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to the most oppressive militarism which memoranda to my children, who will the world has ever known, a Social- deal with them after I am gone. For Democratic movement of vast moment, the rest, I trust to history.” And whose ultimate outcome only the fates history is just and speaks truth," I know. These, too, are among the ventured to say, as our conversation positive results of Bismarck's states drew to a close.“ Yes,” he repeated, manship. Had he not lived, or had “history is just, but her judgments his great work never been done, the always tarry long-it may be thirty, negative side of the picture would forty years. Yet history is just.” doubtless have been equally striking. It was clear that he was contented to and equally suggestive to the specula- leave his work to the judgment of postive mind.

terity and to abide by the result. And Much has been written of late about safely he may! History will, in due the Prince's memoirs, and it will not time, take proper account of this probe amiss to recall some words which he digious product of the nineteenth cenaddressed to me on the subject more tury, this man of mighty will and marthan six years ago. “I shall not pub- vellous resource, strong in word, far-seelish anything during my lifetime,” he ing in counsel, decisive in deed, ever said. “ There are so many events of patient to wait on events, ever quick to which I am now the only living wit- take occasion by the hand ; a man not ness, and you will see how the publica- free from weaknesses, nor incapable of tion of memoirs while I live would land error, yet in all his public conduct and me in every manner of polemic, and policy inspired by the high motives of that, at my advanced age, I could not fidelity to his sovereign master and devostand. But I shall leave papers and tion to his land.–Fortnightly Review.



The oldest, purest (in blood !), and to thee, Isabel." No “princess" or proudest aristocracy of Europe is by a “highness" or the obeisance of the singular anomaly of Spanish character serf. Merely a doff of sombrero from the most democratic. When the Revo- village lout to his sovereign lady; a lution devised its illusive rule of equal smiling display of two brilliant rows of ity, which is nowhere, hardly even in teeth and the familiar hand salutation aristocratic England, more conspicu- of Spain from his mate, who greets the ously absent than in modern France; Infanta as one of her own sex whom when America, assisted by the ever- she is charmed to see again. So when admirable Washington, proclaimed it- the Infanta Paz (unlike masculine, self a free Republic, and travestied free- original, high-toned Princess Isabel, dom as no constitutional inonarchy of who rides like a man, smokes huge Europe to-day would dare to tyrannize, puras, and is as generous and intelli-neither could, in its most utopian gent as she is loud and virile), a gentle, dream, have conceived a casual outward feminine creature, rather of German equality more delightful than that legend than of heroic romancero, goes which exists beyond the Pyrenees be- to drink Spanish waters or freshen tween seigneur and peasant, between drooping spirits along a Spanish shore : master and servant, between prince and “How art thou, Paz? the eye is people, between shopkeeper and cus- refreshed by sight of thee.” The tomer. Here Anglo-Saxon servility Princess Eulalia, with her golden hair and cringing curtsey are unknown, un- and youthful gaiety, her schoolgirl comprehended. When the Infanta abhorrence of etiquette, her innocent Isabel goes up to La Granja of Segovia frédaines, is a pleasing representative to hunt, the villagers greet her glee- to them of eternal youth. I was at fully : “Here's our Isabel. Good day Teneriffe when, on her way to Chicago, she stopped at the Canaries. “Good while ago in exchanging agreeable day to thee, little one,” shouted the pleasantries, for all the world like the peasant women. A happy voyage little milliner. But she will never be and a happy return." The Princess the less a duchess because she and the bowed in the homeliest, brightest way, shopkeeper are on the best of terms. and I noticed that whenever the “little Her unconsciousness of her rank in one” was shouted emphatically, she every-day relations, which would stupefy waved her hand as well.

an English duchess, comes from the A duchess enters a shop. Do you fact that she belongs to a prouder race. imagine she will be more courteously Had she a mind to sport her coronet in received than a little milliner? Not at a shop, the owner and his attendants all. For both are instantly made at would speedily make short work of her home, and treated to the hidalgo's finest decorative dignity. To them it would manner. The one as well as the other simply mean an underbred and foolish will take a seat and lean across the exhibition, for side, impertinence, and counter, playing with fan and eyes and vulgar haughtiness are not defects the lip, in the same roguish intent to get Spaniards will tolerate. This explains the most for their money. The differ their inherent and incorrigible dislike ence will be to the advantage of the of the Anglo-Saxon. You must in little milliner, for the shopkeeper will Spain accept the general recognition of ask the duchess a higher price, and human dignity : though you may be in that is all. And do you imagine there never so violent a hurry, you must yield will be a pin to choose between the to the servitude of form, and waste graceful familiarity, the amiable atti- precious time in convincing your fellowtudes of the duchess and the milliner ? man, whose hand may even be extended None, except such as mark the value to you in beggary, that you regard him of breeding. The one will be common, as no less a gentleman than yourself. arch, and pouting as befits her class, Else are you not “ muy cumplido, muy accustomed to win its way with grosser formal,” but a mere foreign lout. methods; the other will be the great In a race in decay, the question of lady quite unconsciously, with just blood runs down among the lowest. those pretty distinctions of race and In Ireland every grocer and bootblack tradition that please and do not offend. imagines himself descended from a For she is too simple, too democratic king, and in Spain the glover and the in the best sense of the word, to conde haberdasher may also be descended from scend. She does not regard the shop- a Gothic sovereign. The man the keeper as her inferior because he has English tourist insultingly addresses as no social existence for her, and does not “ fellow" is possibly clothed in the traverse her salons in evening suit and imaginary glory of some such remote white tie. He finds his diversion else- ancestor as Wamba or Childe Pelayo. where and has other interests than I have known a Catalan shopkeeper who hers. Meanwhile, he is entitled to the pointed to the portraits of Bourbon same courtesy as her equals, and she has sovereigns, saying, “Papa y Mama not the smallest objection to pay him Borbon.” He meant that he was a son in full the measure of consideration he of the House of Bourbon, but the retacitly claims. He may even discuss lationship remains obscure and unexhis family affairs with her, and be sure plained to this day. What matter? of a humane listener. If his daughter He royally struts his shop, folds himis dying of consumption, she will be self outside in the cloak of regret and immensely grieved in his presence, and remembrance, and romantically aposforget all about it in less than five min trophizes the shades of Papa y Mama utes. In this she is not personally to Borbon, unaware that there is anything blame, for an incurable colossal selfish- preposterous or ridiculous in his attiness is the most notable characteristic tude. Princess and duchess, duke and of the entire race. And while her ex- lord, are his equal, though they enter pressive and mendacious eyes are filled his shop to purchase a pair of gloves or with pity for him, she will remember to a yard of ribbon. argue and bargain, just as she did a While the Spanish nobility do not,

as in England, concern themselves in the deck moaning and clamoring to the least with the improvement, the die. The colonel looked just as seamoral training, and sanitary arrange- sick and miserable, but he it was who ments of their dependents-are, instead, had to do the work. Do you think he culpably indifferent to all that touches complained, or that the servants upon their comfort—they are consid- thanked him ? Before leaving the erably nearer their servants and their question of servants, I should say that, peasantry than any other aristocracy. though the Spanish servants are paid In the most imposing palaces you will less than in England or France, and find servants swarming at night in vil- are abominably housed, their lot is a lainous airless boxes accepted as rooms, happier one than ours enjoy. The often without a window, always without standard of civilization in their regard a fireplace. The servants never dream is as low as it can possibly be, removed of complaining. The race is, from by scarce a step from that of the middle sovereign to beggar, a stoical and long- ages. But they have an individuality suffering one. Its standard of comfort for their masters. If they are sick, is so low, that to go without duke or duchess will visit and help to winter and without air in summer is no nurse them. They are not called by reasonable claim to martyrdom. On their surnames, and their feelings are the other hand, both servants and never wounded. Once at table, when a peasantry find their masters human great family was spoken of, and wonder beings like themselves, whom they may was expressed as to whether they had address at ease, whom at all hours they or not returned from the seaside, I may greet in a tone of cheerful equality. heard the head-butler, offering at that I have heard a marquis, whose guest I moment a dish to the marchioness, my was, exclaim at lunch: “ Tiens ! I was hostess, remark, “ They have returned, in the tram this morning, and when I for I saw the countess yesterday afteroffered to pay, the conductor corrected noon driving with la Marietta." Marime, « The señor is already paid for. I etta was the eldest married daughter, looked around in amazement, and be the wife of an illustrious noble of Cashold there was Manuel [his valet) on tile. Nobody seemed to mind. Comthe platform smiling and nodding to ing down to dinner in a new silk blouse, me.” Manuel the valet, being the the under-butler of the same house first to respond to the conductor's call once greeted me quite contentedly : for coppers, paid for his master, whom “Ah, what a pretty color! That he discovered to be seated within. I blouse admirably suits the señorita. It travelled on a Spanish transatlantic pleases me greatly.” Some of the liner. There was a duke and his valet newly made nobles are introducing on board. The valet, like his master, British formality, and insist that the travelled first-class, talked at table, servants shall say Master This and offered entrées or cigarettes, with the Miss That; but this insistence on Eueasy air of a grandee. Neither the ropean etiquette at once marks them off duke nor the valet expected or received as parvenus. At these houses, when a different treatment. When Spanish you call, you are received as in Paris or noblewomen travel with their maids on London, by correct and inane automata, sea, the rôles are reversed. The maid, whose physiognomies and voices you as far as I have observed, is an expense never remember. But the servants of not justified by any rational return the great old houses smile, acquaint you Indeed, coming from Teneriffe to Cadiz, with the fact that they are glad to see I have seen an unhappy colonel return- you, and when they hear that you are ing to the Peninsula with a sick wife well, they cry out vivaciously, “Mi and several small children, accompanied alegra mucho.” If you happen to be by servants of both sexes, obliged to ailing, they will offer advice and voluble rise at dawn to heat milk on a spirit- sympathy. These are never to the vislamp for the youngest baby, and to act itor the servant of So-and-so, but Joaall day the part of maid to his sick wife chim, Manuel, Teresa, or Madalena. and nursemaid to the children, while This is the sympathetic side of Spanthe servants lay in the cabin or about ish aristocratic character ; the absence of pose, of snobbishness, the complete to him that the bearer of the family and dignified simplicity, the pleasant title, over thirty, was entitled to a voice sense of equality in mere personal rela in family matters, and that filial defertions it exhales, and above all a prettyence should stop short of complete and indestructible personal kindliness of effacement before maternal despotism. manner and action,-only surface-deep, The Spanish mother of all classes posit is true, but most captivating as far sesses a virtue I cannot sufficiently laud as it goes. I have known a marchioness as a woman. It is rare that her prefersend to one of her tenantry, an obscure ence is not given to her girls. I have and exceedingly common little teacher known numbers of Spaniards, nobles of English, on her saint's day, a mag- and bourgeois, and the mother's favorite nificent bouquet and a dish of ice-cream. has always been a girl. One young This English old maid was quite the countess, the mother of two of the lovepoorest of her tenants, and for that liest little boys I have ever seen, and reason the marchioness singled her out the most exquisitely bred, confided to for all sorts of pretty attentions she me last summer the fact that she exnever dreamed of bestowing on her pected a third child, and intended it wealthy tenants, without knowing her should be a girl. “I didn't intend or caring in the least for her. For in hard enough the other tiines, and so Spain poverty is no blighting disgrace, Juan and Luis came ; but this time I and wealth is no glory.

think of nothing else : all the baby's Turning to the other side, it must be linen is embroidered already with the admitted that a drearier, an emptier, a name of Agnes. I have told my babies less intelligent form of humanity does that a little sister will come soon, and not exist on the face of the world than the every day they ask me several times Spanish aristocracy. Which half is the have I heard word of Agnes, and when worse, male or female, it would be diffi- she is coming. I have decided it is all cult to pronounce. Dress, gossip, and a question of will, and so I am concenwhile young love, are the preoccupa- trating my whole powers of mind and tions of both. Wives, doing nothing will upon this little girl I long for.” asking nothing but attractive raiment Six months later I receive news that out-of-doors and plenty of gossip with Agnes is born, and the house cast into in, have on the whole an easy time, for the tumultuous joy that usually greets Spanish husbands are the least exacting the birth of an heir. Spanish mothers of their kind. Whether faithful or have an adoration for one of their not, they are, as a universal rule, tender, daughters that surpasses the jealousy devoted, wonderfully patient and gentle of any British mother for her son. She in the face of hysterics, scenes, and in- must marry her—well, because it is the justice. Indeed, this mild resignation girl's accepted fate; but what difficulis the keynote of national character, ties ! what dislike and distrust of the both in public and in private life. The son-in-law! what manoeuvres to keep higher you go, the more remarkable it the girl in maternal bondage ! If trabecomes. I have seen a Spanish son, dition and nature did not intervene, the head of his house, the father of a along with the human instinct of materfamily, and the bearer of a great his- nal pride, which desires, all in loathtoric name, endure such injustice at ing, the proof of discernment of the the hands of a capricious mother uncom- jewels' value in some base masculine plainingly as left me staggered. And brigand-many Spanish girls would find always imperturbably respectful and it hard to marry. As it is, I know one tender. He might blanch with wounded mother, one of the greatest ladies of pride and affection, but never a protest, Spain (I may perhaps call her the third never the least diminution of filial lady of the realm), whose behavior to deference. He claimed no authority all the aspiring grooms of her only along with the titles that came to him daughter, a fabulous heiress for Spain, on his father's death. Once speaking resembles that of the ogre of fairy tale, to me of some reform he projected, he who forces the amorous prince through said quite simply, “ That will be later, unimaginable paces, in the secret hopes when I am master.” It did not occur of discouraging him. I am glad to re

ceive news from Madrid that the latest maidenhood of dull and narrow Irish adventurer in the field of sorrow has towns and villages, one is forced by stood to his colors, and, as the hero of sympathy to greet the excessive devofairy tale, is like to come out triumph- tion of the Spanish mothers and laantly to the tune of Mendelssohn's mentable spoiling of the Spanish Wedding March in the Church of St. daughters with indulgence. The years Francis (for there is no cathedral in of youth are brief, and, after all, the Madrid) in all the promise of lace and parents are not altogether unselfish ; orange blossom. But what modern be- they too find their profit and pleasure trothed of Paris and London without in their abnegation and tenderness. the romantic strain would endure such What matter if the unborn reap the proof of fortitude and faith as that full benefit ? The sad part of the system poor young Spanish nobleman daily en- is that in both periods the intelligence dures for the privilege of overcoming is left uncultivated. maternal jealousy! I would not be a Borrow expresses an unmitigated conSpanish girl for my mind's sake, for tempt for the Spanish nobility. But my life's sake, for such an existence is he should have taken into consideration intolerable to the average civilized and its redeeming features. I admit that thinking being ; but if I were content these are inadequate, just as are the with the wadded atmosphere of the virtues of the entire race. The war pussy cat or the pet canary, not free to shows us the imperishable quality of live or think for myself, but smothered their valor and their incurable ineffiin satin cushions and caresses, fed upon ciency. The daily life of any Spanish the sweets of life, then would I choose nobleman will furnish abundant proof to be an over-loved Spanish girl, the of both. I have known a young titled captive of home and parents, the spoiled idiot, with less brains than a linnet, idiot of humanity.

who spent his days at home in a rockThe singular thing about these pam- ing-chair, abroad in club or theatre or pered girls, whose parents are their at the Plaza de Toros, who only lived. slaves to an extent no British father or upon the mediocre resources of provinmother could ever conceive, and who, cial pleasures, conduct himself like a as a rule, repay their devotion and abne- hero in the terrors of anarchy at Barcegation with the usual ingratitude and lona. He was aware that the bombs selfishness that mark the race, is that were specially directed at him, as one once they marry they in turn become of the foremost of the gilded youth ; as absorbed as their neglected parents and wherever there was a post of promin maternal love, and pay back quite inent danger he claimed it, trod his cheerfully to their own child the love way gallantly through dynamite, unwhich they themselves took for granted blanched and haughty, and was one of without a word of thanks or an act of the finest and coolest figures in the recognition. Of the most thankless of frightful Liceo catastrophe. Who can daughters are fashioned the most pas- sneer at a race that produces idiots of sionate of mothers. When one studies this quality ? Yet in his undecorative the problem elsewhere, and sees the hours the fellow is completely insupunmerited misery of the daughters in portable, of a grossness and vapidity of Ireland, the coldness, inhumanity, and conversation to abash and awe the unselfishness of the Irish mother to her cleanest stage of Continental youth. girls of every class, the monstrous way It is true, in the matter of unclean in which the girls are sacrificed to their talk, the Catalans bear a special reputabrothers, left without education that tion in the Peninsula, -and here the these may play the gentleman, deprived men do not wait for the departure of of the enjoyments and pretty fripperies the women from the dinner-table, but of girlhood, the money that might have utter remarks and pleasantries in their helped to establish them squandered by presence to stupefy even a reader satuthe most heartless and least sacrificing rated with the excesses in this form of of parents on the face of the earth, and wit of the classical literature of Europe. nothing left the unfortunate girls but The famous esprit gaulois, whose penury and struggle and the dull old modern voice is M. Armand Silvestre,

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