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pathos of appeal in their expressions; nadette Soubirous," and a shop almost some close to the stone, smooth and on the spot where bouquets, candles, worn with the kisses of the pilgrims. statuettes of the Virgin, are made

Inside the railings kneeled several objects of barter, and a disgrace to the nuns, dressed according to their differ- place. ent orders, some in black dresses, some W e turned from the grotto and in blue, with large, picturesque white ascended the broad steps to the enlappets framing their faces.

trances of the churches. There are no A few yards to the left of the grotto less than three literally superposed on we came upon the miraculous baths, the rock, and completely dwarfing the or healing pools. No simple pool this, grotto, really magnificent in structure. where the sufferer might wash in the By force of contrast, the picture rises hope of being clean, but several and before us of the simple originator of separate stone tanks, partitioned off these vast buildings ending her life in into cubicles, and supplied by pipes the seclusion of a convent, all unwitfrom the main spring. We entered ting in her innocent retirement that from an outer room, and found each she was leaving lasting memorials of piscine curtained off with a linen cur- herself. tain, the water in the tanks intensely We entered the basilica, which is clear and sparkling, the atmosphere built above the grotto, and found it conveying an indescribable chill even literally ablaze with ornamentation and to one clothed as we were for winter. reconnaissances from pilgrims, who thus What the effect of such rigor on the declared themselves to have been cured diseased and suffering must be, one by the gracious “Lady of Lourdes." shuddered to think. So dangerous is It was consecrated in 1876, bishops and it for some diseases, that a special archbishops assisting at the ceremony. notice over each piscine warns sufferers The interior consists simply of a nave from these that they bathe at their own and side chapels, but the decorations risk. Two women were bathing in an on the walls are brilliant and dazzling. adjoining cubicle, and we heard dis. There are, among the more elaborate tinctly their groans and prayers as they tokens, banners in silk and banners in besought, “ Our Lady of Lourdes” for satin, with ornate designs worked upon healing, washing not without “strong them. There are medallions, crossed crying and tears." Save for these, swords, tablets, hearts in silver and the place was quiet enough, but in sum- gold, models of ships, and among the mer, in the time of regular pilgrimage, humbler offerings, frames with wreaths the scene is changed. A crowding of artificial flowers, sprays of orangejostling, diseased multitude fills the blossom being pathetically prominent. place, and the water conducted through On one of the walls of the entrances pipes into these piscines, or pools, is to the Church of the Rosary was a modchanged only twice a day. It is horrible elled foot, and beneath, the words in to think of the diseased and plague - Frenchstricken taking turns in the water,

Cured, and may I use it to Thy glory. vitiated and pestilent as it must be.

Deeply interesting as the place is, Another testified to the cure of a there is yet much to jar on one's sense hand. of what is right and fit, as if some- It was with a sense of relief that we thing sacred had been rudely intruded turned our eyes from the gleaming upon. There is the dazzling white of churches and rested them on the green the pavement, the taps ordered and hill just above us. It was a Calvary arranged, the diverted course of the hill. It was like turning from someGave, to allow of the gleaming promen- thing earthly, smothered in the world's ade in front of the grotto, the brilliant pomps and trappings, to something buildings towering above us, shops in spiritually pure. Ascending from the the distance, one bearing over its en- base, and defined against the gray sky, trance in large letters, “Frère de Ber- I counted no fewer than nine Calvaries.




October, 1898.

On one of these, the outline clearly Be that as it may, men, ever prone defined, hung a figure of the Christ. to believe what they wish to believe, Rude wooden crosses they were, dotting cling to the fact of cures effected. For the hill at intervals of a few yards. what will a man not give in exchange It was to us infinitely touching to pic- for his body? Why should they not be ture pilgrims, diseased and disabled, among the fortunate ones? Why should doing penance here, some ascending the Virgin not see fit to single them the hill on bended knees, all imbued in from the multitude seeking her favor ? a dim way with the notion that, through And so they go, year by year, buoyed up personal suffering, the Divine Mother by hope, and the pilgrimages of to-day might be propitiated. Impressive, in- are as crowded as were those of ten and deed, must be the spectacle of the pro- twenty years ago. cession slowly ascending the hill and That the fathers of the grotto, and winding down the other side, chanting the priests and Lourdes generally, have as they go.

made capital out of Bernadette, the As to actual and authentic cures the place itself bears witness at every step. conflict of ideas is somewhat over. It is, so to speak, constructed upon the whelming. About us, on the one hand, peasant girl. But it has departed from were congregated the evidence and tes- its first purity and simplicity. It has timonies of innumerable cures. On become twisted and distorted, and artithe other, our own senses, trained to ficial, even as the grotto pool has been the mode of thought of the nineteenth perverted from its original course. By century, refused to credit the miracu- a strange perversion there have arisen lous—refused to believe that diseases out of the simplicity and purity of Berhad been instantaneously cured, pois nadette's faith, traffic and rivalry and oned blood purified, maimed limbs competition, earthliness and worldlirestored to health and soundness. It ness, and the general degradation of is true that doctors asserting cases to men's higher natures. be incurable were liable to err in their As for Bernadette, she had no wish to statements, so that what time and share their gains. Probably those dinature in due course effected might vine visions were to her too holy, too come to be credited to the miraculous sacred, to make mere matters of merproperties of the spring. Then, again, chandise. Her humble soul shrank it is natural enough to believe that from the notoriety, the publicity, with hysterical affections should yield to which the world threatened to overthe combination of hope and mental whelm her. She left the fathers to stimulus. Faith-healing has had won- reap their harvest, and retired to a conders coupled with its name before ever vent, where she ended her days in Lourdes sprang into being.

seclusion in 1880.—Gentleman's Magazine.



SHE kneels and folds her baby hands,

And gavly babbling lisps her prayer.
What if she laughs? God understands

The joyous heart that knows no care.

Her prayer is like a new-fledged bird

That cannot flutter to its tree;
But God will lift it, having heard,

Up to the nest where it would be.

-Sunday Magazine.

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To persons whose memory reaches eve of a commercial millennium, in back beyond the days of the Crimean which moral forces were to supersede War there are few things more striking physical, or, to cite a cant phrase of the in the aspect of public affairs at home day, in which Captain Pen was to prove than the change in popular sentiment stronger than Colonel Sword, it folwith respect to our colonial empire. I lowed logically that Imperial aggranam sure all my contemporaries will dizement was not an object to comagree with me in saying that at the mend itself to the approval of any enperiod when the Great Exhibition of lightened community. 1851 was held in Hyde Park our colo- Moreover, even the few unbelievers nies were commonly regarded as a in the gospel of Free Trade, Progress, source of weakness rather than of and Peace were not disposed to attach strength, as a sort of encumbered es- any great importance to our colonies tate the cost of whose maintenance out- as a factor in our national history. weighed the dignity conferred by its There were then men still playing an possession. The epoch of which I active part in public life to whom the speak coincided with the high-water American War of Independence was mark of the Manchester school of poli- an event within their own recollection. tics. In those days we were all more Even the younger generations, to or less convinced that we were entering whom the severance of the bonds which on a new era of peace, free trade, in- formerly united Great Britain to the ternational goodwill, and universal grandest of her colonies was a tradition brotherhood. I am not concerned at only, were imbued with a belief that in present with the consideration how far the course of nature our other colonies the “ good time coming” sentiment of were bound tɔ follow the 'example of which the well-nigh forgotten Mr. the United States and set up for themCharles Mackay was the popular bard selves as soon as they could dispense was based on anything more solid than with the protection of the mother sentimental aspirations. I only refer country. This belief was not confined to it as explaining a condition of things to any one party or any one class of the under which the Imperial idea was nec commonwealth. Tories and Whigs, essarily at a discount. If, as was then Aristocrats and Democrats, were at one commonly believed, we were on the in regarding our colonial empire as an New SERIES -- Vol. LXVIII., No. 5.


artificial and provisional institution the globe shall become one commonwhich possessed no element of perma- wealth under the Union Jack may nence. The above point of view direct prove incapable of realization; but the ed our colonial policy alike under Sir conception is one which no English Robert Peel and Lord John Russell. statesman nowadays can afford to flout, That policy may best be described as no English party can ignore with safeone of indifference. It was accepted ty. For good or for bad, the whole as an axiom of statesmanship that our Manchester school of politics has been colonies would, one after the other, de consigned to the limbo of theories which tach themselves from the parent State, have been tested by experience and have and that the latter would offer no op- been found wanting. The causes which position to their assumption of indepen- have led to this change of public opindence. On the contrary, the severance ion are partly of a material, partly of of the colonies from the United King- an industrial, and partly of a sentimendom was held in Downing Street to be tal character. Steam, and still more, “ a consummation most devoutly to be submarine telegraphy have brought wished.” I am not saying that among Great Britain and Greater Britain into the English statesmen, politicians, and relations which would have seemed inofficials of fifty years ago there was any credible in the days of Cobden and definite desire or distinct purpose to Bright and the Anti-Corn Law League. cast loose our possessions beyond the Every event of public interest which seas which have of late become known occurs in the British Empire is known as Greater Britain, but I do say that at practically at one and the same time this period the probability of such a con- in every important city, not only of the tingency coming to pass was regarded United Kingdom, but of our colonies. not only without dismay, but with placid With the aid of the British press, Engsatisfaction. The view on this subject lishmen at home and Englishmen abroad then entertained by our governing are brought into close contact with each classes closely resembled that held in other, and nowadays the most commonmost British households with regard to place of Britons, the man who in bygrown-up children. The parents are gone years cared for nothing and was well content that their sons should re- proud of caring for nothing beyond his main at home, but they feel at the same own local interests, cannot but feel a time that the sooner they take wives and sort of solidarity with his fellow-counget homes of their own the better it will trymen beyond the seas, of whose forbe directly for themselves and indirect- tunes, successes, failures, he reads perly for their fathers and mothers. force the record daily. The press

It is hardly necessary to say how all throughout the British Empire might this has altered. Whether Imperial well adopt as its motto, “ Homo Federation will ever become more than sum, et nihil humani a me alienum a grand idea is a question entirely be- puto," substituting Britannicus and yond the scope of the present article. Britannici for homo and humani. But even those who are least sanguine Again, rapidity of communication about the realization of this idea will and reduction of freight, with a connot dispute the fact that it has taken sequent increase both of consumers and firm hold of the public mind both in producers throughout the world, have the mother country and in the colonies. exposed British commerce to a compeImperial Federation may or may not tition our forefathers never contemplatbecome an accomplished fact, but the ed as possible. Under the protective demand for a Greater Britain has al- systems which, with or without reason, ready come within the domain of prac- find increasing favor in all parts of the tical politics. The conception of form- world outside the British Isles our old ing an united Empire in which can markets are becoming circumscribed, if ada, Australia, South Africa, and not closed, to trade. As a necessary reall the scattered possessions of Eng- sult, the value of our colonial markets land throughout the four quarters of has increased in popular estimation, and the British public is awakening are the complements of one another. to the desirability of consolidating the I should be the last to deny the notable bonds which unite Great Britain to her differences between the two great colonies. Moreover, increased knowl- branches of the Anglo-Saxon race unedge and keener interest have rekindled der the British Empire and the Ameriamong men of British race the old Im- can Republic. On the contrary, in perial fire, which may have smoul common with all Englishmen who have dered during the predominance of the been connected by home ties with the Manchester school, but which has never United States, and who have lived in died out. With us of the Anglo-Saxon close intimacy with Americans, I am, race, as with the Romans of old, there I think, more apt than ordinary Engis an innate conviction, sometimes sup- lishmen to attach undue weight to the pressed, but never abandoned, that it nuances-I know of no English word is our mission, our manifest destiny, with the exact signification of the to rule the world. Other nations, to French—which differentiate the ordiparaphrase the well-known lines, may nary Englishman from the ordinary excel us in arts and graces, but to us American. To the foreigner, as alike is allotted the power to rule. The in England and America, all men of above conviction, justly or unjustly, is English-speaking race are · habitually entertained at heart by ninety-nine denominated Englishmen, and AmeriBritons out of every hundred; this be- cans seem the same people. I rememing so, it is intelligible enough that the ber asking M. Ferdinand de Lesseps, instinct which has led us to pitch our after his unsuccessful visit to the States tents. in every part of the world wher- in connection with the Panama Canal, ever there was money to be made, trade what he thought of the Americans. to be developed, or power to be ac- “Ils sont vos vrais cousins," was his quired, should have strengthened us in answer. The word cousin has always the resolve to hold what we have gained, appeared to me far more appropriate and to reap the harvest of the crops to the relations of England and Amerithat we have planted. Such, in my ca than those of brother or sister. opinion, are the main causes of the Cousins, in as far as my personal obseroutburst of Imperial sentiment which vation goes, are not as a rule the best has been the most marked feature of of friends; they are apt to judge each British political history during the others' defects too hardly, they are closing years of the century now about prone to take offence, they expect a to be numbered with the past.

great deal from their relatives, and are Brief as these remarks on the growth not disposed to give much in return. of Imperialism in England may be in But, notwithstanding all this, they have themselves, they may appear somewhat common ties, common interests, comlengthy in an article whose subject is mon memories, common kinship, which Imperialism in America. My excuse they do not and cannot possess with must be that, in order to understand the world outside their own familie the Imperialist movement across the and therefore in the long run—to emAtlantic, it is absolutely essential to ploy a mathematical metaphor—the appreciate the character of the move- centripetal forces in their case are alment in the mother country. Many ways stronger than the centrifugal. I years ago, when I first visited the know it will be said that the very large United States, I gave utterance in admixture of foreign, and especially writing to the apparent paradox that of German, blood in the American na. in order to understand England it was tionality, has materially modified its necessary to study America. The years Anglo-Saxon character. I doubt, howthat since then have come and gone ever, the force of this objection. The have only confirmed my belief in this two branches of our race possess, to assertion, which may perhaps be ex- an unequal extent, the faculty of aspressed more clearly by saying that similation. In our own country, and Great Britain and the United States especially in our large manufacturing

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