shot is fired ?" rebut the fury of united Germany, while jects “the policy of the ostrich,” which Russia, Austria, and England became buries its head in the sand to avoid apsuspicious or unfriendly. The public proaching dangers, and claims that opinion of solid Europe crystallized in patriotic men owe more than their life favor of Bismarck and his master
to their country. They owe the truth After recalling this “ desolating” at all costs; happily there is still time incident, Mr. Reinach turns to the fu- to parry the risk of an “abominable ture and avows his anxiety, lest history humiliation.” Liberari animam meam. may repeat itself, and in the crisis of M. Reinach then turns to “Hugueher fate France may again have to face not's” article in THE NATIONAL REthe production of equally damaging VIEW, and quotes translations of the documents. He points out that the passages in small print which I late German military attaché in Paris, have given on a preceding - page, Colonel Schwartzkoppen, had bought omitting the two or three senover 150 papers from a man who still tences enclosed in brackets, and emwears the Legion of Honor and the phasizing a few others by italics. For French uniform. What is still more the sake of clearness I append these terrible is that these documents contain translations as they appeared in Le the overwhelming, irrefutable proof Siècle: that an innocent man is expiating another's crime, and that the guilty
“L'amour de la nation française pour son party is protected against the evidence
armée est aussi ardent, aussi romanesque que
celui d'une femme pour son amant. Hélas ! by those whom he has had the audacity que se passerait-il le jour où ces foules qui to term his “equals." The Court that s'en vont criant à travers les rues : Vive condemned Dreyfus had acted in good l'armée ! Mort aux Juifs !' apprendraient,
à n'en pouvoir plus douter, par une déclarafaith but under constraint. The fact
tion venant du dehors, que leur confiance a remained that the very man Colonel été trompée, que ces chefs qu'elles acclamaient Schwartzkoppen had described to Col- si follement au procès Zola ne lui ont pas dit onel Panizzardi (the late Italian mil
la vérité, que Dreyfus est une innocente vic
time? L'empereur Guillaume tient, en effet, itary attaché in Paris) as “my man”
entre ses mains une arme avec laquelle, quand (Esterhazy) was the same whose ac il trouvera une occasion facorable, il pourra quittal (by the bogus court-martial)
briser l'Etat Major et détruire, pour une gén
ération, la foi du peuple français dans les General Pellieux had congratulated
chefs de son armée." himself on securing, and against whom “ La série des documents secrets vendus General Billot, the Minister of War, par Esterhazy ne cesse pas avec le mois d'ochad not dared to proceed even after the
tobre 1894, date de l'arrestation de Dreyfus ; avowal of the letters to Madame de
elle s'étend jusqu'en 1896, comprenant nom
bre de documents importants, d'une date posBoulaney, and whom the officers of the térieure à celle d'octobre, 1894, tous de la headquarter staff had been compelled même écriture que le bordereau Dreyfus n'a to shake hands with during the Zola pu les écrire, puisqu'il était déjà en prison. ..
Eh bien ! l'empereur Guillaume n'a qu'à trial: “ One of these days—Di tale communiquer à la presse française ou euro. avertite-when war breaks out be- péenne quelques-uns de ces documents, pour tween France and Germany, these docu- pouvoir, quand illui plaira, rompre et déchirer ments, having been photographed like
le tissue de mensonges sous lequel l'État
Major cherche à cacher ses méfaits. Le déthe Benedetti Note, will appear in fac nouement viendra probablement de cette simile throughout the Press. A suc- façon Il paraîtrait que Schwartzkoppen cessor of Bismarck will attach them to
était déjà autorisé par l'Empereur, quand il
communiqua au comte Casella les quelques a diplomatic circular, and before the
une bribes de vérite qui ont paru dans le siècle entire world the chiefs of one of the du 8 avril. A quel moment Guillaume, II tirera-t-il le lacet où tant de généraux et was announced that M. Reinach was d'officiers français, où presque tous les chefs des partis politiques, à l'exception des social
actually to be tried by a military Court istes, ont si complaisamment enfermé leurs
of Inquiry—a tribunal not easily discouş ?''
tinguishable to the lay mind from a
court-martial. With the vast majority M. Reinach pointed out that the author
of Frenchmen under the age of fortyof these passages “is not an enemy of
five, he belongs to the army, being in France.” He is a friend for showing the Reserve. On Wednesday, June 15th, us the cloud on the horizon and for ex- M. Reinach received the following claiming after uttering his warning: letter translated in The Standard:
“'Heureux les Français s'ils peuvent faire justice sans une pareille intervention !' Et
“ PARIS, June 14, 1898.
“ General Zurlinden, Military Governor of plus loin : Les juges de la Cour de cassation, en annulant le jugement qui a condamné
Paris, to Captain Reinach, of the Territorial Zola, ont indiqué clairement qu'ils attendant
Cavalry, Staff Service, Paris. que l'occasion leur soit donnée d'annuler
“Capitaine, I have the honor to inform également la sentence illégale qui a frappé
you that, in conformity with the Decree of Dreyfus. Il y a donc encore quelque espoir
June 22d, 1878, you are invited to present pour la France. La Cour suprême garde en
yourself before a District Court of Inquiry, vie la conscience française. Tous les vrais
which, by order of the Minister of War, will amis de la France souhaitent que le jour soit
assemble on the 24th June, 1898, at the Ecole
Militaire, under the presidency of General proche où l'on entendra la voix de ces magis. trats, où le pays sera forcé de s'éveiller au
Kisgener, Baron de Planta, commanding the sentiment de la justice, échappant à l'horrible
5th Brigade of Dragoons, to give its opinion cauchemar qui pèse maintenant sur lui.”
on the following question : Is M. Joseph Reinach, Staff Captain of Territorial Cavalry,
liable to be dismissed the Service for a gross After quoting “ Huguenot's "earnest
breach of discipline?' The reporter of the appeal to the conscience-keepers of Court of Inquiry is Chof d'Escadrons de CarFrance, M. Reinach closes his striking bonnieres, of the 2d Regiment of Cuirassiers, article on “ Les Enseignements de
who will acquaint you with the object of the
Inquiry. l'Histoire ” in the following words: “By order, (Signed) The Chief of the Staff, “ That is the solution that I have al
“AURELE GUERIN.” ways indicated. Dreyfus was not only unjustly condemned: he was also ir- According to the Gazette des Tribregularly condemned. The interests
unaux the indictment had been drawn of Law precede all others. Moreover, up by General Billot, Minister of War, the Government alone can ask for re- and sent to the military Governor of vision in the interests of Law. No Paris on June 12th. General Billot doubt many will have to unsay their referred to the article in the Siècle declarations that Dreyfus was justly (“Les Enseignements de l'Histoire”) and regularly condemned. But what as constituting the “gross breach of is more honorable than the loval admis- discipline.” He particularized the folsion of a blunder? And is not any- lowing passages : * thing better than that blunder? “Mais ces papiers, qui sont á Berlin, sont Nothing but the winds of Justice la preuve éclatante, irrécusable, qu’un innosweeping through the Heavens can cent expie le crime d'un autre et que cet autre
est protégé contre l'évidence par ceux qu'il a scatter the rising clouds.”
eu l'atroce audace d'appeler ces pairs."
“ Celui qui a été condamné l'a été par des III.—THE PROSECUTION.
juges de bonne foi-je le dis comme je le crois-et je n'auaris pas écrit de ceux qui
ont acquitté l'autre qu'ils l'ont acquitté ' par M. Reinach's article appeared in the
ordre. N'étant pas romantique comme l'ilSiècle of June 4th, and, forthwith, all lustre poète de Germinal, j'eusse écrit, dans the machinery of the Anti-Semitic fury la vieille langue classique, comme par orwas set in motion to compel the mori- dre.'. Ce petit mot de plus, c'était toute la
vérité, l'incontestable vérité." bund Méline Cabinet to proceed as
“Il n'en reste pas moins que l'homme dont against the audacious author. Finally, le Colonel de Schwartzkoppen disait au col. to the delight of the Rochefort-cum- Drumont combination, and to the be- * The English substance may be found on wilderment of the world at large, it a preceding page.,
onel Panizzardi · C'est mon homme l' c'est authorized denial will controvert the le même dont le général de Pellieux se félici- facts I have established on the evidence tait d'avoir-provoqué l'acquittement, contre of the most unquestionable authorities. lequel le général Billot, ministre de la guerre, n'a pas osé sévir, même aprés l'aveu des let
Thus I am assured that Colonel tres á Mme. de Boulancy, et à qui les officiers Schwartzkoppen will not deny that he de l'état-major, témoins à la Cour d'assises, made a monthly allowance of two thouont été condamnés, par ordre cette fois, a sand francs to his usual informer, donner la main." “Alors, qu'un jour ou l'autre, que demain
Commandant Esterhazy. I can assure
Comma. - Di tale avertite : . ,-un conflit éclate entre you that the French Staff is threatened la France et l'Allemagne. Ces papiers ont with the publication by foreign newsété photographiés comme l'avait été la note de M. Benedetti sur la Belgique. Ils parais.
papers, of the facsimile of the docu
Pa sent en fac-similés dans tous les journaux. ments sold by Esterhazy to Colonel Un successeur de M. de Bismarck les annexe Schwartzkoppen, and which are all in a quelque circulaire diplomatique. Et voilà, his own handwriting. I assure you devant le monde entier, accusés d'imposture et de félonie, convaincus en tous cas de la T
that this contingency nearly came plus injustifiable des erreurs, les chefs mêmes about in the month of February of the de cette arınée qui va se battre.”
present year, and that the sword of The Minister of War also selected
Damocles is still suspended over the the following extract that M. Reinach
head of the Staff. A sincere friend had translated from “Huguenot's ?
of France, I pray God that the officers article in THE NATIONAL REVIEW:
of the Staff may act wisely, while it is
yet time, and give proof of the qualities “L'empereur Guillaume tient, en effet,
ne tient, en effet, of justice and courage which have ever entre ses mains une arme aveco laquelle
been the eminent traits of the French quand il trouvera une occasion favorable, il pourra briser l'état-major et détruire pour Army. I authorize you to publish my une génération, la foi du peuple français dans letter in the newspapers, and communiles chefs de son armée.
cate it to the Judges of the Military “Eh bien ! l'empereur Guillaume n'a qu'a communiquer à la presse française ou euro
Court. péenne quelques uns de ces documents pour “ Believe me, Sir, your obedient pouvoir, quand il lui plaira, rompre et déchirer servant, le tissu de mensonges sous lequel l'état-major “FREDERICK C. CONYBEARE.” cherche à cacher ces méfaits. Le dénouement viendra probablement de cette façon."
Two days later this semi-official note The court-martial was held in was issued : camera on June 24th. Of its proceed- “In consequence of the opinion unanings we know nothing except that M. imously expressed by the Court of Reinach had been furnished with the Inquiry charged to decide the case of following remarkable letter from “ Hu- M. Joseph Reinach, and on the proposal guenot,” which he read to the Court: of General Billot, Minister of War, M. “ Oxford, June 23. Sir, I learn
Reinach, captain of the general staff
in the territorial army, is from this by the papers that you are suspected
date deprived of his rank, in accordin Paris of being the author of the article I published in the June number
ance with the decision of the President of THE NATIONAL REVIEW, a few lines
of the Republic." of which you translated in the Siècle. Does not the operation of this courtI have not the pleasure of knowing you. martial-if finally sustained—estabNevertheless, as an honest man, I deem lishes a new form of Government in it my duty to declare by these presents France? Does it not make the milthat I am the sole author of the article itary a law unto themselves ? Does it in TIE NATIONAL REVIEW. I am not give them a censorship over the friend of France, and have always civil population until the latter has wished her prosperous and great. That attained middle age? Practically, is why I thought it useful to publish every able-bodied Frenchman enters the information I had gathered as con- the army, and is subsequently drafted cerns the Dreyfus affair, from the most into the Reserve, where he remains trustworthy and authentic sources. No until he reaches forty-five. That the