« PreviousContinue »
(A') It provides that Parliament
shall fix the total sum and
the quotas to be raised. (B') This plan cannot guarantee
that Parliament will not interfere in the method chosen for raising taxes; for (1') Parliament would never
permit a colonial im-
(I') Lord North, himself, admits this. (II') Each colony will struggle against
every other colony to get an easier quota in the assignments made by
Parliament; and (III') If any colony refuses to pay its
quota, then England must collect
it by force of arms. 2. This experiment will prove fatal to the British
the ministry; for
hear all the claims of the colonies
giving up all other business. 3. This experiment will overwhelm the ministry
with perplexing problems; for
(6) Every alteration in quotas will require
months of negotiation. (c) If any colony refuses to pay its quota,
then taxes must be laid by Parliament in such a way as to prevent injury to
British trade; and (d) In case of refusal also, new schemes for
coercion must be invented.
succeed in remote countries; for
taxation in Bengal has proved that
I. The Affirmative in this case has proved the following
necessary to restore peace in America;
in America; C. Burke's policy of conciliation would not introduce
new and worse evils; and D. No other policy would be more satisfactory than
Burke's policy of conciliation.
established the proposition:
ciliation with the American colonies.
PART IV. MAKING THE PLEA
Preliminary Statement. - In the preceding main divisions
of this text an attempt has been made: First, under the general title, Beginning Principles, to give the student sufficient theory to enable him to begin intelligently the practice of debate; second, under the general title, Elements of Proof, to give him a thorough understanding of all the elements of proof that must be used in debate; and third, under the general title, Building the Case, to show how these various elements of proof should be assembled into a case. The purpose of the fourth and last main division of the text must be, therefore, to set forth the principles governing the most effective presentation of a case under the general title, Making the Plea.
This part of the text will develop: First, the subject of conviction in debate; second, the subject of persuasion in debate; third, the subject of speech-composition in debate; and fourth, the subject of strategy in debate.
Importance of Conviction in Debate. - Conviction is one of the most important processes that must be used in debate; for the only object in debate is to create or destroy belief in a proposition; and this object may be accomplished only by means of the twofold process of conviction and persuasion. 1 For lesson assignments on Conviction, see Appendix A.
Definition of Conviction and Persuasion. - Conviction is a process by which one is made to believe a proposition by seeing and understanding its truth; and persuasion is a process by which one is made to believe a proposition by feeling and appreciating its truth.
Conviction is a process that appeals to reason in order to get understanding; and persuasion is a process that appeals to the emotions in order to get action.
To be more specific: Conviction is a process by which the validity of all the proof in a case is made clear to the hearer; and persuasion is a process by which all the proof in a case is provided with interest and a motive for its acceptance.
Conviction is a process, therefore, that strives for clearness in proof, and persuasion is a process that strives to arouse interest and produce action.
Principles of Conviction. -- The various means by which the process of conviction secures clearness for the proof in a case are embodied in the rhetorical principles of:
Value of the Brief in Securing Conviction. — No better method for securing these qualities of unity, coherence, and emphasis in the preparation of a case can be devised, than the method of assembling proof in a brief according to the rules laid down for that subject in the preceding chapter ;? because, in a carefully constructed brief, every phase of the case is kept as a distinct unit; the relation of each point in the proof to every other point is made clear, showing the coherence of the whole case; and every point deserving emphasis is made conspicuous by the system of headings, subheadings, indentation, numbering, and lettering.
1 See pages 226–228,
Inadequacy of the Brief for Securing Conviction. - Perfect clearness for the case should be secured by means of the brief, but unfortunately the brief cannot be used in debate for the presentation of the case. To present a case, the debater must rely upon a speech, delivered not in headings and subheadings, but in paragraphs embodying the substance of the headings and subheadings. Under the principles of conviction, therefore, the debater must learn how to preserve in his speech those qualities of unity, coherence, and emphasis, that have given clearness to his brief.
Value of Unity. Because no man can think clearly on two problems at the same time, no quality in thought or composition is more valuable than unity. If a speech is to be perfectly clear, therefore, it must possess unity as a whole, unity in its main divisions, unity in its paragraphs, and unity in its sentences.
Unity of the Speech as a Whole. - The unity of an entire speech in debate consists in its having a single, central purpose that runs through every one of its parts. This single, central purpose is always to create or destroy belief in a definite proposition by making others see and feel its truth or its falsity.
To secure unity in an entire speech, a debater must choose a single proposition for its subject and then stick to this subject throughout the speech, allowing no deviation from the single, central purpose of creating or destroying belief in its truth. When the speech is complete, the debater him