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attribute. What was its original form? Ad. What does the last syllable or postfix, ion, of that word denote? The act of, or ing. Give some other examples of that affix having the same signification. Contribution, collision, dissolution, commotion. What is the root or theme of that word attraction ? Tract. What does it signify ? Draw, from the supine of the Latin verb traho. Are there any other words derived from tract? Yes. Give a word signifying to draw from. Abstract. Having power to draw to ? Attractive. To draw together ? Contract. To draw from or down? Detract. To draw apart or asunder, or to perplex ? Distract. To draw out? Extract. That cannot be drawn or managed ? Intractable.

To draw forth or to prolong? Protract. To draw back ? Retract. To draw under or from ? Subtract. A mark left by something passing, or a vestige? Trace. A beaten path ? Track. A portion of land, also a treatise ? Tract.

That may be drawn out in length ? Tractile. A trailing vehicle, or sledge ? Traineau.

What does the word animal signify? To give life. Has it any other meaning ? Having life. What part of that word denotes to give ? Ate. Has the affix ate when a verb any other meaning ? To make. Give some examples of that termination having this signification. Abbreviate, antiquate, frustrate, renovate. When ate is subjoined to adjectives what does it denote? Having or being. Give examples. Inanimate, affectionate, adequate, situate. When ate is affixed to nouns, what does it denote? One who, or the person who. State some examples. Advocate, associate, potentate, primate. What part of the word animate signifies life? Anima. State another example. Inanimate. What does inanimate imply? Not having life. A living creature ? Animal. A little animal ? Animalcule. The state of being lively or having life? Ani

mation. Mention another word of a similar import. Vitality. Being out of life or lifeless ? Exanimate. To give life again ? Reanimate. Does the root anim bear another import? Mind. Give an example. Animadvert. What does animadvert signify? To turn the mind to, to criticise. What part of that word denotes to ? Ad. What part imports turn? Vert. What is the literal meaning of the word geography? A description of the earth or world. Whether is it simple or compound? Compound. Of what is it compounded? Ge, the earth, and grapho, to describe. One who describes the earth or world? Geographer. Pertaining to geography ? Geographical. Linnæus the great Swedish naturalist characterizes

and divides the three kingdoms of nature, the animal, the vegetable, and the mineral, in the following manner: stones grow; vegetables grow and live; animals grow, live, and feel.

Who was Linnæus ? A Swedish naturalist. From what Latin root is naturalist formed ? Natura, nature. What is the first affix added to natura? Al, of or belonging to. What part of speech is natural? An adjective. What affix is then added to natural? Ist, a doer. What part of speech is naturalist? A noun. Why is it called a noun ? Because it is applied to a person. Applied to persons what should it be? Naturalists in the plural number. Is it applied to males or females ? To both, and is therefore of the common gender. What is the meaning of the word naturalist ? A person who studies nature. What kind of naturalist was Linnæus ? Great. What part of speech is great ? An adjective, because it expresses quality. Where was Linnæus born? In Sweden. Where is Sweden? In the north of Europe. Point out on the map. What is Linnæus said to have done? He characterized and


divided, &c. What part of speech are these words? Active verbs, because they express what Linnæus did. Any affix in characterize? Ize, to make. The meaning of the word ? To make or give a character or name to. Give me some of the derivatives of divide. Division, divisible, indivisible, dividend. What did Linnæus characterize and divide ? Animals, vegetables, and minerals. What are these called ? The three kingdoms of nature. How did he characterize minerals ? They grow, &c. State to me in your own words what you have learned from this sentence.

Linnæus was a great naturalist; he was born in Sweden ; he formed all natural objects into three great classes or kingdoms; and he thus distinguished each of these kingdoms from the other : “Stones grow,” &c.


Grammar is a word used to signify the pure science of universal grammar common to all languages. The word Grammar, though introduced into English from the French grammaire, is derived from the Greek verb grapho, I write; so the word Language, which comes immediately to us from the French word langage, originates in the Latin lingua, the tongue, and therefore anciently signified only the use of the tongue in speech. Speech, or the language of articulate sounds, is the most wonderful, the most delightful of the arts, thus taught by nature and reason; it is also the most perfect. It enables us as it were to express things beyond the reach of expression, the infinite range of being, the exquisite fineness of emotion, the intricate subtleties of thought ;of such effect are those shadows of the soul, those

living sounds, which we call words ! Compared with them, how poor are all other monuments of human power, or perseverance, or skill, or genius! They render the mere clown an artist, nations immortal, orators, poets, philosophers, divine ! To know the powers and employment of the tongue conduces greatly to strengthen and facilitate the operations of the mind.

It will now be necessary for us to explain what we mean by different classes of words. Take the following sentences as examples of the mode of teaching grammar.

Method of Parsing a Sentence. A good name is an inestimable treasure to the person

who is in possession of it, &c. A, indef. ar., prefixed to good name. Good, adj. pos. deg. comp., qualifying name, which is a noun, com., neut. gen., sing. num., nom. case, nom. lo is, which is a verb neut. ind. mood, pres. tense, third per. sing., agreeing in person and number with its nom. name; an, indef ar., prefixed to inestimable treasure; inestimable, adj. that has a superlative signification; treasure, com. noun, neut. gen., sing. num., nom. case, because it follows is, the verb to be through all its varieties requiring the same case after it as before it ; to,, which is a com. noun, mas. or fem. gen., sing. num., obj. case, governed by the prep. to; who, rel. pron., nom. case, because there is no other noun nearer the verb; is, verb neut., indic. mood, pres. tense, third per. sing., agreeing with person; in, prep., gov. possession, which is a noun, com. neut. gen., obj. case, governed by the prep. in; of, prep.; it. per. pron., neut. gen., sing. num., third per. neut., obj. case, governed by of

The following is the most improved mode of analysing sentences,

Learning confers so much superiority on those who

possess it, that they might probably have escaped all censure had they been able to agree among themselves.

What is the subject of the first affirmation ? Learning. What part of speech is learning? ' A noun, singular number, neuter gender, and nominative case. Is the word learning always a noun ? No; it is sometimes the active participle of a verb. What is here affirmed of learning? It confers. What part of speech is confers ? A verb, present tense, indicative mood, third person singular. How do you know that it is in the singular? Because it is of the same number and person with its subject, learning. What does learning confer? Superiority. In what case is superiority? In the objective case, because active verbs and their participles take after them the objective case. What qualifies superiority? Much, which is therefore an adjective. What part of speech is so ? An adverb joined to much. Adverbs are joined to verbs, adjectives, &c. On whom does learning confer superiority ? On those who possess it. What part of speech is on? A preposition. Of what use is on in the sentence? It points out the objects on whom learning confers superiority. What word represents these objects? Persons understood. What part of speech is those? A demonstrative pronoun, in the plural number, agreeing with persons. The demonstrative pronouns this and that agree with their nouns in number. What part of speech is who? A relative pronoun in the plural number, common gender, and third person.

How do you know that who is of the plural number? Because it agrees with its antecedent persons. Relative pronouns are of the same number, gender, and person with their antecedent. In what case is who? In the nominative case, because it

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