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THE APPRENTICESHIP IDEA IS
inates hand-work on one hand opens up on the
other hand new avenues of work and increases the NOT DEAD!
demand for more and better productions. When I is so frequently asserted that the “old appren- the type-setting machines were introduced it was
ticeship system is dead,” that the public has predicted that it would ruin the trade of composicome to accept the statement as a fact, without tors, but the demand for high-grade printing and question. There is enough truth in the general for compositors able to do this class of work has statement to lead one not familiar with the
never been so great as at the present time. situation to believe that the apprenticeship The
The demand for efficient craftsmen is so system has become obsolete. This is far
reason great that employers are coming to realize from being true, in fact the apprenticeship some men that some system of training in keeping with system is very much alive today, and its
do not modern systems of production must be essential principle is being accepted more succeed is devised. Certain large establishments, like and more by employers in their relation because the Baldwin Locomotive Works, General with beginners.
their Electric Company, Brown, Sharpe & Co., The “old ” apprenticeship is dead, that wishbone R. Hoe & Co., and many others, have is, the conditions under which it formerly is where opened schools within their own works existed. The apprentice no longer works their and have placed beginners under a special side by side with his master; he does not backbone superintendent, who advances the boys, live in his master's family, nor does the should step by step, as fast as they are qualified. master have the responsibility of his moral be. It is essential, however, to the success or intellectual education. These conditions
of this method of training that the boys were incidental to the old system and, while they shall obligate themselves to remain a definite time had an important bearing in the method of training, to receive this instruction, otherwise it might result they were not the vital part of an apprenticeship. in wasted effort on the part of the employer and
The dominant element in an apprenticeship is be of little permanent service to the boy. This the indenture whereby the master agrees to teach, tenure of service is safeguarded by establishing either directly or through his representatives, a an indentured apprenticeship, as is done in the trade “as fully as may be,” and the apprentice establishments named. agrees to be earnest and faithful in his endeavors Large shops employing a great number of boys to receive this instruction. The indenture also de- can adopt this system of school training within termines the time of service and rate of wages. their own works with relatively little difficulty, but This mutual agreement is neither dead nor obsolete, this system is not economically possible in small although it did for a time suffer a decline.
shops having only a few boys. Modern methods of shop and factory have inter- The perplexities of providing adequate training posed the superintendent, foreman and sub-foreman for beginners in small shops have made employers between master and apprentice and have destroyed hesitate, not to say indifferent, about taking boys the intimate relations which once existed. Special- to learn a trade, much less to enter into any formal ization and other factors have entered into modern agreement to teach them. This difficulty is obvimethods of production which have made the train- ated by the trade school which provides a preliming of beginners more complex and difficult. The inary training, whereby the boy is instructed in the need of better workmen, of men trained in a larger fundamental principles of the trade. The problem industrial intelligence, is being keenly felt in all the of laying the foundation of trade training can be trades, not only in the invention and perfecting of solved in the school better and more thoroughly labor-saving machinery, but in the processes of pro- than is possible in the shop, even under the most duction in which delicately adjusted machines have favoring conditions. The employer will then be been introduced. Then, too, machinery which elim- willing to take the boy, who has in this way acquired when we
pass on: for
sufficient knowledge to make his work of value, into THE PROBLEM OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION his workroom and agree to provide the opportunity
Charles R. Richards, in Social Education for the boy's subsequent advancement in the trade.
Quarterly, June, 1907 It is obvious, however, that no employer can be THE
HE first reason why the problem of trade trainexpected to do this unless he can have the assur- ing faces us today in such severe form and why ance that the boy will remain long enough to round the lack of skilled workmen is felt so keenly in many out his trade training; and on the other hand the high-grade industries is that the present basis of our boy is entitled to a promise that he will be given industrial organization presents no natural place for the opportunity to acquire the trade. It is of mutual such training. The very form of the organization is advantage to each that a formal agree.
opposed to such training, and any proviment, setting forth in detail what part Applaud us sion for real instruction of learners must each party shall perform shall be entered
be made in spite of this organization and into — or, in other words, the signing of
outside the direct conduct of the business an apprenticeship indenture.
console us for which the organization is established.
when we We speak of the apprenticeship system HE National Machine Tool Builders'
as if it were a system that were just going Association, at a recent meeting,
into disuse ; as if in the good old times gave considerable attention to the ques
but a generation ago it were flourishing tion of apprentices and apprenticeship recover, and adequate to meet all demands for agreements. Mr. E. Payson Bullard, of
but let us
industrial training, while as a matter of the Bullard Machine Tool Company of
fact the apprenticeship system, in its Bridgeport, Conn., as chairman of the com- God's sake, original sense, has never been adequate mittee on apprenticeship, recommended
or effective since the capitalistic organamong other things the adoption of a
ization of industry became general. Some uniform system of agreement between Edmund Burke of its forms have to be survived, even in employers and parents or guardians of
the present day, but except in the cases apprentices. He also suggested the adoption of a where new and distinct provisions have been develdiploma signed by the officers of the National oped for teaching the apprentices, its efficiency has Machine Tool Builders' Association to be presented long disappeared and its original place in the indusat the completion of a satisfactory apprenticeship trial order lost.
Only when the master-workman was also the Mr. Bullard advised that apprentices be paid a
merchant and the head of a small industrial esgraduated scale according to the skill required in the tablishment did the apprentice have a natural and work and the pay that a journeyman receives in the organic place in the organization of industry. When department to which the boys are apprenticed. He this condition obtained, the apprentice found his called attention to the fact that employers would proper teacher in the person of his master, who profit through the presentation of a formal diploma was at the same time his employer and director to apprentices, as they would be able to give prefer- and whose self-interest led to a training for the ence to men presenting diplomas from shops which work that was to the fullest degree broad and they knew turned out skilled mechanics. Mr. Bullard thorough. added that the apprentices should be carefully As long as the productive unit consisted of this instructed, and in this respect an employer should small group of master workmen, a few journeymen see that they were properly dealt with. Manufac- and one or two apprentices, the system was worked turers are now feeling the need of good men, and simply and effectively. The instruction was the best there are many shops where employers know they to be had, and the apprentice was an economic have foremen not up to the standard. Every manu- advantage and not a hinderance. facturer, he added, should do his best to make effi- Just at the point that the capitalist entered as the cient shopmen of apprentices. Mr. C. H. Norton, of employer of the master-workman and the financial the Norton Grinding Company, Worcester, Mass., director ceased to be the shop director, the apprenurged that the association adopt a diploma as soon ticeship system in its original form broke down and as practicable, and added that he has a number of lost its place in the scheme of things. boys in his employ deserving such a recommenda- Capitalistic organization of industry means the tion. Mr. Eberhardt spoke in a similar vein, saying employment of numbers of workmen as wage-earners that a diploma of the kind named would be prized whose sole responsibility is to forward the producby workmen for sentimental reasons and would cre- tive tasks assigned to them. Such organization genate a class of employees whom manufacturers could erally means also extended division of labor. It depend upon as being efficient workmen.
meant these things before the introduction of steam
Art is an
and machinery, and it still means these things in the ameliorate and modify this attitude among school trades where machinery is not used. With the use children has been the hope of educators for many of machinery, however, and the continued intro- years;.but alas ! the indictment of the Massachusetts duction of special tools, division of labor in factory
Industrial Commission that this work has been organization has enormously increased, and because
conducted without reference to any industrial end
and has been severed from real life as completely as of the machine the value of the workman's time for
have the other school activities, is in most cases purely productive purposes in such organizations
only too true. When manual training divests itself has become much greater.
of its present formal character and sets itself earIn this order of things the sole object for which nestly to deal with the realities of industrial life and the working force is organized is productive effi
to develop insight into the meaning and possibil
ities of intelligent manual labor we may well be ciency. Inside this working force it is not only to no confident that much will be done to create a greater one's interest or advantage to turn aside
sympathy and interest in industrial pursuits. and instruct the learner, but such instruc
These are the conditions that are mainly tion, if in any sense thorough, can be given
responsible for the present situation. It is
expression in the direct course of production only at a
these conditions which force the demand
of man's for some method of trade training outside certain immediate loss.
the direct conduct of industrial production. On the other hand, the employer, now
The question at once arises, Shall this
his work. method be through some new and more become in many cases the impersonal cor
Ruskin complete provision in connection with comporation, who is the only factor immedi
mercial practice, or shall it be in the form ately interested to maintain the supply of
of a school apart from commercial establabor, no longer depending upon the efficiency of
lishments ? a few co-workers, but drawing from a large labor
In the first place, it should be noted that the
acute problem centers mainly in the skilled indusmarket helped out in many cases by the stream of
tries, such as the building trades, the machine or immigration, and recognizing the present cost and mechanical trades, printing, lithography, and the inconvenience of such provision, no longer feels the publishing trade; and furthermore, where specialized same individual necessity and responsibility of train
machinery is a large factor it is concerned with the
preparation of the all-round mechanic who is fitted ing the beginner.
for the duties of maintenance and supervision.*** Up to the present time only the large manufactur- So far I have referred only to the question of ing concern has been able to see that future gain training beginners for the industries. We should demands and justifies the immediate expense of not lose sight of the fact, however, that industrial some definite system of instruction, and only in such education involves another problem, viz., the imconcerns as a rule has there been any serious at- provement and advancement of the condition of tempt to grapple with the problem.
those already entered in the trades. This, happily, is Another element in the general situation is the a much simpler problem, and one in which a great attitude in certain trades of organized labor, which deal has already been accomplished through the seeks as a part of an economic policy to limit the provision of evening industrial schools. Such number of beginners entering the trades. In cer- schools divide into two lines: one of these aims to tain cases the labor union rules are so restrictive advance the practical skill and knowledge of beginthat reference to mortality tables shows that the ners in the trades. Because of the difficulties already numbers at present in the trades would inevitably noted and because of the fact that a very large be reduced in the course of a few years if the ranks fraction of those entering the skilled trades enter of the workers were not recruited from sources as helpers and not as apprentices, it is clear that other than apprenticeship.
this type of school has important possibilities Another factor which is perhaps as serious as before it. * * * either of those just noted, is the attitude of the The other type of school, and one which has a American boy and girl towards manual labor. very important function, might be called the evenWhatever
be said of the virtues of the Ameri- ing supplementary industrial school. This school can common school system and of the generous offers instruction in those branches which tend to tendencies of American social life, it cannot be said broaden the intelligence and enlarge the industrial that the influence from either of these directions is capacity of the workman, such as mechanical and at present towards the manual trades. The tend- architectural drawing, mathematics and science as ency of the boy and girl leaving the common school related to industrial practice, technical methods, today is unquestionably towards those occupations estimating, and designing. that mean clean hands and good clothes, and which This type of so-called continuation school has bring them into the more exciting current of mercan- long been developed to an extraordinary extent and tile life with its variety of sights and sounds and diversity in the different countries of Europe, and experiences.
in our own country there are many prominent exThat this tendency in part arises from the char- amples. Such schools form one of the most effecacter of the course of study in the schools, which tive means of adjusting the worker to the increasing places an overwhelming emphasis upon purely aca- complexity and scientific character of modern indemic subjects and gives little opportunity for the dustries and are undoubtedly destined to play a development of sympathy with or ability in indus- very important part among the many agencies trial pursuits, is a conviction that is rapidly gaining needed for any complete solution of this great ground. That manual training should do much to problem.
THE SCHOOL OF PRINTING, NORTH END
UNION, PARMENTER ST., BOSTON
BOARD OF SUPERVISORS J. STEARNS CUSHING, J. S. Cushing & Co., Norwood GEO. H. ELLIS, President United Typothetæ of America J. W. PHINNEY, American Type Founders Co., Boston H. G. PORTER, Smith & Porter Press, 127 Federal St. GEO. W. SIMONDS, C. H. Simonds & Co., 297 Congress St. JOSEPH LEE, Vice President Massachusetts Civic League SAMUEL F. HUBBARD, Superintendent North End Union
A. A. STEWART, Instructor
WHAT TRADE EDUCATION IS DOING FOR GERMANY
From address by Frank A. Vanderlip, before National
Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education THE
HE one great competitor of the United States
in most of the world markets is Germany. Germany—a land in the main barren of soil, forced to import most of her food supply, lacking mineral wealth and taking from the earth only coal of poor quality; Germany-a land surrounded by countries with hostile tariffs and more hostile commercial sentiments; Germany, that under an agrarian parliamentary influence has put a tremendous tax upon every workman in the form of arbitrarily increased cost of living; a land with a population lacking the ingenuity of the native American workman, as well as the delicate artistic sense of the French artisan ; yet one that, with all these handicaps, stands the one competitor that we fear. Why is this? On what does Germany rest her ability thus to compete with us, even in the face of the prodigal aid which nature has given us and withheld with such a niggardly hand from the great nation over the sea ? The answer is in all your minds. You ķnow, as does every manufacturer in this nation know, that Ger. many's superiority in international commerce rests almost wholly on Germany's superior school system.
This is not a time, nor is there need at the moment, to outline that system. It is enough to say that while it lacks little, if any, of the cultural influence which our own system of education provides, in the German school system an ideal has been set up which has never had a place with us. It is the aim there to make of each citizen of the Empire an efficient economic unit. The ideal is to do whatever educational training can do, to make each individual economically efficient. That ideal is having the most profound influence in the commercial world. It has put Germany, in spite of her natural disadvantages, in the forefront of commercial nations.
The development of the school system under that ideal, has made it possible for every German youth to grasp the intellectual side of his work. It has given him, no matter what trade or calling he has chosen, opportunity to train his mind in harmony with the developing skill of his hand.
THE SCHOOL OF PRINTING was established in January, 1900, ber of leading master printers of Boston. It has had to demonstrate its purpose in practical results, and is gradually being recognized by those who realize the important need in the trade of such a method of technical instruction.
The aim of the School is to give fundamental and general instruction in printing-office work, and to offer young men, through a system of indentured apprenticeship, an opportunity to learn the things which are becoming each year more and more difficult for the apprentice to obtain in the restricted and specialized conditions of the modern workshop.
The course of study embraces book, commercial, and advertising composition, and platen presswork. The School is sup, plied with hand and job presses, roman and display types of various styles, and the usual furniture and material of a modern printing office.
The School is continuous and pupils may enter at any time. The hours are identical with those of a regular workshop, from 7.40 A.M. to 5.45 PM., excepting Saturday afternoon.
The tuition fee for one year is $100. Applicants must be sixteen years of age or over.
For further information address SAMUEL F. HUBBARD, 20 Parmenter Street, Boston. Telephone Richmond 1069-1.
THE APPRENTICESHIP BULLETIN is intended to be
issued each month in the year. Price 25 cents for the twelve numbers. The composition and presswork are done by the apprentices in the School.
education can be made to be of service in every industry in which hand and eye are a part of the means of production.
S an apple is not in any proper sense an apple
until it is ripe, so a human being is not in any proper sense a human being until he is educated. -Horace Mann.
THE International Typographical Union, on
January 1, 1887, adopted an elaborate code of rules relative to apprentices, and made the following recommendations :
“ The indenturing of apprentices is considered the best means calculated to give the efficiency which is desirable that printers should possess, and also to give the necessary guarantee to employers that some return will be made to them for a proper effort to turn out competent workmen. Subordinate unions should therefore, whenever practicable, endeavor to introduce the system of indenturing apprentices. The term of service shall not be less than four years, beginning at the age of sixteen.”
THE value of industrial education will be consid
ered by each manufacturer from the standpoint of the particular service it can render to him. One requires art and design in the things produced, as well as quality of workmanship. Another needs a highly trained mechanical skill, together with a thorough knowledge of the scientific principles involved. The details of industrial training are limited only by the highest demands of all the industries, and can be determined only when a thorough analysis of all the processes of production is made. Industrial
they perform. They are sent into the world with bills of credit, and seldom draw to their full extent.— Walpole.
From Profitable Advertising (Ka te E. Griswold, Publisher), Boston, September, 1907
A UNIQUE TRAINING SCHOOL for APPRENTICES The Boston School of Printing and its Work — A Practical Experiment by Employing Printers
By A. A. Stewart
RINTING, in common with other trades, is feeling the need of some systematic plan whereby the apprentice may be properly
taught his trade. It is confessed by those seriously interested in the subject that the modern city printing office does not provide the training which an apprentice should have in order to become a competent workman. The employer and his foreman and journeymen are too busy, in the stress of competitive industry, to teach the beginner; and even where they could do so and were disposed to, the instruction which the average apprentice obtained is usually so limited, because of the practice of specializing, as to make his trade training narrow and inadequate. Most so-called "apprentices” are merely errand boys or utility men, selected by their employers without regard to their fitness or educational qualifications for the printer's vocation, who must pick up their trade piecemeal as best they can, and who at the end of four or five years routine work become “journeymen” whose knowledge of their work is purely superficial.
The belief is steadily gaining ground nowadays that it is as important and as necessary to learn the fundamental rules of a trade specifically and systematically as it is to acquire a knowledge of law or medicine or engineering in a like manner. Therefore the properly equipped trade school, with a course of instruction and exercises, under the guidance of an instructor, seems the best way to lay the foundation for the future workman.
The North End Union School of Printing, Boston, was started as an evening class in the winter of 1900, and its pupils were young men who where at work in printing offices during the day. A room was fitted up at the North End Union on Parmenter Street under the direction of Mr. Samuel F. Hubbard, and several small presses, a liberal supply of type, and the usual furniture of a small
printing office were installed. Working frames were provided for ten students and an experienced journeyman printer placed in charge of the class. The school was in session three evenings each week during the winter and spring, and its facilities were called to the attention of the printing fraternity in Boston and vicinity. Several illustrated lectures were given at the school on subjects intimately related to the printer's work. Conferences of em
ployers, foremen, and other persons interested, were invited from time to time, and matters pertaining to trade education were discust.
The object of the school was, as stated in its circulars, to make not more but better printers — to give the ambitious beginner opportunity to supplement the instruction and practice of his every-day work. It
felt that this plan would in some way meet the need of trade training for apprentices, and many employers and
foremen urged their boys to attend. Yet it did not work satisfactorily because the average boy who labored in a printing office all day was
not an ambitious student at night. His tenure of employment and prospect of advancement seemed to him so uncertain that the extra effort on his part was not worth while and his enthusiasm soon waned without some outside stimulus.
After four years trial of the evening class, it was decided to turn it into a day school, and make the term one year, instead of three months. This broadening of the scope of the school brought it up to the problem of indentured apprenticeship. The management realized that, whatever might be claimed as possible of accomplishment in other trades, in the education of printers no trade school can turn out fully fledged workmen. In its prospectus it was stated that the aim was simply to give the pupil an intelligent start in his trade and to give instruction in the essentials of good printing, so that with subsequent
SUPERINTENDENT SAMUEL F. HUBBARD