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save years of wasted life
HOW ONE LARGE FIRM DEALS WITH Our idea in establishing three grades of APPRENTICES
apprentices was to take care of the three
grades of boys that come to us. First, the ONE NE of the large industrial establishments boys of the masses-the boys of ordinary
of the country is the Baldwin Locomo- education--very ordinary education indeed; tive Works, at Philadelphia. It employs these boys we compel to remain with us four nearly 11,coo workmen, and necessarily has years. We require that they shall go outa large number of apprentices. Several years side at night to some of the many night ago it made a complete change in its system schools and take a one-year's course in of handling these appren. The problem of the con:
elementary geometry and algebra in order tices, departing entirely tinuation school is to find to get a slight knowledge of them. The sec· from the specialist idea plan by which the boy and
ond and third years they must attend drawand renewing the old in- girl who must begin wage ing school. They must take a two-years' denture system with such proficient in some calling course in drawing outside of the workshops. new features as experi
or industry in order to
At the expiration of the four years we give ence has shown to be and opportunity on the
these boys a bonus and we discharge them
part of the individual, advisable. In a statement bring larger reward to the from our employ. They get a diploma—their by Mr. Samuel M. Vau- standard and tone of in,
indenture is their diploma; their bonus is clain, superintendent of dustrial life, – President their reward and the wherewith to go else
Butler, Columbia Univ. this great establishment, made before the Engineers' Club of Phila
, delphia, he sets forth the reasons for the cated boy. I defy any young man of eightadoption of this system and the methods een to go before an employer with a better pursued with regard to apprentices.
education than those boys who come to us It became apparent, said Mr. Vauclain, from our Philadelphia high school. He has that if we were to remain successful in com- a good knowledge of geometry and many of petition with the world we would have to get the higher branches of mathematics; he to work at once and systematically educate knows something of mechanical drawing our apprentices, not only in so far as the | enough to go on with the work; therefore, handicraft is concerned, but that they should we omit with this boy the preliminary course have a certain amount of technical knowl- | in elementary algebra and geometry, and we edge to go with it, and that that technical prescribe that for two years he must attend knowledge should go hand in hand with the night school in mechanical drawing in order manual training that they were receiving in to perfect himself, in order to learn to exthe shops. Very naturally the thought occur- press his thoughts upon paper as he absorbs
“What are we going to do with ideas in the workshop. We also give this the great unwashed—the boys who can not young man a bonus, and we only require go to school --the boys who are turned out three years of service from him on account of the grammar schools, perhaps, before they of the superior education he has when he have barely entered them?” The parents comes to us. The superior education enables must put those boys to work, and, fortu- us to grasp more quickly the needs — the nately for us, the laws of Pennsylvania re- place to put him—and he more or less readlieve us of this mass of humanity-poorly ily absorbs the instructions given him from trained, poorly educated, and with the greed his immediate superiors through the superof gain, the only thought their parents have intendent of the shop. The bonus this
young in placing them at work. The law forbids man gets is $100 in place of the $125 of his the employment of any boy under sixteen, more unskilled companion. This $100 we years of age, and over thirteen, only when think is sufficient to enable him to go elsehis parents go before a magistrate and get a where and secure employment, and we are permit; consequently we are able to keep never ashamed to let one of those apprenout of our workshops all boys under sixteen, tices go for that. He always shows up well. except those who are the sons of widows and The third man to take care of is the graduwho must have employment somewhere. ate of our universities the ordinary meThose boys we employ as messengers, and chanical engineer who comes to us not quite keep them and train them and bring them so green as grass so far as mechanical handialong until such time as we can put them craft is concerned. He is willing to get down to a trade.
red to me,
must be to turn a lad into
also make sure that he is
to the hardest work we have in our shop, foreman, or the superintendent, or the ownand he works at it like a steam engine. He ers, or the managers of these manufacturing * has all the technical knowledge that is neces- institutions will give their time and attensary. He has it, but he does not know how tion to the handicraft -- the manual trainto use it. We encourage him in this manner : ing--they certainly should expect to get the We can not indenture him, being a man, technical portion for the work of their stubut we make a specific contract with him dents outside. Now, in order to make a for two years and pay him enough to keep scheme of this sort successful, one must body and soul together. We give him 13 make a business of it. You cannot hand these cents an hour for the first year, and 16 cents
Although the chief aim boys over to the tender an hour for the second year, and a clean of an apprentice system mercies of a foreman, becertificate at the end of that time. We have a skilled workman, any
cause it is not one out of not had a man of that description for that system worthy of adopā fifty who can take a boy length of time who has not been lifted out
and who can say to himof the position he had contracted for and
a good citizen. self, “That boy is perfect
Richard T. Auchmuty. is enjoying a much more remunerative posi
on that work; here, give tion and in the line of promotion. Now, it him another planer ; there is no use keeping is from these men that we must fill the su- that boy on that work any longer." No, he perior offices in our workshop, and these will keep him there until the superintendboys we promote. The man or boy who has ent says, “You must not keep that boy determined to get to the top, and will burn there any longer; you are doing him an inhis candle at night to gain the knowledge justice.” In order to avoid such a condithat his more favored companion has re- tion of affairs, I felt that we should have a ceived in a better institution of learning superintendent of apprentices, a man whose than he has attended, also gains his reward. business was to look after the apprentice, not The third boy we must have to fill the or- only in the shop but out of the shop-a man dinary ranks in the workshops, and the bet- who would see that he is taken care of, and, ter educated we can have the ordinary rank see that the foreman does not take advanand file in our workshops, the better chance | tage, but as fast as the boy learns he must we will have of competing with our foreign be pushed along. We hire him for what he manufacturers, the better chance we will learns from us for the future, and we must have of extending the markets of American have that boy pushed along so that he can manufactures throughout the world, and it learn, so that he can absorb everything that is only by this that we can do so.
is capable of being absorbed in that shop. When I hear a manager say he has had If he is not capable of being pushed along so many men call in his efforts to secure a so fast, he is pushed along slowly and more foreman, he has tried and tried to get certain care is taken of him. We do not want to men to do certain work and failed, I pity allow that boy to sink down into disapthat man. That man has not the courage to pointed youth. We just want him when he is go down in his pocket and labor for a few twenty-one to be able to work and to go years to train men to fill these positions, and on and keep on working with irresistible if you can put out your
energy. the small courage to hand it over to these young men—you will get it back tenfold be FIFTY years ago Ralph Waldo Emerson fore you know where you are.
charged popular education with a want The manufacturer has the commercial of truth and nature. He complained that an side of the question to deal with. He can education to do things was not given. He saw impart the commercial side of the business that literature, far from being the only factor in connection with the technical training. in civilization, was not even the chief one. He must be a manual student commercially. He said, “We are students of words ; we are He must be able to make that work pay. shut up in schools and colleges and recitaHe must be able to get it out for a certain tion rooms from ten to fifteen years, and sum of money, and he must be able to get come out at last with a bag of wind, a memit out well for that money, because the bet- ory of words, and do not know a thing. We ter his product is, the more work will come cannot use our hands, or legs, or our eyes, into that workshop; and, therefore, if the or our arms."
APPRENTICESHIP IN ENGLAND IN THE the division of labour first appeared, as for MIDDLE AGES
instance in the West of England clothing (From "Methods of Social Advance." C. S. Loch editor. Pub
trade. In these, as soon as division of labour lished by Macmillan & Co., New York and London, 1906.) was introduced, it became manifest not only AP PPRENTICESHIP in the Middle Ages that a seven years' apprenticeship was not
was an essential part of the guild sys- in all cases necessary, but that it would be tem, under which industry was effectively impossible to enforce it. Towards the close organized and regulated, roughly speaking, of the eighteenth century the introduction from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries. of machinery, growth of the capitalist class, The aim of the guilds was to maintain the and increased division of labour, revolutionstandard of quality of the goods produced, ized industrial methods. Not all trades were and the standard of life of the craftsman. equally affected, but the greatest change was This was attained by the enforcement of wrought in the chief industry of the country, apprenticeship as a means of entrance to namely, the textile. The old kind of apprenthe trade, as well as by inspection of goods ticeship was no longer suited to this trade,but and regulation of prices. The only exception the famous Act of Elizabeth enforcing it was to apprenticeship was in the case of a father unrepealed till 1814, and convictions under teaching his son his own trade, when bind- the Act became very numerous. This attempt ing form of indenture was not as a rule to enforce the system where it was no longused, the interest of the father to train his er suitable brought it into disrepute, and the son properly being held sufficient security. | legal interpretation of the statute rendered Antagonism between capital and labour was possible manifold hardships and inconsistenin the Middle Ages practically nonexistent. cies. Not infrequently the new capitalist emThe apprentice lived under his master's ployer took unjust advantage of the Act. The roof. His master stood in loco parentis to mill-owner, for instance, no longer wanted him during his term of servitude, and was skilled workmen capable of carrying out all responsible alike for his moral as for his the processes of manufacture; he needed a craft training. Division of labour was very vast number of “hands" as auxiliaries to his little known, and a craftsman had to carry new machines, each performing one small through all the processes of manufacture him
monotonous process. To obtain these hands self. To qualify himself for this in each trade as cheap as possible he resorted to childhe was bound for not less than seven years. labour on a large scale. The workers were
The sixteenth century saw the decay of the frequently forced, by threat of dismissal guild system as an effective institution, but and the loss of their now reduced wages, the ideals for which the guilds had striven to put their children to the mills, bound by were still recognized and the means by a one-sided agreement to the benefit of the which they had sought to attain them adopt- master. The child-labour of the mills was ed, viz. the maintenance of the quality of also largely recruited by the parish apprenoutput by apprenticeship and inspection. tices, sent in scores at the age of six and up
In spite of their restrictive regulations wards, chiefly from London but also from the guilds had proved themselves incapable other large towns, bound by the Guardians of entirely excluding “unlawful men” from under the Statute 43 Elizabeth “ for the rethe exercise of their trade, and they had lief of the poor.” Thousands of hapless followed the mistaken policy of making their London children were thus sent into virtual regulations against outsiders more narrow slavery among strangers, to supply the needs and restrictive, instead of attempting to mod- of the northern mill-owners, and not a soul ify them in accordance with the needs of concerned himself in their welfare. Small the times. Not only was there a consider- wonder that when this abomination was put able influx of foreign artizans during the six- an end to, the system of apprenticeship teenth century, but the hired sevants or proper never revived in these trades, and labourers began to creep into the trade as that ill odour clung to the word. Except in it were by the back door. The opposition these trades, however, and in those new inshown to this class was undoubtedly a hard-dustries, such as engineering, which were ship, and involved a certain economic loss springing out of the new order,apprenticeship to the community, but it is doubtful whether was still very largely the custom at the close the class existed to any considerable extent, of the eighteenth century, and it has survived except in those trades where capital and more or less continuously to the present day. THE SCHOOL OF PRINTING, NORTH END
APPRENTICESHIP CONDITIONS IN UNION, PARMENTER ST., BOSTON
THE Apprenticeship and Skilled Employ
ment Association of London, England, J. STEARNS CUSHING, J. S. Cushing & Co., Norwood
is an organization of a number of affiliated GEO. H. ELLIS, President United Typothetæ of America J. W. PHINNEY, American Type Founders Co., Boston
local committees having for their object the H. G. PORTER, Smith & Porter Press, 127 Federal St. promotion of industrial training for boys and GEO. W. SIMONDS, C. H. Simonds & Co., 297 Congress St. girls, by apprenticeship and other methods, JOSEPH LEE, Vice President Massachusetts Civic League
including arrangements for attendance at SAMUEL F. HUBBARD, Superintendent North End Union
trade schools and at technical classes. This A. A. STEWART, Instructor
association was formed in 1902 for the purTHE SCHOOL OF PRINTING was established in January, 1900, pose of establishing a central agency to deal ber of leading master printers of Boston. It has had to demon
with the industrial employment of boys and strate its purpose in practical results, and is gradually being recognized by those who realize the important need in the trade
girls. For a number of years there has been a of such a method of technical instruction.
growing feeling that boys and girls leaving The aim of the School is to give fundamental and general instruction in printing-office work, and to offer young men, elementary schools were wasting time and through a system of indentured apprenticeship, an opportunity to learn the things which are becoming each year more and more
opportunity by drifting from one employment difficult for the apprentice to obtain in the restricted and spe- to another, and that the standard of industrial cialized conditions of the modern workshop.
The course of study embraces book, commercial, and adver- skill was suffering from a lack of thorough tising composition, and platen presswork. The school is supplied with hand and job presses, roman and display types of
technical training. Various isolated bodies various styles, and the usual furniture and material of a modern have been dealing with the problem, but up printing office.
The School is continuous and pupils may enter at any time. to 1902 there was no central organization The hours are identical with those of a regular workshop, from
and no convenient means of communication 7.40 A.M. to 5.45 P.M., excepting Saturday afternoon.
The tuition fee for one year is $100. Applicants must be six- between one local committee and another. teen years of age or over. Further imformation may be obtained by addressing SAMUEL
The association facilitates the work of the F. HUBBARD, 20 Parmenter Street, Boston.
local committees and encourages the formaTHE APPRENTICESHIP BULLETIN is intended to be
tion of new ones by acquainting their proissued each month in the year, except July and August. Price 25 cents for the ten numbers. The composition and presswork are
moters with the methods of those already in done by the apprentices in the School,
existence, and it also undertakes the work
of arousing public interest in the object of WITHOUT a willingness on the part of the association by meetings and conferences.
an employer to take some responsibility The local committees endeavor to get in and make provision for systematically advan- touch with the managers and teachers of cing his apprentices in legitimate shop-work, elementary schools, polytechnics, and workit is difficult to see why he should expect to ing boys and girls clubs within their dishave loyal, competent workmen in the future. tricts. They collect industrial information It is a short-sighted policy for an employer and deal with applications of young people of skilled labor to depend upon the chance for employment, and they make terms beof getting workmen whom some one else tween employers and employees, with the has trained. Let him consider what it object of securing thorough training and would mean to the reliability and efficiency fair conditions to the employees and satisof his own working force at the end of five factory workers to the employer. years, if each year he should take one or In answer to several questions by one of two apprentices and give them a fair chance the supervisors of the School of Printing, to learn the trade in his work-rooms.
asking for information about apprenticeship
conditions in London, Miss Dalglish, secreWHO
HO can question the great advantage tary of the Apprenticeship and Skilled Emto a boy of the moral discipline of ployment
ployment Association, sent the following apprenticeship where a wise selection of a replies : firm is made ? The mere existence of an indenture will not, of course, secure that the
(1) Do you aim to revive an indentured apprentice is turned out a skilled workman. apprenticeship, modified to fit present conditions? A trade must be selected which the boy is We do aim at reviving a modified form capable of acquiring, and a master competent of apprenticeship by enabling boys to beto have him properly instructed.
come apprenticed under fair conditions, and also by enabling employers to obtain certed action on the part of employers to give the suitable boys, with the understanding that necessary training to those entering the trades ? the Committee will provide a fourth party to
We consider that skilled trades are sufthe indenture, who will have the power to
fering from lack of skilled workers, and that inquire into any dispute that might arise.
unskilled labor is likely to increase out of (2) How general, or to what extent, does the proper proportion. The errand boys, van apprenticeship system obtain among employers ? boys, messenger boys and semi-skilled work
The apprenticeship system is still very ers, as they become men, find it increasingly general : in some cases employers have aban- difficult to get work and turn to casual labor. doned it, owing to the difficulty of finding Employers as a body have not awakened to satisfactory boys, and they can sometimes be the necessity of better training but the estabpersuaded to return to indentured appren
lishment of trade schools by the London tices again. Boys have been bound to more
County Council shows that the danger has than thirty trades. The Jewish Board of
been recognized, that skilled workmen are Guardians, who are not affiliated to this becoming fewer owing to the lack of training. Association, and who began work many
Employers have shown willingness to help years ago, have now nine hundred appren- in organizing trade schools and to serve on tices (boys and girls) under their charge. advisory committees. As an Association we Our work is a much later development, 'so prefer that the system of apprenticeship it is hard to judge whether apprenticeship should be revived where the employer trains has increased, but I think we can safely say
his own workmen, rather than that the State without the intervention of Skilled Employ- should do it for him in trade schools, but ment Committees it would have decreased. both our apprenticeship committees and the
trade schools are so new that it is difficult (3) Are apprentices taught the various steps
to say which will produce the best results, of the trade with proper care and supervision ?
or whether it will be possible to arrange a Under a proper indenture, and with the part-time system between the workshop and supervision of the Committee, the trade is the trade school. properly taught--certain branches being specified in the indenture; if these are not SINCE 1900 the city of Munich, Bavaria, taught the indenture would be cancelled.
has been transforming its continuation Without this supervision the trade may or schools for elementary-school graduates may not be taught-many firms we consider (corresponding to our grammar-school gradundesirable on this account, the boy being uates) into elementary technical schools for left to pick up the trade as best he can. apprentices in the trades and in business.
(4) If the apprenticeship system is not used The city maintains nearly forty different by employers to promote efficiency and skill in
kinds of these schools, which are in charge their beginners, what system is used?
of the general school authorities, assisted by If the apprenticeship system is not used by Professor Paul H. Hanus, chairman of the
the leading men in the trades represented. employers, they either (a) Select from their
Massachusetts Industrial Commission, has errand boys those who are brightest and
written a brief account of this scheme of teach them the trade. (b) Employ "learners”
technical education, which the boys in the -boys of the age of apprentices who come to learn the trade with no binding agreement
School of Printing have made into a booklet. on either side ; in this case whether they postage stamp will bring you a copy.
If you are interested in it, a request with a really learn the trade depends on the master and on the quickness of the boy. There is
The wise printer learns by the experience of others. an understanding that he will be taught but
average printer learns by his own experience. no agreement, and the boy may leave at The foolish printer never learns even by experience. any time, which he frequently does for very trivial causes. (c) They may employ no boys but trained hands and, where necessary,
HE man who has his common sense so THE
trained that he can put it into immediate errand boys.
operation to meet any emergency that arises (5) Are the trades suffering from the lack need not fear the competition of those who of skilled workmen, and, if so, is there any con- never think at all if they can help it.