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is the subject of the verb possess. In what number and person is possess? In the third person plural, to agree with its subject who. What kind of verb is possess? An active verb. In what case is it? In the objective case, because active verbs and their participles take after them the objective case. What object is represented by the pronoun it? Learning. What other affirmation is made of those who possess learning? They might probably have escaped all censure. What joins the two clauses of the sentence? The conjunction that. Conjunctions join the clauses or members of sentences. Might any other conjunction have been used to connect these clauses? No; because in examples like the present, so must be followed by its correspondent conjunction that. Parse the other words in the clause in their order. They, a personal pronoun, subject of the verb might have escaped. Might have escaped, an active verb, indicative conditional mood, expressing an affirmation, depending on the unfulfilled condition had they been able to agree among themselves; it is in the past tense, third person plural of that mood. All, an adjective qualifying censure. Every adjective qualifies a noun expressed or understood. Censure, a noun, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case, following might have escaped. Active-transitive verbs and their participles take after them the objective case. In what mood is had been? In the conditional mood, because it expresses the condition on which the preceding affirmation depends. What word is qualified by the adjective able? The pronoun they, or persons, the noun for which it is used. Does the infinitive mood, to agree, follow a verb in the present example? No; it follows the adjective able. The infinitive mood sometimes follows a noun or an adjective, In what case is themselves? In the ob

jective case after the preposition among. Prepositions are followed by nouns and pronouns in the objective

case.

SYNTAX.

Rule I.

With what does a verb agree? A verb agrees with its nominative in number and person. How is the nominative to a verb known? The nominative to a verb is known by putting the question Who? or What? to the verb; as, I sing. Who sings? Ans. I. Does the infinitive ever supply the place of a nominative to a verb? The infinitive often supplies the place of a nominative to a verb; thus, To study is delightful. What is delightful? To study. Does as, equivalent to it, that, or which, ever supply it? As, equivalent to it, that, or which, likewise supplies the place of a nominative; thus, As far as regards his interest he will be sufficiently careful not to offend. Is a verb with its whole clause frequently construed as a nominative? A verb is frequently construed with its whole clause as a nominative: thus, His being at enmity with Cæsar was the cause of perpetual discord. When is the nominative suppressed? The nominative, when the verb expresses command or entreaty, is often suppressed; as, Honour the king, for honour ye the king. When is a noun singular joined to a plural verb? A noun singular used for a plural is joined to a plural verb; as, Ten sail of the line were descried at a distance. When is the verb placed before the nominative? The verb is sometimes placed before the nominative when the sentence is interrogative; as, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me? What would thou lovest denote? It would denote affirmation. On what does the place of the

nominative generally depend? In general the place of the nominative depends in some degree on its connection with other parts of the sentence.

Rule II.

Why do two or more substantives singular, denoting different things, require a plural verb? Two or more substantives singular, being equivalent to a plural, require a plural verb and plural representatives. Cato and Cicero were learned men, and they loved their country. Is this rule ever violated? Yes, in such examples as this: I do not think that leisure of life and tranquillity of mind, which fortune and your own wisdom has given you, would be better employed. When may the two nouns take a verb singular? When one subject is represented by two names, neither of which singly would express it with sufficient strength, and the noun singular is in juxtaposition with the verb, the two nouns may take a verb singular; as, Why is dust and ashes proud? When is "every officer and soldier claims" correct? Such an expression as 66 every officer and soldier claims" is correct; it signifies one individual under two different designations. "Every officer and every soldier claim" signifies two individuals; the verb is therefore in the plural number. Which phraseology is more agreeable to analogy? The latter sentence. "Neither you nor I is in fault." Which word is the nominative to the verb? Neither (a pronoun) may be considered the nominative to the verb. When the connective word is a preposition, and a noun singular the only nominative to the verb, why should the verb be put in the plural number? thus, The King with the Lords and Commons constitute an excellent form of government. Here, as three subjects collectively constitute the government, the verb, without impropriety, is put in the plural num

ber. When the nominatives are of different persons, which person is preferred? The first person is preferred to the second, and the second to the third; in other words, I and you, I and he, are the same as we; you and he the same as ye. Do we place the pronouns of the second and third person after that of the first? We place the pronoun of the second person before that of the third, and the pronouns of the first person after those of the second and third. A Roman would say, Ego et Cicero valemus. We should say, Cicero and I are well.

Rule III.

Is a plural verb employed, when of two or more substantives, one exclusively is the object of discourse? When of two or more substantives singular, one exclusively is the subject of discourse, a verb singular is employed; as John, James, or Andrew intends to accompany you, that is, one of the three, but not more than one. When may the different subjects be followed by a plural verb? When the predicate is to be applied to the different subjects, they may be followed by a plural verb. Neither you nor I are in fault.

Rule IV.

When do collective nouns take a singular verb? Collective nouns may have a singular or plural verb. My people do not consider; my people does not consider. If the term suggest the idea of number, what follows? The verb is preferably made plural; but if it suggest the idea of a whole it should be singular. In France the peasantry go barefoot. The court of Rome was not

without solicitude.

Rule V.

How do we ascertain the substantive with which the

adjective is connected? The substantive is ascertained by putting the question who or what, to the adjective; as, A ripe apple. What is ripe? The apple. Has every adjective a substantive either expressed or understood? Yes; as, The just shall live by faith, that is, the just man. When is the adjective not placed immediately before the substantive? The adjective is generally placed immediately before the substantive; as, A good man. Why is each an adjective singular? Each denotes two things separately (when used for every it is applied to more than two) and is therefore an adjective singular. To what is every applied? Every is applied to more than two subjects taken individually and is therefore of the singular number. Is all always an adjective plural? All is an adjective either singular or plural, and denotes the whole whether quantity or number; as, All men are mortal. What does much denote? Much denotes quantity and is of the singular number; as, Much fruit. Why is many plural? Many is an adjective of number, and therefore plural; as, Many men. What is the derivation of the words, much, many, more, most? They are Saxon derivatives. What is the correlative word to such? As. Such as are lovers of mankind; not, such who are. When is the comparative degree followed by of? The comparative is followed by of when selection is implied. Is the superlative followed by of? Yes; as, Hector was the bravest of the Trojans. When is the comparative followed by than? When opposition is signified; as, Wisdom is better than wealth. Is there an ambiguity in the adjective no? Yes, there is an ambiguity in the adjective no. Give examples. "No laws are better than the English," may mean either that the absence of all law is better than the English laws, or that no code of jurisprudence is superior to the English. Are adjectives sometimes improperly used

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