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upper reaches of the pretty river Clutha spent was wasted, and all the high in Otago, New Zealand, with salmon hopes of a plentiful supply of indigefry from ova imported from England. nous salmon were frustrated for years. The incipient salmon flourished until There are, of course, many other in the course of natural development marine monstrosities to which with they reached the “ parr” stage of their more or less show of reason the satanic career. Then in an evil hour they epithet has been applied ; but they are journeyed seawards until they reached very little known or noticed, except the estuary of the river. A school of within certain narrow limits. Probbarracouta had just previously crossed ably enough has been said to justify the bar from the sea, and in their search simple savages and almost equally simfor living food happened upon the p!e-minded seamen in bestowing upon toothsome innocents from the secure the creatures of their dread a name spawning-beds above. Long did the which to them embodies all they are patient watchers up-country waît, but able to conceive of pitiless cruelty, unnever more did one of those youthful quenchable ferocity, and unmatchable salmon return to them. All the money cunning.-Cornhill Magazine.

THE PROGRESS OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

BY EDWARD LUNN.

PEOPLE have by this time quite for- velopment the natural thing was to gotten the tremendous sensation creat- drift on to the false conclusion that she ed by the announcement of the Franco- was on the down-grade. Coupled with Russian Alliance. Yet if we look back this was our fancy that the frequent we may see at a glance how far-reach- discovery of plots against the Governing have been its results—beneficial in ment presaged the breaking-up of the every way to both nations. Prior to Empire in the near future. The exthe alliance Russia was unable to force pression of such views had for its natherself into the arena of Western Euro- ural sequence the feeling of contempt pean politics. The English press never and animosity which, until quite reregarded her as more than an Eastern cently, has animated the press of our power. The average education of an own country. I say “until quite reEnglishman generally includes, even to cently," because a very noticeable day, the careful instilling of exaggerat change has come to be marked. Our ed accounts of Siberian prison horrors. animosity may still be as bitter, but He is taught to believe that the ordi- the effect of Russian diplomacy has nary Russian is in daily dread of be- been such that, rather than adding coning suddenly taken from his home and tempt, it has caused us no inconsidermarched off to some Siberian mine, able trepidation as to what would be where he must work for years if not their next coup. They have not held by for life, where he must bear patiently the accepted canons of good faith, but every insult and cruelty imposed on they have shown more than Eastern him by his task-masters, and where he skill and shrewdness in their foreign can obtain no redress or hope of regain- policy, which is terribly progressive. ing freedom except through the caprice The Russian is undoubtedly the of these task-masters. Unfortunately greatest linguist of the day. It is no the popular writers of stories dealing uncommon thing for him to speak four with Russia have taken up this easy or five languages, and he shows his vein, and worked it for all it was worth, pride of the fact in curious ways. He while the quiet, gradual development will nudge you as he passes you in the of the nation has remained hidden from corridor of a train, then apologize in us. From ignorance of her internal de- French, or, perhaps, if you are Eng

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THE PROGRESS OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

December,

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lish, in English. Then he will attempt should not themselves become proa conversation, and if you express sur- ducers. Factories were started, Engprise at his fluency in a foreign tongue, lish machinery imported, and English he will gracefully bow and bring his foremen and engineers placed in confeet together with a click. The writer trol. Then the English engineer was once, passing through a Tartar village supplanted by the German, the main the Crimea, met at the house of a chinery perhaps got out of order, and wealthy Russian some five or six naval the introduction of German machinery, and military officers. He was surprised accompanied by American, naturally to find four of them spoke English, and followed. By this time Russia had every one spoke French. French is started schools for the training of a spespoken universally by the upper classes, cial class as engineers. These are and the élite speak English perfectly. known in Russia as “ techniks.” They Many of the nobility in Russia and are men carefully trained in all the subordinates in Government posts are theories of mechanics, and can pass of German origin, and naturally there through the most rigid tests “on pais a wide acquaintance with the German per," but in the opinion of foreigners language, but it is rarely spoken, and is do not make practical engineers. Be by no means popular. The causes of this as it may, they are supplanting this widespread familiarity with for- American, German, and English in eign languages are, first, the difficulty their own country, and are beginning foreigners find in learning Russian; to turn out machinery of their own deand secondly, that until within the last sign. It is interesting to note that as year or two their language was thought the country gradually develops in mancommon and vulgar. It was the lan- ufactures, it at the same time is slowly guage of the moujik, and the nobleman turning to invention.. objected to hold conversation in it. In No safer criterion of her rapid addeed, some went even so far as to boast vance can be obtained than by a study of their ignorance of their mother- of her improvements in means of comtongue. Although this unnatural state munication. When touching on this of things is rapidly passing away, and subject, it is important to note that the proper study of the Russian lan- roads, railways, the river and canal guage is becoming popular, they are too boat services, and the tramways are unshrewd to overlook the immense ad- der the control of a high official whose vantages which have already accrued post is that of Minister of Communicafrom their extensive acquaintance with tions. All railways, of course, are Govother tongues. The Russophobe sums ernment railways, no construction is up his dislike with the pat quotation: carried on except under authority from “Scratch a Russian and you find a Tar- military officials, and every line is comtar.” In some instances it is possible pleted with a careful eye to military to trace Tartar blood, but the pure Rus- strategy. No small credit for Russia's sian is a white man, a European, and increase in railway enterprise is due to possibly of the same Aryan stock as Prince Hilkoff, the present Minister of we ourselves. The extensive study of Communications. One may frequently modern language is a feature of West- hear it said that there is no member ern civilization, and in it the Russian of the nobility more popular among certainly takes a lead.

English and American residents in Within the last few years cotton- Russia. This is no doubt largely due mills and factories have sprung up in to his having lived in both England and all parts of the Empire. Where at America; speaking English fluently one time they were content with Man- and entering into our national sentichester goods, the German gradually ments. He is never tired of admitting cropt in with the cheaper article, better that he worked as an engineer on adapted to Russian tastes and require- American railways for some three or ments. Presently their ambition rose four years, thus fitting him for his post above this, and they asked why they by gaining a practical insight which theoretical training could never instil. 250 miles, the military road over the It is under Prince Hilkoff that railways Caucasus for 150 miles, and the posthave made such strides, and there is road from Tiflis to Erivan, about 200 even now communication between Pe- miles. The road in the Southern Critersburg and the Caucasus, a journey mea runs along the hilly sea-coast through taking considerably over four days. It charming vine-slopes, with scenery as is proposed to extend the line over the magnificent as that of Southern France, Caucasus, through Tiflis, to the Per- and rightly called the Russian Riviera. sian frontier. The line from Tiflis to Yalta, the principal town on the coast, the frontier has already been com- is a glorious bathing-place. It is the menced. When the Trans-Siberian favorite summer resort of the nobility, railway and this line are completed we being within easy driving distance of shall perhaps awake to our position in Livadia, where the late Emperor died. the East as opposed to Russia's. She It is known as the Brighton of Southwill then have three separate trunk lines ern Russia. The military road over the with which she could swarm the fron- Caucasus rises to a height of 8000 feet, tiers of Persia, Afghanistan, and China the last 3000 feet of which is ascended with three armies in three weeks. The within the twenty miles, and yet the time is sufficient, and she has both the gradient is so well adjusted that it is men and means. Travelling by rail is possible for a cyclist to ride the entire far cheaper in Russia than in most Eu- distance. ropean countries. Long-distance trav- The Erivan road has fallen into deelling is also more comfortable, ex- cay for seventy miles since the railway cepting where the Government lease was opened between Tiflis and Akstafa, the right to run sleeping-cars to a for- the present terminus of the railway eign company, when the usual cramping which will eventually pass through of passengers is met with. On many of Erivan. An enterprising Armenian has the trains there are dining-cars. Where started a motor-car for carrying pasthere are no dining-cars the trains stop sengers and mails between Akstafa and long enough at all principal stations Diligan, a small military station on the for meals, where the food and the wait- Erivan road. The distance is forty ing are as good as, if not better than, miles between the two towns, and the at most places in England or the Con- car covers it in three and five hours retinent. There is in these buffets a Gov. spectively. The ordinary method of ernment tariff for everything. In all travelling on these roads is by tarantass, the large towns on railway routes there a heavy vehicle drawn by four horses are good hotels where the cuisine is running abreast. With the exception equal to that of first-class hotels all over of these three roads mentioned, comthe Continent, and where English is munication between towns is over wellfrequently spoken. The steamers on worn tracks across the steppes. Occathe rivers are three-deckers of the sionally some half dozen of these tracks American type. They have good ac- converge at a point where no solitary commodation for all classes of passen- tree, house, or hillock rises above the gers, and maintain a fair speed, being monotonous plains. There are no signused in the absence of railways for the posts at meetings of the ways, and it is carrying of mails. A gigantic scheme pure chance if one takes the right track. is on foot for the construction of a The post-houses in the villages on these canal between two of their largest tracks have not the comforts or the rivers, by which through water com- cleanliness of inns at home, but one can munication will be established between rely on generally getting wine or beer, the Black Sea and the Baltic.

eggs and chickens, Russian tea and exRoad communication, except in iso- cellent home-made bread. lated instances, is very primitive. The amusements of Russians are There are practically no made roads in simple, few, and unrefined. The naRussia. The only roads in the south tional dances are perhaps as pretty and are: one in the Southern Crimea for quaint as any in Europe, but they are being forgotten. Heavy eating, heavier of Russia's actions, why does she perdrinking, and endless smoking of cig- mit these menaces to our empire in the arettes, with countless glasses of tea, oc- East? If she approves them, surely cupy their spare time. The low-class the sooner we hand over the Governmusic-hall is becoming popular in large ment of India to Russia the better. towns. There are in Petersburg, Mos- The Siberian Railway, when finished, cow, Odessa, and Warsaw, and so forth, will not only compete with our carrytheatres and opera-houses where during ing trade in the Far East, but it will the season one can always see the best bring Russian manufacturers into keen plays and hear the best music. Fabu- competition with British goods in the lous prices are paid to attract celebrat- interior of China. ed actors and musicians from abroad Schemes have been mooted for conand the charges are high in conse- necting the Indian Empire with the quence. Russia herself can boast of Mediterranean seaboard by a hailway to some of the greatest leaders of the pres- run along the coasts of Beloochistan ent day in literature, music, and the and Persia, across the Euphrates valley fine arts.

to the north of Arabia and Suez. At The number of English travellers the present time our influence would who visit Russia is increasing, and is be strong enough to overcome all obcertainly not less than 500 per annum. stacles to a purely British line. It is The number is small, but few of these said that the railway would never pay. leave Russia without having their eyes Surely it would pay us to have the most opened. When they meet him they are rapid possible communication with our surprised to find the Russian educated Indian Empire, and through it to Chiand a gentleman, and are pleased to na. But cold water has been thrown have made his acquaintance. The on the scheme. Perhaps on the complefriendly intercourse of individuals of tion of the Siberian line we shall realthe two nations is a small matter. ize the incalculable advantages of such What we have to remember is that Rus- a line. But who knows that by that sia and England are gradually coming time Russia may not have the influence closer and closer together in Asia, and in the south which we now regret havultimately may be face to face along ing given her in Northern Persia ? the entire continent. Ought Great The interests of every Englishman Britain to delay the final meeting as are bound up with the future welfare of long as she can procrastinate? Ought our immense and scattered Empire, and she to allow Russia to oust her from it behooves every one with a love of his paramount influence at Teheran, Pe- country to solve for himself its probkin, and Cabul ? Ought she to allow lems, of which the increasing power of Russia to close the old trade routes into Russia is one of the greatest. —GentleNorthern Persia, to the detriment of man's Magazine. British trade? If she does not approve

A TROLL IN NORWAY.

BY P. A. WRIGHT HENDERSON.

Of the problems which engage hu- ever-recurring problem, “How and man thought those are not the most im- where am I to spend my holiday?portant which receive the most atten- To all who work, from the artisan tion. The Chief End of Man, the Goal wishing to make the most of his Bank of Evolution, the Future of Democra- holiday to the Cabinet Minister weary cy, do not press on the average mind of China, Russia, Ireland, and the with the weight and frequency of the Irish members, a well-spent playtime is

of vital importance. Happy is Mr. Bal- permitted to throw a line, were the only four in the golf, which he ought to days in his year which he counted as teach his colleagues as he has taught rationally employed. Mr. Asquith, who is the more likely to The angler sees the beauties of a “lay him a stimie” in the House of country as no one else except a painter Commons after a well-spent month at does. The angler—but enough; he, like North Berwick or St. Andrews.

other sportsmen, becomes arrogant and In the present furore for athletics, wearisome at times. and the no less unreasonable hostility The writer has spent a month in Norto the culture of the body which that way, an account of which may be of infurore has evoked in many quarters, terest to some anglers, whose education the true purpose and value of “sport” in fly-fishing has been neglected, or who -to use the most comprehensive name may be, as he was, debarred by rheumafor outdoor play—has to some degree tism, or perhaps by age and prudence, dropped out of view. Plato, who had from attempting to scramble over rocks more common sense than is expected of and stand for hours more than kneean idealist, long ago pointed out that deep in a cold and rapid stream, encumthe moral and intellectual powers were bered with landing-net and basket. braced and heightened by a reasonable This every one must do who would fish yuuvaoriun, and it was perhaps his a Norway river as it ought to be fished, asceticism only that prevented him and not content himself with casting from dwelling on the additional good from the bank, suffering torments worse of innocent pleasure in itself.

than those of Tantalus, who never knew But a writer in “Maga” need not what it is to see fish rising out of reach. state a case for sport. What form of Trolling is a form of angling derided sport has not been described brightly and despised by the ignorant, and that and fondly in “Maga's” pages-save in proportion to their ignorance: it is perhaps cricket, the pastime of the de- thought to be no better nor nobler than spicable Southron?

punt-fishing on the Thames for gudThe contemplative man's recreation geon, in a “swim” baited the night bewill hold its own with any other form fore. The writer has met fly-fishersof amusement. In variety it has no excellent men in other relations of life equal: a punt on the Thames; an Eng- —who spoke of trolling offensively and lish chalk-stream; a Highland loch; a illogically: illogically, for they argued salmon-river in Canada or Norway, fur- that because fly-fishing is good, and pish pleasures different in form, but the trolling is not fly-fishing, therefore same in essence: pleasures which can be trolling is not good—an Illicit Process enjoyed by the most inactive of elderly of the Major Term ; offensively, because gentlemen or by the hardiest athlete; by of ignorant effrontery and an assumpthe schoolboy who has saved enough tion of superiority in themselves and pocket-money to buy a rod and line, or their art, which, even if justified by by the millionaire who rents a salmon- facts, would have been unbecoming. river.

They were not aware that fishing for Angling seems to attract especially salmon on Loch Tay, no mean sport, the literary man and the philosopher: takes the form of trolling, and that it must be favorable to thought and many reaches of the Tay are fished by composition. For if Paley neglected trolling-fly. natural theology, and suspended his la- Trolling is, in fact, the way to get bors on the argument for Design, when large heavy fish, even monsters, who the may-fly was on the water. Froude will not rise to fly. It is the ever-preshas written delightfully about fishing ent possibility of a big fish, such as the in Norway and on the Spey. Matthew fly-fisher can hardly hope for, which Arnold used to say, with more sincerity sustains the troller and strengthens him than he said many other things, that to sit for weary hours long after the the three days he spent on a famous most persevering fly-fisher has gone water, in which few fishermen were ever home; for the troller is on a higher

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