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Printing Trade Schools in France of the industry and endeavor to form good
workmen of them.” [United States Government Report of ] IN 1863 the Chaix Printing and Publish
The Training of Apprentices ing Company of Paris established a trade
[From The Metal Worker] school in their establishment, in order to IT is pleasing to note the change of attiprovide competent workmen for the differ- tude on the part of men in the different ent branches of their industry. M. Alban lines of trade toward the apprentice. It is Chaix, the administrator-director of the com- but a short time since he was neglected and pany, stated that of the 1,200 persons em- failed to receive the instruction which he ployed in the establishment 250 were grad had a right to expect in return for his period uates of the company's school. In this school of service. That all tradesmen have not yet the instruction is giving during the day and been influenced by the change for the better is intended both to complete the primary is unfortunate. Skillful workmen are not education of apprentices and to provide being recruited as they should be, because them with the necessary technical training. such practical education as the apprentice Workmen are prepared for all the printing was getting did not qualify him to be a trades, but more particularly for that of com- useful member of the working corps and positor, which is the only trade in which M. · because the more intelligent and desirable Chaix believes school training can intirely re- class of young men found a better appreciaplace shop apprenticeship. For some trades, tion of their interest and energy in other as those of designer, lithographer, stereo- fields than in the trades where their services typer, paper maker (papetier), and book
are greatly needed. binder, à special shop training in addition to That the change has occured is shown in that received at the school is required. the desire of leading and competent trades
He states that in general the trade-school men to see that the obsolete apprenticeship graduate possesses a better knowledge of system is substituted by some method of his trade than others, hence he is more use- training which will result in the young men ful and can more readily find employment, becoming first-class workmen when their gain higher wages, and advance more rap- term of service under instruction expires. idly. Most of the company's foremen and all Such tradesmen are indentified in the mainof their clerks are graduates of their trade tenance of training schools and take part in school, as are many of the chief workmen the work of instruction. and others occupying the
The young man who has best paying positions. He
had the advantages of a says that work done by the Training is everything. The
modern school education better workmen who have peach was once a bitter almond;
can grasp the theories and been graduated from the cauliflower is nothing but cab
underlying principles of school is more artistic and bage with a college education.
the most difficult trades an aid to the
very quickly in a school progress of the industry;
which provides competent also that trade schools in which practical instructors. The handicraft of any trade is work is well directed affords a better means i quickly acquired when the best methods of of educating workmen than does the shop doing work are described and when the opportraining. He believes, furthermore, that the tunity of seeing it done by skilled workmen is most important improvement that could be afforded. This is the character of instruction introduced into the system of apprentice- that is most needed. Those who have a real ship and trade-school education would be interest in the welfare of the apprentice favor to combine the theoretical and practical giving him an opportunity of becoming acinstruction of both in such manner as to quainted with all the different branches of his produce workmen able to earn journeymen's trade, rather than confining him to that work wages upon the expiration of their term of in which he shows highest proficiency or makapprenticeship. This he would accomplishing him only a specialist in one branch. If by means of a school established, when the present trend of trade education continpossible, in the shop for which it is destined ues there will be no difficulty in securing to supply workmen. In conclusion, he adds: the entrance of the desirable class of men "Limit the number of pupils to the needs to the different trades.
The School of Printing exhibit at the Exhibit of Industrial Conditions, Horticultural Hall, Boston, April 7-14, 1907
The Rights of the Apprentice
drudge. He is not allowed to handle tools,
to ask questions, or in any way try to advance AT the root of the trouble, and the first himself, and it is not considered that he has
thing that should be remedied, if good any rights at all. -H. A. D. in The Metal Worker. results are to be obtained, is the indifference of the employers, foremen and mechanics : EIGHT places in the School of Printing under whose supervision the apprentice will be vacant early in July, by present serves and to whom he should look for en- pupils entering the workrooms of their emlightenment. When an employer engages a ployers. These young men will then have boy to “ learn a trade,” the act implies that spent one year in learning foundation work, he should use due diligence to see that he in preparation for their entrance to the real does learn the trade. If he fails in this, he workshop. After leaving the School they will has not kept faith with the boy, the trade at go into some of the best printing establishlarge, or the community upon which he turns ments in the city, and they will have the fura botch workman after having expressly im- : ther advantages of three years' service where plied that the finished product would be a they may see and learn from experienced mechanic. The employer who does this workmen, while earning sufficient wages to should be ashamed to have it known that make it an incentive for them to become he took an unfair advantage of a boy and first-class workmen. There will be no wasted failed to carry out his contract with him. time or uncertain gaps in the trade training
Having hired a boy to learn the trade, it of these young men ; their indenture estabshould be distinctly understood on the part lishes them in their position long enough to of the shop force, from the foreman down, " make good," and their employers have inthat the boy is to be taught the trade; that terest enough in them to give all the opporhe has some rights that must be respected tunity to be found in a busy workroom for and that he is entitled to information regard-becoming proficient in their work. By this ing the trade when he indicates a desire to arrangement the knowledge obtained in the learn. In too many shops the boy is a mere School may be made of most practical value.
H. G. PORTER,
North End Union School of Printing
Parmenter Street, Boston
Board of Supervisors we frankly absolve ourselves of all re
J. STEARNS CUSHING, J. S. Cushing & Co., Norwood sponsibility for the vocational training of GEO. H. ELLIS, President United Typothetæ of America nine-tenths of the new generation, so far as
J. W. PHINNEY, American Type Founders Co., Boston
Smith & Porter Press, 127 Federal St. the school is concerned. We are still acting GEO. W. SIMONDS, C. H. Simonds & Co., 297 Congress St.
JOSEPH LEE, Vice President Massachusetts Civic League on the worn-out presumption that the home, SAMUEL F. HUBBARD, Superintendent North End Union the farm, the shop, the counting-room will
A. A. STEWART, Instructor supply this absolutely essential instruction.
HE SCHOOL OF PRINTING was established in January, 1900, The opportunities of general culture out
by the North End Union, under the supervision of a numside the school have vastly increased as the ber of leading master printers of Boston. It has had to demon
strate its purpose in practical results, and is gradually being chance for the apprentice has dwindled ; yet recognized by those who realiz the important need in the trade
of such a method of technical instruction. we multiply book studies in our school cur
The aim of the School is to give fundamental and general riculum, while introducing only an excuse for
instruction in printing-office work, and to offer young men,
through a system of indentured apprenticeship, an opportunity training in productive skill.
to learn the things which are becoming each year more and more We send the vast majority of our boys
difficult for the apprentice to obtain in the restricted and spe
cialized conditions of the modern workshop. and girls from the grammar school out into The course of study embraces book, commercial, and adver
tising composition, and platen presswork. The School is supoccupations in which they learn little or noth- plied with hand and job presses, roman and display types of ing and are often demoralized. There are
various styles, and the usual furniture and material of a modern
printing office. two "wasted years" from 14 to 16 during
The tuition fee for one year is $100. Applicants must be six
teen years of age or over. which, as progressive employers recognize, Further information may be obtained by addressing SAMUEL
F. HUBBARD, 20 Parmenter Street, Boston. they are not sufficiently matured for productive labor. This very period is a peculiarly valuable time for inculcating, under sympa
from the downward pressure of the woman's thetic and bracing influences, the working wage standard. Domestic work taught as a principles of some skilled calling.
skilled vocation will tend to give the houseThe recovery of this period, at least, for wife her just independent economic status. purposes of preparation for livelihood would The presence of school-trained workmen mean that each young person involved would would mean rapid development of our indusrise very soon to a higher wage standard, tries within their present range of producwould have a position with a future, steadier tion, the introduction of new departments in employment, and a longer working life. He existing plants and the creation of entirely would find more stimulus and satisfaction new industries based on fresh applications of in his work, selecting it on the basis of apti- science and art. Capital now too cautiously tudes which his training had discovered to invested at home, or sent to other parts of him. He would have versatility to adapt the country, would be drawn into this aggreshimself to inevitable changes in industrial sive movement. Indeed every journeyman processes and administration. He would , of the new type would be himself an addition have an ampler mind and a sounder charac- ! to the state's working capital, and instead of ter; for it is coming to be seen that properly displacing labor, would still further widen the planned vocational training has unexpected demand for it. The people as a whole would disciplinary and cultural values. He would in turn push production on to a higher stage. develop productive capacity to match his Industrial education in Massachusetts is restless desires as a consumer. He would a statesmanlike policy for realizing to the become in the full sense a producer-citizen full upon our only raw material, the one with his face set against political parasitism. priceless sort, for which this state is unriBy his better capacity for making human, valed -- the latent efficiency of the people. as well as material, adjustments, as well as Careful investigation makes it clear that paron account of his high standard of living, he ents very generally appreciate the necessity would contribute powerfully to all forms of of such training for their children, and are association among workmen for the mainte- prepared to make many sacrifices. Beyond nance of wages.
that, the community must act in its own large The training of girls for industrial employ- interest and see that all young people with ment will put them above the competition of gifts for skilled work shall have their opporthe pin-money women, and give some relief tunity in spite of every obstacle.
ADVOCATING TRADE SCHOOLS AND A MODERN INDENTURED APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM
Edited and Printed at the School of Printing, North End Union, Boston
VOL. I, NO. 6
Editorial from The American Printer
THE SYSTEMATIC TRAINING OF APPRENTICES cessful carrying out of an apprenticeship
system would result within a decade in the
disappearance of the incompetent class and THE lack of a proper system of apprentice their replacement by men fit and able to do
ship in the printing business is slowly good work and earn good wages. It is high but surely reducing the supply of competent time that the employers took definite action workmen, especially in the cities.
looking to the re-establishment of The result is that we find one class
I believe all
the apprentice. of workmen receiving considerably more than the scale of wages,
youth, of what
THE DECLINE OF APPRENTICESHIP
ever rank in and a vastly larger class of incom
life, ought to
From “Labor Problems : a Text Book" petents, drifting from one office to
Macmillan Co., Publishers
learn some another, being put on when there
manual trade WITH the transformation of the is a rush and dropped as soon as thoroughly :
employer from a skilled craftswork slackens. This cannot go on
for it is wonder
man into a mere entrepreneur the forever: : a move must be made in
ful how a man's
education of the apprentice fell some way to provide trained men
views of life are
wholly into the hands of the jourfor doing the better class of work.
cleared by the neyman. There was no pay for There is no good sense or good
teaching and no responsibility ; management in continuing the
the journeyman was often present system or lack of system,
of doing any
piece-work which required his utwhich fails altogether to provide
one thing well
apprenfor educating and training men to
with his hands.
tice showed himself competent in be good workmen. Since the labor
the work he displaced his teacher
John Ruskin. unions have not had the wisdom
at lower wages. Under these cirto strengthen their ranks by gath
cumstances the tendency has inering together only their best workmen and evitably been to give the apprentice only the developing others equally skilled, it devolves menial tasks of the shop and to leave him to upon the employers as a matter of necessity pick up the trade as best he can. Moreover, to force the situation and engage in a system- the competitive demand for cheap labor reatic development of apprentices. The United gardless of efficiency, especially in contract Typothetæ of America 'has taken up this work given to the lowest bidder, has frequestion at various times, in a desultory way, quently tempted half-taught apprentices to appointed committees and passed resolu- sacrifice their trade education to an immeditions, but no positive action has resulted, ate increase in wages. Thus apprentice labor and the apprentice question today is just has come to mean merely cheap labor. The where it was ten years ago, while the need conditions of modern industry are, for the of good workmen has doubled. The army most part, too strenuous to allow of any of half-trained workmen contains very nu- serious attempt at the education of boys in merous men who would have made good the shop. workmen had they ever been taught, but Another cause which has contributed they have been turned loose on the trade, largely to the decline of the apprenticeship to the detriment of all concerned. Their sit- system in this country has been the fact uation is pitiful. The inauguration and suc- that the American boy has been unfitted by
the purely literary training of his public far in making concessions to unionism ought school education to engage
manual American trade schools to go? They seem calling. The employer is confronted, not to be following in this respect the policy that only by the expense and trouble of training is wise. They do not now antagonize the apprentices, but by the unwillingness and unions, as was done in some cases a few unfitness of the native born to learn a trade. years ago, by advertising their instruction As a result, employers have
as a means of overcoming found it more profitable to
union restrictions on apPerhaps the most valuable result import foreigners educated of all education is the ability to
prenticeship; but while in Europe than to train ap- make yourself do the thing you
holding a conciliatory attiprentices. Within recent
tude toward the unions the have to do when it ought to be years this tendency has
schools shape their polidone, whether you like it or not. been checked by the con- It is the first lesson that ought to
cies, not to harmonize with tract labor laws, but the im
unionism, but to answer be learned and, however early a pression still prevails in man's training begins, it is prob
best to the needs they are many quarters that Europe ably the last lesson that he learns
maintained to meet. Foris a never ending source of thoroughly. T. H. Huxley.
tunately, as labor-unionism supply of educated, skilled
becomes far-sighted and workmen, while it is forgot
sound, its old monopolistic ten that, as a general rule, the foreign laborers | opposition to the teaching of trades now who come to this country are not likely to be seems to be surely and somewhat rapidly as skilled as those who remain in the country passing away. where they were educated and contribute to its industrial success.
THE fact that most so-called “appren
tices” are not competent workmen at
the end of a term that would ordinarily conSHALL THE TRADE SCHOOL BE OPEN TO ALL,
stitute an apprenticeship, is due to the fact OR ONLY TO PERSONS AT WORK?
that under the conditions in which industry From “Getting a Living,” by Geo. L. Bolen
is carried on to-day, neither the employer Macmillan Co., Publishers
nor his workmen give any attention to THE many trade schools of Great Britain instructing such “apprentices.” Nor is this
that teach complete trades-some sup- to be wondered at when we consider the ported from philanthropic endowments and Aimsy and uncertain terms upon which boys others from public funds, technical instruc- are employed in the average workshop. It is tion being provided by all the important difficult, in a busy workroom, to give a begincities—are generally kept open in the even- ner the attention that he is entitled to when ings only, and almost invariably admit none he is bound by indenture; and there is no who are not already at work in the trade doubt that concientiousness on this point has taught. This restriction is a concession to the caused many employers to refuse to consider unions. As a rule the schools that are open apprentices. Instead, they prefer to employ to all confine their teaching mainly to theo- errand-boys and lumpers to do the work that retic principles, as do higher institutes of ordinarily falls to the apprentice in the betechnology, and give but little practice with ginning of his career. It was to meet such a tools, aiming only to fit for quickly attaining condition as this that the North End Union high proficiency under ordinary apprentice- School of Printing was established. It takes ship. On the Continent also, where trade the boy who has determined to learn the schools are older and much more numerous trade, and gives him instruction and shop than in Great Britain, and where general in- practice for one year, so that when he goes dustrial instruction reached some years ago a from the School he has enough knowledge high development, the trade pupils are most- and experience to do something of value, as ly persons already at work in the trade, are a printer, in his employer's workroom. In sons of journeymen or masters, or are in hab- the School he does not become a journeyitants of towns given over to some special man or an expert, and he must still learn industry-in short, they are persons who it many things and acquire proficiency in his is assumed will of course follow the trade work; but he has obtained a foothold, and concerned, and whose right to enter it is his further trade education should be no tax therefore not questioned by the union. How upon his employer other than to give him