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THE

ADVOCATING TRADE SCHOOLS
AND MODERN INDENTURED

APPRENTICESHIP

EDITED AND PRINTED AT THE
NORTH END UNION SCHOOL
OF PRINTING

BOSTON, APRIL, 1907

VOL. I, NO, IV

instruction in his trade or

four years.

APPRENTICESHIP IN THE

Be it resolved, that the administrative counMETAL TRADES

cil recommend to the members of the NaTHE National Metal Trades Association

tional MetalTrades Association the adoption, is composed of “persons, firms, or cor

as near as possible, of a uniform agreement porations engaged as principals, owning or

covering rules and regulations governing controlling manufacturing plants operating

the employment of apprentices; and, principally in the metal trades,

Be it further resolved, that the in which there are employed

following conditions be advised

WHAT IS AN machinists, millwrights, black

for the incorporation in such smiths, pipe fitters, boiler mak- APPRENTICE?

agreement, subject to the laws ers, pattern makers, carpenters, Webster's Dictionary says: of the State or Province in struc ral iron workers, iron

One who is bound by inden-
tures to serve a mechanic, or

which the member's shop is loship builders, polishers and other person, for a certain cated and the conditions in the

time, with a view to learn
buffers, brass workers, sheet his art, mystery, or occupa- locality involved :
iron workers, electrical work-

tion, in which his master is
bound to instruct him.

1. No boy will be engaged as ers, or machine operators, and Worcester's Dictionary: apprentice who is under fifteen helpers to any of the above.”' A person bound by inden

ure for a certain time, to

years of age. These firms, it will be seen, perform services for a mas- 2. The regular time of ap

ter, and receiving in return employ highly skilled labor and

prenticeship shall consist of their work is specialized prob

occupation.

Century' Dictionary: ably more than any other im

One who is bound by inden

3. The period to be divided portant industry. The experi- ture to serve some particular so that the apprentice may ob

individual or company for a ence of such a body of intelli

specified time, in order to tain experience in the various

learn some art, trade, progent men with regard to the

classes of work and upon the

fession, manufacture, etc., training of skilled workmen has in which his master or mas- different tools.

ters become bound to inan important bearing on the struct him,

4. A boy successfully comsubject of industrial education. Standard Dictionary:

pleting his four years of appren

A person, usually a minor, Their knowledge of the actual

who serves another in order ticeship shall receive a certifineed for trade education and a

to learn a trade, art, profes- cate to that effect, signed by the

sion, especially when bound bona-fide apprenticeship sys- by indentures for a term of proper officers of the company tem comes as near to “the real

or members of the firm. thing” as can be found among

5. The member should agree any body of practical men in the country. to give the boy every opportunity to become In the matter of apprentices, this associa- a thorough mechanic, by advancing him on tion, in May, 1903, adopted the following better grades of work from time to time, as "Council Resolutions," which it publishes he demonstrates his ability and willingness in connection with its constitution and by- | for advancement. laws :

6. We recommend that as generous comAPPRENTICES Whereas, There is at present no uniform- pensation be given boys as circumstances ity in the employment of apprentices in the

will permit. shops of our members, and

7. In consideration of continual, faithful, Whereas, A proper apprenticeship system and satisfactory performance of the conis essential to the education and perpetua-tract, and furthermore, as an incentive to tion of skilled mechanics; therefore,

diligence, a bonus of at least $100 be paid

years.

the apprentice at the completion of his con- CONDITIONS THAT MAKE APPRENtract.

TICESHIP NECESSARY 8. The member shall reserve the right to THAT the status of the boy who goes into dismiss a boy who does not prove dili- the ordinary workshop to learn a trade" gent trustworthy or competent, and a boy is very much the same in nearly all mechanso dismissed, or leaving before the expira- | ical occupations, and the results similar, are tion of his time, shall not be en

facts which make the question of titled to receive any bonus.

apprenticeship a matter of vital 9. In all cases the consent of

The proper epic

consequence to the welfare of the parent or guardian should be of this world is

every community. Here is what obtained.

not now "Arms

the president of the National As10. It is recommended that for and the Man."

sociation of Sheet Metal Workers further experience the apprentice

No-it is nou' ; said at a convention held in Milbe advised to leave the service

Tools and the

waukee a year or two ago. He of the firm with whom he has

Man." CARLYLE. touched upon a live topic among served his apprenticeship, for one

the employers in that industry, year, shall receive from his em

and his words apply with equal ployer a recommendation to other firms of force to printers. He said : the National Metal Trades Association, and "The present system of apprenticeship is such apprentice should receive preference not worthy of the name of apprenticeship. I from N. M. T. A. members.

would like to gather your experience, and 11. Apprentices who leave their employ- | I think it would be something like this : You ment for good and sufficient reason should want help and a boy comes to you. “Do you receive a certificate covering the time they want a boy?" "Yes.” The boy goes to work have served.

and he stays a few weeks, or a year, or until 12. We recommend that members of this there is trouble between you. The boy leaves association shall decline to employ any ap- you

and

goes out' to another shop and he prentice who may have left his employer, stays there a little while, and in the followwith whom he has a contract, without the ing six months you may find him in another employer's consent, before the entire com- shop, and at the end of the second year pletion of his contract.

he flouts himself as a first-class mechanic,

whereas the chances are that he is a firstAPPRENTICESHIP was given a bad class, all-round botch. That is our experience

name and hanged by Adam Smith, who in Philadelphia and the East. It is a lamentsaw it under special circumstances, and his able fact that there is no system among the followers have inveighed against it ever sheet metal workers as to the employment since. Laymen look upon it as obsolete on and training of the boy. Now, the time was their authority. The system these writers when the boy was indentured, and I am condemn is one involving restriction of lib- proud to say that I was indentured myself. erty, injustice, oppression, and lack of adapt- | I am proud of the fact that I was bound to ability to changing conditions of industry. a man under a contract for four years, and

But these objectionable features are not stayed those four years. inherent in the contract of apprenticeship. * I hope the convention will do something They are the results of unwise trade regu- that will bring about a general agreement as lations, or undesirable trade customs asso- to the treatment of apprentices. In Philaciated with, but incidental to, that contract. delphia we have taken that question up, and

It is worthy of note that not even the it looks now as though we would draw up opponents of apprenticeship have been able an agreement to bind ourselves to give the to suggest a satisfactory substitute for it as a boy employment for a stated term of, say, means of craft training. It might be revived four years, and at the end of that time we in a form which is free from the disadvan- perhaps would give him a bonus. We are tages referred to, and by its revival a great inclined to think that the boy should have improvement might be effected in the tech- some object to work for and at the end of nical skill of workmen of all sorts, and that in his time there will be a bonus given to him an easy, natural way involving no expend- for his proficiency. iture and little new machinery.--Methods of “ This is a golden opportunity for this Social Advance (Macmillan & Co.)

association to put itself on record and do

something that will break up the pernicious machine is so perfected that the intelligence system that is restricting the proper educa- necessary to operate it is reduced to a tion of the boy, a practice that is absolutely minimum. un-American and almost uncivilized. Where However much we may inveigh against are you going to get your men from ten this system as regards its narrowing or years hence? I will tell you

benumbing effect on the inthat in the last ten years the

QUESTIONS FOR

dividual workman, we must demand for sheet metal work

PARENTS

recognize its economic value has doubled, and I am not

What will your boy do

in production, and therefore going far astray when I say

this system of specialization that in the next twelve years

when he leaves school?

will undoubtedly continue. it will double itself again, and

Will he have an oppor

It might seem, in view of where are your workmen go

tunity to rise ? Or will

this high specialization, that ing to come from?

he just look for a "job"? the all - round workman is “I trust that before we Skilled workmen are al- doomed. But this is not so. adjourn some definite action ways in demand and re- A recent inquiry was made of will be taken looking toward

ceive the highest wages.

a number of large manufacthe training of apprentices in Will you give your boy a

turing machinists relative to this country. We are not turn- chance?

the effect of specialization on ing out first-class mechanics,

An apprenticeship inden

trade training and it was the we are turning out first-class

ture guarantees a boy's

unanimous opinion that bebotches and inefficient men,

future.

ginners from sixteen to twenty and if in ten years we do not

A boy with a good trade

years should not specialize have the men we need we will

narrowly in learning the mesimply reap what we sowed.

is independent..

chanical process, provided The fault is not altogether

their education and ambition that of the labor union; the fault also lies qualify them for more general training. It with us.”

was further affirmed that a certain number

of all-round workmen, variously estimated THE VALUE OF APPRENTICESHIP from ten to fifty per cent of the whole number AN apprenticeship indenture is simply an employed, are 'needed even in those indusagreement between two persons to per

tries where specialization has been carried form certain acts which are of mutual ad- to the extreme, and that the demand for men vantage. Printing, in common with other broadly trained and having large industrial trades, is feeling the need of such an agree intelligence is increasing. ment as a basis of trade training, and the One large manufacturer of machine tools North End Union School of Printing deems

says: "As from year to year machinery that an apprenticeship indenture is essential grows more perfect, more automatic machinto its success. It is believed that this prin- ery is introduced, and greater specialization ciple is quite as essential to other trade in certain lines is necessary, the demand schools wherein the shop supplements in any

for particularly trained workmen, according large measure the school training. Why is to our experience, will, if anything, be greater an indenture necessary, or even desirable ? than it is now."

The problem of trade training is made all Thus it will be seen that under the most the more complex by the system of speciali- modern methods of production a certain zation which obtains in every trade to a number of broadly trained, all-round workgreater or less extent. This system, by which men are needed. the processes of manufacturing are divided It takes time and opportunity to develop into parts, each part being done by different this superior industrial intelligence, and if workmen, is developing as rapidly as new any large part of this training is to be given inventions and methods can be discovered. in the shop, it is essential that the time and The time required to learn a single process opportunity be assured. An indenture gives is much less than is needed to learn several, this assurance more surely than any other and the learner becomes a productive unit method. just that much sooner. It is an economic The National Metal Trades Association achievement in manufacturing whenever a has unhesitatingly declared that, "A proper new device eliminates a pair of hands, or a apprenticeship system is essential to the education and perpetuation of skilled me- THE SCHOOL OF PRINTING chanics.” Other persons, collectively and

NORTH END UNION, BOSTON individually, with intimate knowledge of industrial affairs, have affirmed the same

BOARD OF SUPERVISORS conclusion.

J. STEARNS CUSHING, J. S. Cushing & Co., Norwood AN INDENTURE GUARANTEES TO THE BOY:

GEO. H. ELLIS, President United Typothetæ of America

J. W. PHINNEY, American Type Founders Co., Boston (1) An opportunity to learn his trade H. G. PORTER, Smith & Porter Press, 127 Federal St. as a whole.

GEO. W. SIMONDS, C. H. Simonds & Co., 297 Congress St.

JOSEPH LEE, Vice President Massachusetts Civic League (2) A fixed wage and a steady in

SAMUEL F. HUBBARD, Superintendent North End Union crease.

A. A. STEWART, Instructor
(3) More rapid advancement in trade
training

THE SCHOOL OF PRINTING was established in January, 1900,

by the North End Union, under the supervision of a numAN INDENTURE GUARANTEES TO THE EM- ber of leading master printers of Boston. It has had to demon

strate its purpose in practical results, and is gradually being PLOYER:

recognized by those who realize the important need in the trade

of such a method of technical instruction. (1) Continuous service of the boy

The aim of the School is to give fundamental and general

instruction in printing-office work, and to offer young men, during a definite time.

through a system of indentured apprenticeship, an opportunity (2) A better grade of boy. An em

to learn the things which are becoming each year more and more

difficult for the apprentice to obtain in the restricted and speployer will not enter into a contract cialized conditions of the modern workshop.

The course of study embraces book, commercial, and advercovering several years with a boy

tising composition, and platen presswork. The School is supwhom he does not select with care.

plied with hand and job presses, roman and display types of

various styles, and thé ustial furniture and material of a modern (3) More faithful service. By such

printing office.

The School is continuous and pupils may enter at any time. an agreement the boy realizes that

The hours are identical with those of a regular workshop, from his interests are bound up with his 7.40 A.M. to.5.45 P.M., excepting Saturday afternoon.

The tuition fee for one year is $100. Applicants must be sixemployer's, and that his advancement teen years of age or over. depends upon how he improves his

Further information may be obtained by addressing SAMUEL

F. HUBBARD, 20 Parmenter Street, Boston. opportunity In a word, the employer wants a number THE APPRENTICESHIP BULLETIN is intended to be

issued each month in the year, except July and August. Price

25 cents for the ten numbers. The composition and presswork are of all-round workmen, not specialists alone,

done by the apprentices in the School. and he is willing to furnish the opportunity for the necessary training, provided he can SCHOOL OF PRINTING LEAFLETS be assured the boys will stay a definite time;

SERIES of technical pamphlets giving in concise form much on the other hand, bright, ambitious boys rudimentary information relating to type-composition and

printing. The composition and presswork of he Leaflets are are willing to give the time necessary to done by pupils in the School, and are parts of the practical work learn a trade thoroughly, provided they can

of the course of instruction. Uniform size 4x64 inches. The

Leaflets now ready are noted below. Sent post-paid upon receipt be assured that the opportunity will be given of price : singly, 15 cents each ; five copies of one or more num

bers, 10 cents each. them. An apprenticeship indenture guarantees No. 1. THE PRINTER'S TYPES.

A brief description of their mechanical features, comboth parties a faithful performance of this position, sizes, etc. 24 pp. mutual service.

No. 2. THE COMPOSITOR'S WORK.

A leaflet for beginners. 20 pp.

No. 3. USE OF ITALIC. TECHNICAL education has already Hints about the common uses of italic in combination

with roman, 15 pp. worked an industrial transformation in

No. 4. DivisiON OF WORDS. Germany. It has lifted the nation to the

Contains many general directions and rules, with excondition at which it acknowledges no su

amples. 12 pp. perior in its manufactured products. The

No. 5. QUOTE-MARKS.

An epitome of general rules and customary usages, marking "Made in Germany" now signifies with examples of their use. 12 pp. the finest workmanship and most perfect No. 6. USE OF CAPITALS. adaptability. Industrial education in Ger

Giving many general rules for capitalizing, as well as

spacing and leading. 19 pp. many has proved a pride in workmanship, No.7. ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS. and has imparted a new dignity and a new When to use them and when to spell in full, with list

of common forms. 26 pp. inspiration.

No. 9. MODERN METHODS OF PRINTING.

A brief description of the relief, intaglio and plane

surface printing processes. 22 pp. “John,” said the printer's wife, as he came home with a black eye, a cut nose, and a bandaged jaw, Address, THE SCHOOL OF PRINTING, NORTH END "where on earth did you get that display head?”

UNION, PARMENTER STREET, BOSTON.

A

Bulletin for May

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Advocating Trade Schools and a Modern Indentured Apprenticeship System

Edited and printed at the School of Printing, North End Union, Parmenter Street, Boston

Volume 1

Nineteen Hundred and Seven

Number 5

School Arts Book

ment and in color it was

The Exhibit of the School of and practical. This is especially to be noPrinting

ticed in display practice and in the series of

technical leaflets. [From the Boston Transcript, April 9, 1907

]

The school was started as an evening class HOW young persons seriously intending in 1900 under the supervision of a board of

to learn the printer's art may become several leading master printers of the city. proficient under conditions removed from The school met with so much favor that it the care, worries and commercial perplexi- was decided to open a day school, which ties which beset the average printing office should follow shop is well set forth at the Exhibit of Industrial practices, the working The Exhibit at HortiConditions now being held at Horticultural time of the school to cultural Hall Hall

. The special department wherein this be the same as that of From the Editor of the work is shown is section 5, in the main hall, the shop—that is, nine

I want especially to con. and it embodies the results accomplished at hours a day for twelve

gratulate you upon the the School of Printing which is carried on

months. The school, recent exhibit made by

the School of Printing at the North End Union. As the employing which gives a boy four at Horticultural Hall.lt

not only contained ex. printers of Boston have an oversight over years' apprenticeship cellent work, arranged the school-in fact, it is carried on directly by (one year in the school most successfully, from

a pedagogical point of them—it becomes practical from the start. and three years in the view; but it was hung

attractively. In arrangeOne first is attracted by a large photo- workshop), aims to acgraph of the school at work, and it is well quaint him with the

excellent. The next great

development in the art to observe this first, for then the visitor practice and usage of of printing is to take

place in this country, forms some idea of the type of youth who the customary working have done the various kinds of printing which tools of a printing of

more effective use of are seen on the burlap-covered walls of the fice, so that he

may
do color, I believe that the

Schoolof Printing,small improvised hollow square that holds the his work with facility;

as it is, is a leader in exhibit.

also to inculcate effi

Cordially yours, The exhibit consists of booklets, book cient and workmanlike covers, illuminated mottos, bill heads, busi- methods, careful habness cards, specimen book pages and ex- its, intelligent planning and enthusiasm for amples of lettering and coloring, all of the work; to broaden his field of observation which enter intimately into high-class print- and to cultivate an appreciation of the posing. One feature is a comparison exhibit ! sibilities of his craft. of a piece of work done by an amateur The course of instruction embraces book, "genius" and one by a pupil under instruc- job and advertising composition and platen tion. In this case the illustrative piece hap- presswork. The instructor at the school is pens to be a business card, the setting up A. A. Stewart, and, besides the board of and the type used in the one case being supervisors, there is an apprenticeship comcrude and inharmonious, the other neat, mittee of five which keeps in intimate touch artistic and well displayed. As an exhibit it with the progress and development of each is small but it serves its purpose to show the pupil. wrong and right way of doing something The exhibit seen at Horticultural Hall is adequately enough. Not a feature of the in every way creditable, both with regard typographical art is overlooked in the school to the selection of material and the manner which so thoroughly embodies theoretical of its display.

and is to be in the direction of a wider and

this direction.

HENRY T. BAILEY,

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