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A JUDGE in New Jersey, some time ago,

was surprised to receive a note from two boys, begging him to send them to the State's prison for two years rather than be sent to a local prison for a shorter term. On sending for the young men (who probably would never have been brought before him if they had been afforded a reasonable chance to learn an honest trade) the judge learned that their desire for a longer sentence at the State prison was because it would give them an opportunity to learn a trade. The judge granted their request, expressing the hope that it would make better men of them. THE employing printer who has no inden

tured apprentices attached to his establishment is making no provision for his future working force. This is just as unwise as when he fails to charge enough for his work to provide for depreciation in his machinery.


issued each month in the year. Price 25 cents for the twelve numbers. The composition and presswork are done by the apprentices in the School.


United States Government Report of the

Commissioner of Labor, 1902.

THE trade schools of Switzerland cover SOME employers in this industry say a wide field and are intended to provide

that technical training for printers has opportunities for the training of those pernot had time to show results, but they are sons who expect to fill the higher positions hopeful of much good from this source in in industrial life, as well as of those who may the future. Others, who seem to have had be classed as skilled workmen. more extended observation and

The founders of the schools experience, say that technical

You will do the

have been mainly associations of schools have been a benefit to the

greatest good

private persons. They are usually industry. They turn out better

to the state if

either persons engaged in the inequipped workmen, and it is obvi

you shall raise, dustry, as in the case of the silkous that the more an apprentice

not the roofs of weaving school of Zurich, which knows of the nature of his trade

the houses, but

was founded by the Silk Weaving the higher wage he can command.

the souls of the

Society, or associations such as While the schools now in existence

citizens, for it

societies of public welfare. Practiare doing much for the betterment

is better that

cally all the schools receive subof the industry, the establishment

sidies from the federal government

great souls of more schools and better facili

should dwell in

and from other sources. Some of ties in those already established

small houses,

the schools are still the property would bring still greater benefits,

rather than for

of the private persons who estaband it is thought that failure to

mean slaves to

lished them, but the most impormake such further provision will

lurk in great

tant ones have become municipal undoubtedly cause the industry to

houses. Epictetus.

or cantonal institutions. suffer. This is especially true in

The most numerous schools are color work. In some localities

those for the watch-making industhere is a lack of interest on the part of print try and they have reached a high state of ers to avail themselves of the facilities now development. All reports agree that these offered by the schools.

schools have played no small part in plaLabor unions generally limit the number cing the Swiss watch-making industry in its of apprentices in such irades as composi- present high state of development. tors, pressmen, stereotypers and machine Apprenticeship shops are intended as a tenders, and where the unions do not fix a substitute for the instruction which is otherlimit custom does. The term of apprentice-wise given in the shops of master workmen ship fixed by the unions is seven years. This engaged in industry. Pupils who attend are is not generally regarded as too long; but regularly indentured as apprentices, and the one man says that it is absurdly so, and instruction given is mainly practical. In thinks for technically trained apprentices Switzerland there are but two subsidized the time should be reduced to four or five institutions known as apprenticeship shops, years. It is affirmed that shop training alone and the character of the instruction given is does not make all-round good workmen. In about the same as that of a regular trade some instances this is due to the apprentice school. On the other hand, some of the infailing to realize the importance of becoming stitutions known as trade schools require thoroughly efficient; while in other cases it their pupils to be regularly indentured as in is because the shop does not afford oppor- an apprenticeship shop. The plan of paying tunities to learn anything pertaining to the a master workman, who carries on a regular trade outside of the particular department in business, to undertake the training of apwhich the apprentice happens to be placed. prentices, as is done in some countries, does The training in the shop is usually not sys- not seem to have been undertaken in Switztematic. The departmental division of work erland. does not give an apprentice the opportunity to pass through all the processes a printer TRAINING is the discipline that teaches should know, and it thus becomes neces- a man to set labor above whim ; to desary for him to attend a technical school if velop the less promising parts of his mind, he expects to become thoroughly skilled in as well as the more promising; to make five his trade.

talents ten, and two talents five. Prof. Briggs.

For Trade Schools and ¥ndentured Apprenticeship

JULY, 1907


North END UNION, Boston, Mass.

VOL. 1, No. 7

WHAT KIND OF BOYS ARE LEARNING evenings and other spare time is spent wholly THE PRINTER'S TRADE?

in dawdling amusements - boys who “hate

books,” to whom a deliberate exercise with ONE of the great benefits that a trade pen and paper is a matter of utter repug

school and an apprenticeship plan can nance, and who in one week forget everyrender to an industry is to promote a more thing they were taught in the public school. careful selection of the boys who are to be That this unwise custom of taking into a the future workmen in that calling. In every skilled trade boys who are not fitted for the important occupation, and especially those work is not peculiar to Boston, or even to which require a good degree of

America, is testified to in a report intelligence and skill, there is a

The man who has

of the manager of an English large number who have mistaken

his common sense

printing trade class, which, in retheir calling, who were never

ferring to instruction in spelling

so trained that he adapted for the work, and who

and punctuation, says that "at

can put it into imstruggle along by hook or crook

mediate operation

least thirty per cent of the caseand the grace and assistance of

to meet any emer

room apprentices in the classes their better fitted fellows.

put their pens to paper for the In the printing industry there

gency that arises
need not fear the

first time since leaving school, is no doubt that many incompe

competition of

and a close examination of their tent and unsuccessful workmen

those who never

writing, spelling, composition of are so because of their unwise

think at all if they

simple sentences, and capitalizselection of an occupation. In

can help it.

ing, leads one to think that many spite of the fact that printers

of them never went to school at should have at least a fair degree

all. Yet these students will be, of cultivation and literary education, boys later on, members of a craft which is diswith none of these qualifications whatever, tinctly educational in its character.” and no indications of acquiring them, are It is not to be wondered at that master induced or allowed to enter the trade. Espe- printers will not take boys of this class as cially is this so with regard to the composi- indentured apprentices, nor will they spend tor's trade; boys without even rudimentary much time properly educating them in their knowledge of spelling, punctuation, or the use work; nevertheless such boys are taken in and meaning of common words, and in many because they can be used for menial tasks, cases without interest or ambition to learn and in the course of a few years they become such matters, will confidently undertake the journeymen to whom the employer must pay work. As a consequence, we have a quantity

the scale of wages. of illiterate work, done in slovenly work- The boy who wishes to become a composrooms, by slipshod and unprofitable methods, itor should know : such as to give the vocation of printing any- How to spell; thing but the creditable standing it deserves.

How to use capital letters ; It does not require any testimony that can

How to punctuate ordinary sentences ; be offered by the School of Printing to em

Common rules of grammar and arithmetic; phasize the great need for a careful selection,

How to use his hands (manual training); from an educational standpoint, of the boys

Something of free-hand and mechanical who are to learn the printer's trade. Com

drawing petent printers are not developed from boys whose mental attainments qualify them for He should learn at least something of these nothing higher than carrying bricks-boys subjects in the public school, before he enters who come from bookless homes and whose the trade school or the workroom.

SPECIALIZING IN APPRENTICESHIPS life, so that he becomes quickly self-supportTHERE appeared recently in a leading ing and has entered a career that is ever trade paper an editorial under the above

open at the top. In Southern Italy the same title, of which the following is an extract :

grade of person might be a beggar on the

street, because there is no chance for him to The beginning seems to have been made among the large machine shops of fixing specialization upon

get a start in a good career. The system of the apprentice system. By this is meant eliminating

narrow specialization is bad whenever the inthe training of the all-round mechanic, and in his dividual is induced to take a short-cut and place rearing the highly trained expert hand. The

be a narrow specialist when he might have belief has begun to grow that there is no longer,

done better by a broader all-round training. as in the old days, the imperative need of the allround man, and that the years of apprenticeship would be best spent in learning some branch of the AMONG the most ad

(2) Is it necessary, trade, and learning it well. The advocates of the

vanced nations man- in the manufacture change maintain that such a course would be better ufactured products are of machine profor the apprentice as well as for the man who is to produced by special ma- ducts, to have any employ the apprentice when he becomes a journey

chines, and the more ad- considerable numman, and incidentally he would be more valuable as an element of production during his apprentice years.

vanced the people, the ber of all-round more automatic and per

wurkmen ; if so, Desiring a comprehensive idea of the effect

fect become their ma- what proportion of such a system on productive industries,

chines of production. But (approximately) to the following questions were sent by one of

this great truth (which is the whole number the supervisors of the School of Printing to

sure to prevail more and employed ? a score of manufacturing machinists and toolmakers. With the permission of Mr. M.

more) does not eliminate

the mechanic of broadest all-round skill, nor P. Higgins, president of the Norton Com

does it lessen the demand for all-round pany of Worcester, we reprint his replies.

skilled workmen. On the other hand, it

emphasizes the demand for higher grade OTHER things being

(1) Is it desirable

skilled workmen and more of them. equal, the workman

that beginners, say

The industrial progess of a people depends with the broadest skill from the age of

as much upon this grade of skilled workmen and experience is the sixteen to twenty, most efficient specialist.

should specialize

as it does upon the engineer and the scien

tist. The proportion of highly skilled and of The educator says,“First narrowly in learn

broadly trained workmen to unskilled workthe man; then the

spe- ing a mechanical cialist." The far-seeing

ers depends very much upon the kinds of process ?

mechanical industry you are considering. manufacturer says, “First

But it is safe to say there is no danger of a the mechanic, then the specialist." But these

community having too many all-round skilled views and theories must be modified by cir

workmen. In any community the higher the cumstances, especially those affecting the life

skill of its mechanics and the more thorough of the apprentice.

and broad and suitable their training and The boy in the poor family must get about his life's work early, and it is no small part of experience, the brighter and more promising

is the industrial life of that community. The his life to secure, first, self-support, then fam

place or locality having the greatest number ily support. No one can deny that it is worth

of inechanics of the highest skill and efficimore in the life of a man to be a thorough

ency will attract the most profitable industry -all-round” machinist than to be simply a

from other parts of the world. That is the vice-hand or an expert lathe-hand. But since the narrow skill sometimes

will bring nearly locality where the vocation of the mechanic

is exalted, his wages increased, and his outas much pay an hour, the boy with limited op

look in life widened. portunity and limited courage and limited

It is doubtful if the inarket can be over confidence in his future, cannot afford to lay

stocked with skilled mechanics, because the a very broad foundation for his career; and

supply creates more and more demand. This so he specializes narrowly in learning a single mechanical process.

may not be true of unskilled and partly

skilled workmen, but it is true of the highly Specialization is both a good thing and a

skilled intelligent artisan. bad thing. It is good because it enables the individual who is low in opportunity and out-IT is of the greatest advantage, commerlook to get a footing in the field of productive cially and otherwise, to have all workmen of all grades, from the lowest up to the super- leaders are born, but this is a just grading

intendent, each technic- system. (3) Is it of advan

ally trained not for his tage, commercially, immediate activities, but

(5) As machinery, THE great development to the manufac

grows more perfect, of scientific industry far beyond and outside of turer to have all

as science enlarges enormously increases the his specific duties, pro- its functions with employees, from

demand for broadly trainvided his education and

every new discovporter to superin

ed workmen. The demand training emanate and ra- ery, as competition tendent, educated

grows keener, is

is already beyond the supdiate from his own vocabeyond the domain

there, in conse

ply. There is an increasing tional life. Not that his of their immediate

the thought and education

quence, an increas- deficiency, both in activities?

ing economic number of skilled workshould be confined to the

demand for broadly men and in the quality of narrowness of his specific work. Not at all trained workmen ? that. His education may be ever so broad,

personal skill. To wisely so that it does not lead him to "see double.

and effectively supply this demand for

broadly trained workmen is the question of His vocational life should ever be to hiin

importance with the manufacturer. the center of all human existence. Happy is the man who can view the universe from IN a highly specialized (6) Does specializahis own standpoint, which to him is the cen- industry some of the tion result in mak. ter of his horizon. Miserable indeed is the workmen are little more ing of the workworkman who has no love for the fields ex- than "animated tools."

man an "animate

tool,or does the tending from his daily work.

They are sometimes very

perfecting of maI dare say this third question would not poor tools ; but this is not

chinery call for a have been asked had it not been for the fact the fault of specialization,

corresponding that some species of training have heretofore nor is it the result of spe- development of educated men not for their work but away

cialization. The manu- human intelligence from their work. From this danger comes facturer wants better op

in connection

with it? the vital argument for educating boys in erators, but he is obliged life rather than for life.” This is the danger to take what he can get. He would be glad in industrial education to be guarded against to develop the special operator into a better and prevented. A mechanic, for instance, man and a better specialist, but he cannot. must never for a moment lose sight of the Why? Because he is of very low mentality marvelous beauty of his work and the limit- to start with, and he is not at all ambitious to less range of the creative field in which he develop himself or to be developed. There is engaged. The vital question is not how is no place in all human activity where such much education is profitable, but what kind. a person could be developed against his THE American system

inclination. He has been taken on at a point

(4) Is this system of high specialization,

in the industrial system just as high as he division of labor, auto

of high specializa

can start. If at this point he could take a

tion inconsistent or matic machinery, piece

little enterprising interest to clean up the

not with encouragework and what not, is

floor where he stands, or wipe the machine

ment to aspiration certainly the best indus

he operates, or give its groaning joints a

on the part of trial system yet revealed

drop of cooling oil, his enterprize and budto the world. I

bright men ? may

ding ability will be recognized and rewarded. tion two reasons why it is best : (1) This

There is much harm done the working man system offers a chance that no other system

on this phase of our industrial system, and ever offered for the individual of low capa

much injustice done the system by false city and small thought power to take hold preaching about specialization making tools and work at a point where just a little extra

The perfection of machinery calls thought and a very little better effort has for more intelligence, not only to operate the promise of early reward. (2) This is a

the highly perfected machines, but infinitely system where from bottom to top merit more to make and repair them; and no counts, and ability is recognized and re- special operator should be satisfied until he garded. As has been said by someone :

can care for the machine he operates. Watch six boys in a factory. In a short time five of them will be asking the sixth boy,

HABIT is habit; and not to be flung out of the

window by any man, but must be coaxed down“ What shall I do next?” Without doubt

stairs a step at a time.—Mark Twain.


of men.

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