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have some covering, as hair, feathers, down, scales ; weapons of defence, as teeth, claws, horns, stings of various kinds. How are animals arranged and classified by naturalists? They are arranged according to the form and structure of their bodies : first, into classes, containing the distinguishing characteristics of the tribes; second, into orders and genera; and third, into species. What are the great divisions of the animal kingdom? It is divided into: 1, Vertebrated animals, or those having a spine or back-bone, such as quadrupeds and birds ; 2. Molluscous animals, or those having a soft texture, such as slugs and the inhabitants of shells; 3. Articulated or jointed animals, such as crabs and insects ; 4. Zoophytes, animal plants or radiated animals; such as star fish and medusæ. What distinguishes the first division of animals? The first division of animals is distinguished by all the animals having a bony spine or series of bones, which give firmness and support to the soft or fleshy parts of the body. It includes man, quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, and fishes. What distinguishes the mammalia or first class of animals? The animals of this class bring forth their young alive and suckle them with milk till they are of a certain age. What is the first order of animal existence? Man is the first in order of created beings.

SACRED HISTORY.

By whom was the Gospel first preached in Ethiopia ? By a Eunuch, a Jewish proselyte, who was treasurer to Candace the queen of the Ethiopians. By whom was the Gospel first preached at Antioch ? By the disciples that were scattered abro but iefly by Peter, and afterwards by Barnabas and Paul. What happened at Antioch about this time? Ať Antioch the disciples of Christ were first called Christians, and there was one Agabus, who came from Jerusalem, prophesied that there should be a great famine throughout all the world, which came to pass under the reign of the emperor Claudius Cæsar. What remarkable judgment of God fell upon Herod? Whilst he spake to some Phænician deputies about some offence they had given him, some of his parasites cried out, It is the voice of a God and not of a man. He received the impious flattery with pleasure. To punish him, an angel smote him directly with a most tormenting disease in his bowels, and he was eaten up of worms, after he had reigned seven or ten years, and had been the father of Agrippa, Bernice, Drusilla, and Alarianne. Who was Paul? He was a Jew of the tribe of Benjamin, and both his parents were Hebrews. He was born at Tarsus in Cilicia, and so was by birth a free citizen of Rome. He was of the sect of the Pharisees and was beyond many a strict observer of the law of Moses. What was his conduct towards the Christians while he continued a Pharisee? He thought it his duty by every way he could devise to vilify the name and oppose the religion and followers of Jesus, and he was zealous even to madness against them. He entered the houses of the Christians and dragged them to prison both men and women. He entered the synagogues where the Christians at any time were, caused them to be beaten with rods, and compelled them to blaspheme the name of Jesus as the condition of their liberation. What befel him on his way to Damascus? When near to Damascus he was suddenly surrounded by a surprising light from Heaven. Terrified he fell to the ground, and Saul heard our Saviour's voice in a majestic manner say to him, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? How did Saul employ himself im

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mediately after his conversion ? He began to preach the Gospel at Damascus, and many were converted. What effect had his preaching upon the Jews? They were confounded, and knew not what to think or say. They resolved to murder him. How was he received by the disciples at Jerusalem ? Having heard that he had been a great persecutor lately, they would not admit him into their society, until Barnabas related the manner and consequences of his conversion. He saw none of the Apostles but Peter and James the Less. Did he preach the Gospel at Jerusalem ? Yes, with such power

and zeal as the Jews could not resist. What befel him while praying in the temple? He fell into a trance, wherein he was caught up into the third heaven, and heard things which could not be understood on earth. Did he remain long in Jerusalem ? No; the Lord warned him to leave that city and go and preach among the Gentiles. He went down to Cesarea, and there embarked for Tarsus in Cilicia. How long did Paul remain in Cilicia ? He preached the Gospel in it for nearly five years; he went from thence with Barnabas to Antioch in Syria, where he had many converts. How long did Barnabas and Paul remain at Antioch in Syria ? They preached there about a year, after which they carried the collection for the poor saints to Jerusalem. What happened soon after their return to Antioch? Simon called Niger, Lucius, Manaen, and other preachers of the Gospel, directed by the Holy Ghost, sent them to preach the Gospel in other places, recommending them to the Lord by solemn prayer and fasting. Did they then receive the vocation of Apostles ? No; they had already been called to the Apostleship by Jesus Christ himself, and the imposition of hands which was now made use of was only to implore the blessing of Heaven on their mission to the Gentiles.

PROFANE HISTORY.

Who governed the Roman empire at the birth of Jesus Christ? Cæsar Augustus, who was the second emperor of Rome, having succeeded his uncle Julius Cæsar. What did he do after he had established universal peace and order in his vast empire? He required all his subjects and the value of their property to be enrolled in the public records, that he might know what subjects he had fit for war and what tax he might impose. How many enrolments did he make? He made three enrolments, the second of which was begun before our Saviour's birth and was not then finished, but was the occasion of his mother's and supposed father's journey to Bethlehem at the time of his nativity. What was the character of Augustus Cæsar's government? It was mild, and made a great part of the known world happy. How long did he reign? He died in the seventy-fifth year of his age, the fifty-sixth of his reign, and the fifteenth after our Saviour's birth. Who succeeded Augustus Cæsar? Tiberius, his wife's son by a former husband, whom he adopted to be his heir in the empire.

What was his character? In the beginning of his reign he behaved himself decently; but afterwards he became capricious, cruel, and oppressive. What happened during his reign? Jesus Christ was crucified under Pontius Pilate, whom Tiberius had made governor of Judea, about the thirteenth year of his reign. What proposal is Tiberius said to have made to the Senate of Rome? He is said to have made a proposal to enrol Jesus Christ among the Roman deities, on account of his many miracles, the multitude of his followers, and the common opinion that he was a God. Did the Senate comply with his proposal? No; they not ouly refused to comply, but even published an edict that all the Christians should be banished from the city. How long did Tiberius reign? He died in the seventyeighth year of his age and the twenty-third of his reign. Who succeeded him? Caius Caligula, the son of Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus, step-son of Cæsar Augustus. What happened during his reign? Pontius Pilate was banished to Vienne in Gaul.

UNIVERSAL HISTORY.

What are the two distinguishing features of the age of Charles the Fifth? The reformation of religion and the discovery of the New World. Who was pope when the reformation began? Pope Leo X. What proceedings of the pope gave rise to the reformation? The sale of indulgences, or remittances from the pains of purgatory. Who was the great German reformer, and in what year? Martin Luther, an Augustine Friar, and in the year 1517. In what part of Germany did he begin to preach? In Saxony. Who was the great friend and protector of Luther? Prince Frederick. What measures did the pope take against Luther? Leo X. condemned his tenets by a papal bull. What book did Luther write against the pope ? In a book called the Babylonish Captivity he applied all the scriptural attributes of the whore of Babylon to the papal hierarchy. What were the popish doctrines attacked by Luther ? The doctrines of transubstantiation, purgatory, the celibacy of the priests, and the refusal of the wine in the communion to the people. What sentence did the pope pronounce against Luther's book ? The book was condemned to the flames. How did Luther resent the burning of his book ? Luther took upon him to burn

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