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21st of June, When is it the smallest ? On the 21st of December, When is the arch described by the sun at its medium size? Twice in the year, on the 21st of March, and the 22nd of September. At what period does the sun shine the longest ? On the 21st of June. When does the sun describe the smallest arch in the sky? On the 21st of December. When the sun goes down, is it not dark? No; it is twilight. What causes this ? The rays of the sun pass over the earth through the atmosphere, and are bent down to it. Ver. 6. And God said, let there be a firmament in the
midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters
from the waters. Ver. 7. And God made the firmament, and divided the
waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament, and it was
Ver. 8. And God called the firmament heaven: and
the evening and the morning were the second day.
What is the meaning of the term firmament? It signifies the blue expanse of the sky, where the stars and planets are, which God calls heaven. What is meant by its being placed in the midst of the waters? The firmament is placed betwixt the waters in he planets and on the earth, and thus divides the waters from the waters. How is the atmosphere placed in the midst of the waters? It supports the clouds that contain watery vapour and divides them from those on the surface of the earth. How do you know that there is water in the clouds above the atmosphere? From the rain, snow, hail, and dew, which are full of watery particles. How are these waters produced? They are formed by the ascent of vapours exhaled from the earth by the heat of the sun. What is rain? It is the dropping of the par
ticles of vapour which compose watery clouds. What is hail? It is a drop of water frozen in its descent from the clouds to the earth. What is the cause of snow? It is the minute particles of vapour frozen in the upper regions of the atmosphere. What is dew? Dew is the falling of the humidity from the lower parts of the atmosphere-when the air cools, it condenses the moisture in the air, which is deposited in the form of a drop of dew. Do you know any other phænomena of the atmosphere? Yes; the rainbow, formed by the reflection of the sun's rays on drops of rain falling from the clouds. What is lightning? A stream of fire that proceeds from a thunder cloud to the earth. What is thunder? The noise occasioned by lightning in passing from a cloud that is charged with it into another that is void of it. What are the names and kinds of water on the surface of the earth? They are usually called oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and springs. What is the ocean? It is the origin and fountain of all the other waters which occur in whatever form on the face of the earth. How is the ocean divided by various authors ? Into five great basins. What are the principal oceans? The Pacific, the Atlantic, the German, the Indian, and Arctic oceans. What are the principal seas? The Mediterranean betwixt Europe and Asia, the Red sea betwixt Egypt and Arabia, the Black sea, and the Baltic sea. What are the principal lakes? The Caspian is the largest in Asia, the lake of Geneva in Switzerland, tho lake Ladoga in Russia, and Loch Ness in Scotland. What are the principal rivers ? The Danube in Europe, the Ganges in Asia, the Nile in Africa, the Mississippi in North America, and the Amazon in South America. What are the principal springs? Of these there are great varieties, called mineral springs, medical springs, and salt springs, but the most remarkable are the hot springs of Iceland. When was the separation made betwixt the waters and the dry land ? On the third day of creation God said, “Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear.” ver. 9. What is the supposed extent and depth of the ocean? It is supposed that the waters of the ocean would cover the whole earth to the depth of six hundred feet above the surface, but in some places it is very shallow. What changes are observable respecting the mass of waters in the ocean? The flow and ebb of the tide. How long therefore does the whole flow and ebb last? Six hours twelve minutes and fifteen seconds; the flow and the ebb last the same time. What is the cause of the ebb and flow of the tides? The cause of the ebb and flow of the tides is the attraction of the sun and moon. When God called the waters together, what was left? The dry land. What is the dry land? The land above the level of the sea. What does the surface of the land exhibit ? A great variety in aspect, forming mountains, hills, valleys, and plains. What substances are found in the bowels of the earth? Water, which gives rise to springs, and fountains, and rivers. What are the principal metals found in the earth? Gold, silver, iron, tin, and lead. What are some of the most useful minerals found in the earth? Stone, coal, and limestone. What is the superficial extent of the earth? It is calculated to be about two hundred millions of square miles. What is the relative proportion of water and dry land? Two-thirds is covered with water, while the dry land is nearly one-third. How is the dry land divided ? The land is divided into continents, islands, peninsulas, isthmuses, capes, or promontories, with mountains, shores, and coasts. What is a continent? A large extent of land nowhere entirely separated by water. What is an island ? It is land entirely surrounded by water.
ninsula? Land almost surrounded by water. What
yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding
God saw that it was good.
What are vegetables? All things that grow, produced from seeds planted in the earth. What is the use of grass ? For pasture to cattle. Of what does a perfect plant consist? Of a root, trunk, leaves, blossoms, and flowers. What is the use of the root, stem, and leaves? They serve for the nourishment and growth of the plant; the flowers or blossoms are for producing seeds for the propagation of other plants of the same kind. What are the vegetable substances which minister to our wants ? Grains, esculent roots, plants, fruit trees, and timber trees. What are the chief grains ? Wheat, barley, oats, maize or Indian corn, rye, rice, millet, beans, and peas. What renders wheat so nutritious? The flour contains starch with saccharine matter, and a substance called gluten, which makes superior bread. What quantities of it are reared in England ? More than twelve millions of quarters of wheat. What are the esculent roots ? The potato, turnip, cabbage, carrot, onion, garlic, arrowroot, and beet root. What are the plants extensively used! Tobacco, the cotton plant, the flax plant, and the sugar cane. Are ere any other herbs or plants useful to man as food or medicine? Lettuce, parsley, celery, and asparagus: the flowers of chamomile, the
leaves of senna, the seeds of the mustard plant, and the pepper plant are used in medicine. What are the most remarkable fruit trees? The vine, the date, fig, olive, orange, lemon, pine-apple, common apple, and pear. What are the timber trees? The oak, elm, beech, birch, ash, holly, hawthorn, and pine. What plants and shrubs afford the most agreeable beverage? Tea, coffee, and chocolate. What liquors are prepared from the fruits of the earth for the use of mankind ? The most valuable is wine, such as Port wine, Madeira wine, and Champagne. Can you mention any other liquors that are used ? Brandy, rum, gin, cider, and beer. What are the chief materials from which our clothing is obtained ? The wool of sheep, flax, and the skins of oxen, goats, and beavers supply us with shoes, hats, and gloves. What were the next works of creation that God produced? We are informed in Scripture that on the fourth day of the creation God said, “ Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night, and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years.” What did God next create ? Lights. What lights are meant? The sun, moon, and stars. Where were they placed ? In the firmament. For what purpose ? To give light upon the earth. For what other purposes were the sun and moon created besides that of giving light upon the earth? The Scripture informs us that God appointed them for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years. How do these luminaries serve as signs to the inhabitants of the earth ? They are perpetual signs of the almighty power of God, who at first created and who still upholds them. How does the sun serve to indicate the different seasons of the
year ? The course of the seasons is determined by the greater or less proportion of heat and light received from the sun. How does the moon enable us to divide