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THE SCHOOL OF PRINTING, NORTH END student. Every energy has been directed to perfectUNION, PARMENTER ST., BOSTON

ing the latter, and now this should be done for the

former. Good literature on the practical aspects of BOARD OF SUPERVISORS

life and the attainment of skill can be made to serve J. STEARNS CUSHING, J. S. Cushing & Co., Norwood

as text-books as much as studies on political econGEO. H. ELLIS, Geo. H. Ellis Co., 272 Congress St. omy, history, and English literature. Once it is recJ. W. PHINNEY, American Type Founders Co., Boston

ognized that there is as much need of the practical H. G. PORTER, Smith & Porter Press, 127 Federal St. GEO. W. SIMONDS, C. H. Simonds & Co., 297 Congress St.

as the professional, text-books will be forthcoming JOSEPH LEE, Vice President Massachusetts Civic League

that will improve the views of the masses in a way SAMUEL F. HUBBARD, Superintendent North End Union now impossible. It is not to be expected that a A. A. STEWART, Instructor

change of this kind can be made in a few years, as

the machinery of education is naturally devised THE School of Printing was established in January, 1900, by the North End Union, under the supervision of a num

at the present time for carrying out the contempober of leading master printers of Boston. It has had to demon- rary tendencies. Even our universities and colleges strate its purpose in practical results, and is gradually being are at the present time driven to combat the evils of recognized by those who realize the important need in the trade

excess in sports, which, unfortunately, are strongly of such a method of technical instruction. The aim of the School is to give fundamental and general

backed up by the public support given to athletic instruction in printing-office work, and to offer young men,

games. The excesses in this line are now so opposed through a system of indentured apprenticeship, an opportunity to the aims of these institutions that at a recent to learn the things which are becoming each year more and more gathering in New York City, of professors and indifficult for the apprentice to obtain in the restricted and specialized conditions of the modern workshop.

structors, measures were taken to prevent the loss The course of study embraces book, commercial, and adver

of time resulting from these games, to the great tising composition, and platen presswork. The School is sup- detriment of classroom and laboratory work. plied with hand and job presses, roman and display types of The revolution in industry through the speciali. various styles, and the usual furniture and material of a modern

zation of the past twenty years is a move toward printing office. The School is continuous and pupils may enter at any time.

the attainment of the practical in science that has The hours are identical with those of a regular workshop, from not received the recognition it deserves. It really 7.40 A.M. to 5.40 P.M., excepting Saturday afternoon.

means that no one should expect The tuition fee for one year is $100. Applicants must be six

to master more than one vocation.
of
age or over.

Easy lies For further information address Samuel F. HUBBARD, 20

At one time an individual could

the head Parmenter Street, Boston. Telephone Richmond 1069-1.

undertake to be master molder,

that thinks

machinist, and blacksmith, but E APPRENTICESHIP BULLETIN is intended to be

it knows

this is not possible now. All who issued each month in the year. Price 25 cents for the twelve

it all numbers. The composition and presswork are done by appren

are highly skilled in the art of tices in the School. Printed on 12 X 18 C. & P. Gordon press. founding understand that he who

wishes to be in the lead, or the master of the sand PRACTICAL EDUCATION

heap and cupola, either as a worker or manager Extract from address of Thomas D. West President American

of men, can spend every minute of a ten-hour day Foundrymen's Association.

in the shop and his evenings in study and research THE HE education of youth should be more closely during a long life, and still have much to learn.

confined to that which can be directly utilized. To be a practical people we must, in connection The time wasted in ornamental studies that never with the other reforms mentioned, specialize our can be made of use varies from one to four, and often studies and labor so as to be masters of one vocamore, of the most precious years of life, and passes tion, not "jacks of all trades and masters of none.” many on to an age when they cannot take up studies The smatterer or “would be” is an affliction that or an apprenticeship which in a few years might causes many of our industrial enterprises great enable them to make a good living. All children losses and perplexities. To the lower working should have a common school education, but when classes it means high cost of living and much they have attained this the parents or guardians misery, which is entirely uncalled for and should should discover, if possible, the capabilities of their not exist. children and then decide for what vocation they shall be trained. What sense is there in spending valuable time studying subjects which, because they in one year of starvation, and within two or cannot be utilized, will soon be forgotten?

three years of being naked, shall we not devote a Few of our educators are in a position to com- part at least of the time of the school to preparprehend the necessity of the practical as compared ing men and women to feed the hungry and clothe with the book-work of the professional or classical the naked.-Edward Atkinson.

teen years

THE

REMEMBERING that the world is always with

ness.

CHARLES M. SCHWAB'S ADVICE TO BOYS SEVERAL years ago Charles M. Schwab, then

the president of the United States Steel Corporation, gave an address to the graduating class of St. George's Trade School of New York City. The audience contained some two hundred East Side boys who were learning trades, and Mr. Schwab's talk was simple and full of directness and common sense. Coming from a man who has risen from the ranks with no aid but his own inherent qualities, to the head of the greatest industrial concern in the world, his remarks have peculiar value for every young man with ambition to succeed in life. Mr. Schwab said, in part : I am going to talk to you just as though you

had come to my office asking for advice, and the first thing I will say to you is, Come alone. Do not come with somebody's backing, but learn to rely on yourself. This is the first lesson. If you come introduced by somebody of influence, it will always leave room for others to say that whatever position you may get, you got it by influence and not because of your individual merit. No true success is built on inAuence. You must build your position for yourself. A boy who starts with influence behind him starts with a double handicap.

Then there is another thing that is essential. You must do what you are employed to do a little better than anybody else does it. Everybody is expected to do his duty, but the boy who does his duty a little more is the boy who is going to succeed in this world. You must take an interest in what you are doing and it must be a genuine interest. I once knew a man who went to a school such as this to look for a boy to employ. The superintendent, when asked to recommend one, said that all of the boys (there were about ten) were equally capable. But the other said he thought there must be one better than the rest and asked the superintendent to request all to work an hour later that evening. All stayed, but of the ten there was only one boy who was so interested in his task that he forgot to watch the clock, and this boy was chosen. He is now at the head of a great corporation that employs 30,000 men.

Then there was another boy. Eighteen years ago this boy, then 15 years old, was carrying water for the men in a great steel works. It was a poor job, but he did it better than anybody else, so that he attracted attention to himself. When there was an office position open he was selected to fill it. He rose to be general superintendent, then manager, and he is now at the head of the great Carnegie Steel Company, with thousands of men under him.

Another thing is needed, boys, and that is to get an early start. The boy in business who starts with

a trade school education, at 17 or 18, will get a start that the boy who goes through college will never catch up with, other things being equal. That does not apply to the professions, of course—only to busi

Of the many great men in the commercial world whom I have met, the majority received nothing but a common school education, but they made an early start. At a meeting I attended recently there were forty men of influence in the financial world. The question came up, How many were college men ? It was found that only two of the forty were college graduates. Now, when I speak of a successful man I do not mean merely a money-making man; I mean the truly great men, in manufacturing and industrial lines. These men, as a rule, had not the advantage of a college education, but had a taste for mechanics and took advantage of their opportunities from the start.

In a manual training school like this that I established fifteen years ago at Homestead, Pa., there was an electrical department. One of the boys was constantly working over an electrical machine. He worked after school hours and late at night, and attracted the attention of those in charge of the school. So he was finally given an opportunity to go into the works with which the school was connected. A few months ago I went to these works, and calling the heads of departments together, I unfolded an important project and asked them who was the man to be intrusted with it. Electricity was to play an important part in the scheme. To a man they all pointed to this former boy in the training school, and he was intrusted with the place. This man is now general superintendent of the Homestead Steel Works.

THE instruction received by an apprentice in

preparation for his trade is a service rendered to him in the training of his body in manual dexterity, in order that a few years later this manual dexterity may increase his income-earning power. Apprenticeship is, as it were, an investment in the body to be returned at a later time (with interest), just as the planting of a tree is an investment in the tree in order that its fruit may be secured in later years. The same principles apply to any training or education for a profession. When a young man studies law, medicine, journalism, music, or prepares for any other profession, he is investing in his own person, with the hope that the sums thus invested may ultimately be returned to him (with interest). The same is true of physical training. Many of the most successful are those who, like President Roosevelt, in early life saw the wisdom of developing a strong body, and in consequence have increased their producing power in mature years.Irving Fisher, Ph.D., Nature of Capital and Income.

ADVOCATING TRADE SCHOOLS AND A MODERN INDENTURED APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM

EDITED AND PRINTED AT THE NORTH END UNION SCHOOL OF PRINTING, BOSTON, MASS.

VOL. I

NOVEMBER, 1907

No.

A STRIKING INSTANCE”

spent in the school and the remaining three in the

shop. At the end of the school period the apprenThe following extract about the North End Union School of Printing is from an article on “ Private Trade Schools for Boys,” tice enters his employer's service at a wage of $9.00 by Professor C. R. Richards, of the Teachers' College, New

a week, with an increase each six months. York, published in Charities, a New York weekly journal, which devoted its entire issue of October 5th to “The Move- As a result of two years of trial of this plan the ment for Industrial Education.”

school authorities state that there is no disposition ANOTHER institution of this type, and a most

on the part either of apprentice or master to modify interesting and suggestive one, is the School its provisions. The active co-operation of leading of Printing of the North End Union, Boston. Even- printers of the city on the board of supervisors and ing classes in printing were

on the apprenticeship comstarted by the school in

mittee is, of course, a vital 1900, but it was found after

factor in the success of the a few years of experience

school. There are at presthat three evenings a week

ent fourteen apprentices in were inadequate for the

the school, which is its full proper training of compos

capacity. For the twelve itors, and in 1904 the pres

months' instruction a tuient day school was inaugu

tion fee of $100 is charged. rated. The question of ar

The support of the school ticulating the school with

comes from these fees and the employing shop, so that

contributions from master the boy would be enabled

printers. Commercial work to continue his progress

is not done in the school. under favorable and sym

The rent, heat, light and pathetic conditions and de

the services of the director velop into the higher grade

contributed by the of printer, was given care

North End Union. ful consideration and as a

The results obtained by result an apprentice agree

the School of Printing durment was established with

ing its brief existence give a number of master print

it a significance out of all ers of Boston.

proportion to its modest Under the terms of this

numbers and bring it for

( From the Inland Printer ) indenture, boys at least six

ward as a striking instance THE EDUCATION OF THE APPRENTICE teen years of age who wish

institution which, A LESSON IN ENTOMOLOGY to attend the school first

through active co-operamake application to a mem

Whatever else the printer's apprentice of the past generation tion with employers and

may have failed to learn, his older fellow-workers never failed ber of the apprenticeship to initiate him into the mystery of “seeing type-lice."

careful study of the needs committee. If this mem

of the situation, has develber approves the applicant, he is sent to some em- oped peculiarly effective working relations with comploying printer who, provided his judgment is favor- mercial conditions. able, agrees to accept the boy as an apprentice if he shows fitness for the trade after three months' pro

WHILE every one is ready to endorse the abbation in the school. In case this period is passed stract proposition that instruction fitting successfully, the boy then spends nine months more youths for the business of life is of high importance, in the school, attending nine hours a day, fifty-four or even to consider it of supreme importance ; yet hours a week. The apprenticeship agreement pro- scarcely any inquire what instruction will so fit them. vides for a term of four years, the first of which is It is true that reading, writing, and arithmetic are

[graphic]

are

of an

are like

taught with an intelligent appreciation of their uses ; PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL TRADE TRAINING but when we have said this we have said nearly all.

From “ Industrial Efficiency,” by Arthur Shadwell While the great bulk of what else is acquired has

Published by Longmans & Co. no bearing on the industrial activities, an immen

THER

HERE seems to be a general opinion that sity of information that has a direct bearing on the technical education has not had much to do industrial activities is entirely passed over.

with the industrial expansion of the United States For, leaving out only some very small classes, in the past. It has certainly played a very much what are all men employed in? They are employed smaller pari than in Germany. Most of the large in the production, preparation, and distri

concerns were built by men of energy who bution of commodities. And on what does

Many men

had little or no schooling, and rose from efficiency in the production, preparation,

the ranks. The present provision has and distribution of commodities depend ?

wheelbarrows,

come since the great railway and indusIt depends on the use of methods fitted

and must

trial development, and in consequence of to the respective natures of these com

be pushed to

it. The rapid expansion caused a demand modities; it depends on an adequate

make them

for trained men, who could not be supknowledge of their physical, chemical, or

plied fast enough. This, I think, accounts

go. vital properties, as the case may be ; that

Are you

for what I have called the supply from is, it depends on Science. This order of

in the

above. There was an opening for men of knowledge, which is in great part ignored

wheelbarrow

good education, and the colleges hastened in our school courses, is the order of

class?

to fill it. The pace has continually inknowledge underlying the right perform

creased, and the large corporations some ance of all those processes by which civi.

times “order” men by the dozen. When lized life is made possible. Undeniable as is this I was at the Technological Institute in Boston I truth, and thrust upon us as it is at every turn, there was told that the United States Steel Corporation seems to be no living consciousness of it: its very had just ordered a batch of fifty; they had to go familiarity makes it unregarded.Herbert Spencer. to the works on trial for a year. The large num

bers turned out in recent years must be having a

considerable effect. Yet I see that in 1900 oneTHE EMPLOYERS' RESPONSIBILITY

fourth of the total number of “ manufacturers and

officials ” engaged in manufacturing and mechanical inefficiency of their employees they are en

occupations were foreigners. I think this highly titled to little sympathy on account of the losses

significant fact must have escaped the attention of such inefficiency entails on them, for each incompe

those who think that Europe has much to learn

from America in the matter. tent was drafted into the trade by some careless em

The myth of “the ployer. The great majority of master printers neglect

American workman" and his superior skill has to exercise ordinary care in selecting lads to learn

been dealt with more than once. Technical educathe trade. The ignorance of the average compositor

tion, high and low, appears to suffer from the na

tional defect of want of thoroughness, which arises is astounding, when the nature of his business is considered. When every master printer makes it

from the craving for short cuts.

Hence the correhis duty to carefully examine and select the learners,

spondence schools and the attempt to teach induspreventing the poorly-educated and those of limited

tries in school without practical experience. Opinion intelligence from entering on a trade which requires

may be divided on the question whether technical a semi-literary education, the evil of incompetent

schooling ought to be preceded, accompanied, or workmen will be eliminated and the whole status

followed by practical training. I can only form a of the trade will be improved. Let each employing

second-hand judgment derived from men of experi

ence, but their verdict is decisive. I have asked the printer who neglects this obvious duty find in

question of a great many leading manufacturers every incompetent workman he employs a reminder

and managers in all three countries, and they were that he or men like him created the incompetent unanimous in condemning school training without workman. Let him take his losses patiently, for is practical experience. In the German technical he not the victim of his own neglect ?

schools previous practical knowledge is usually inHenry L. Bullen.

sisted on for a full course of study. In America the theoretical study precedes practical work, and the

complaint of manufacturers is that it often unfits A'

LL concentration means deafness and blind- men for the workshop. Some high authorities have ness outside the circle which is lit up by the

found the American training shallow and superficial. lamp of attention. The concentrated beam of the

This coincides with the experience of the Rhodes

scholars at Oxford in other studies. American unisearch-light on a battle-ship is typical of the mind of

versity graduates have been found less well grounded a busy, well-trained man.-Richard C. Cabot, M.D. than English schoolboys of the same class.

WHEN the employing printers complain of the

APPRENTICESHIP CONDITIONS IN GERMANY for each trade, either by guild commissions, apprenAbridged from Report of U.S. Commissioner

ticeship shops, trade schools, or State boards of exof Labor, 1902.

aminers, the necessary commissions will be created NO O comprehensive idea of what is being done in by the chamber of trades.

Germany for the development of trade training The title of master can be borne only by journey. can be obtained without a knowledge of the great men who, in their trade, have acquired the right to efforts that are being put forth for the preservation have apprentices, and who have passed the master's of the apprenticeship system in those trades for examination. In general this examination can be which it is adapted. The following important provi- taken only by those who have exercised their trade sions of the law regarding apprenticeships show the as journeymen for at least three years. The examinagreat solicitude for the preservation of this system tion is given by a commission composed of a presiof trade instruction and the care taken that appren- dent and four other members chosen by the supetices shall be properly instructed in their

rior administrative authorities, and must trades :

show that the candidate is able to value In the handicraft trades only those per

Success

and execute the ordinary work of his sons have the right to direct apprentices

lies

trade, and that he possesses other qualiwho are twenty-four years of age and have

beyond

fications, especially ability to keep books completed the term of apprenticeship pre

a swing-to and accurate accounts, fitting him to carry scribed by the chamber of trades in the

door,

on the trade on his own account. trade in which it is desired to instruct

and the

The duties imposed upon the employer apprentices, or have exercised that trade lobby is

are to instruct the apprentice in all matwithout interruption for five years, either

always full.

ters relating to his trade; to require him on their own account or as foremen, or in

Some

to attend an industrial or trade continuaa similar capacity. The superior adminis- get through

tion school; to see that he applies himtrative authorities can, however, accord

the door

self zealously and conducts himself propthis right to persons not fulfilling these

marked

erly; to guard him against bad habits, and conditions. Before doing so they must “Push"

to protect him from bad treatment on the take the advice of the guild to which the

and some

part of members of his household or comapplicant belongs.

through panions. The employer must personally Apprenticeship can be served in a large the direct the work of the apprentice, or place industrial establishment or be replaced by

door

him under the direction of a competent work in an apprenticeship shop or other

marked person charged with his special instrucestablishment for industrial education. “Pull” tion. He cannot require of him work beIf an employer is a member of a guild,

yond his strength or that which may be he is required to submit to it copies of all

injurious to his health, and must apprenticeship contracts made by him within fifteen deprive him of the time necessary for his school days after their conclusion. The guilds may require instruction or for divine worship. Apprentices not the contracts to be made before them.

living at the houses of their employers must not be In the absence of regulations promulgated by the

required to perform household duties.

İf the number of apprentices of any employer is Bundesrath or central State authorities, the cham

out of proportion to the amount of the latter's busi ber of trades and guilds can make provisions limit- ness and the instruction of the apprentices is thereing the number of apprentices that may be allowed. by jeopardized, the lower administrative authorities In general the term of apprenticeseip is three

may compel the dismissal of some of the apprentices

and forbid the taking of new ones, so as to bring years, though it may be extended by the addition of

their number within a certain limit. not more than one year.

The chamber of trades, The Bundesrath can determine for special catewith the approval of the superior administrative au

gories of industries the maximum number of ap. thorities, and after having consulted with the guilds

prentices that may be employed. Until fixed in this

way the central Government can take similar action, and associations represented, may fix the duration of and when this Government fails to act the chamber apprenticeship in each trade.

of trades can limit the number of apprentices. Upon completing his term of service, the appren

Nothing is more instructive than to see with what

enthusiasm the masters have responded to the tice must be admitted to the examination for a jour

wishes of the legislators as expressed in section 97 of neyman's certificate. This examination is taken the industrial code: “The guilds have specially the before commissions, of which there is one for each right to organize and direct trade schools.” Educacompulsory guild. Other guilds can have an examin

tion is the true function of the guild. The small em. ing commission only when permission has been ob

ployers, supported by their workmen, do not recoil

before the sacrifices necessary. Regardless of the fact tained from the chamber of trades. When provision

that they are forming competitors in the market, has not been made for the examination of candidates they are seeking to enfranchise the workman by the

not

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