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(A') It provides that Parliament

shall fix the total sum and

the quotas to be raised. (B') This plan cannot guarantee

that Parliament will not interfere in the method chosen for raising taxes; for (1') Parliament would never

permit a colonial im-
port duty on English

(c) It will promote civil discord; for

(I') Lord North, himself, admits this. (II') Each colony will struggle against

every other colony to get an easier quota in the assignments made by

Parliament; and (III') If any colony refuses to pay its

quota, then England must collect

it by force of arms. 2. This experiment will prove fatal to the British

Constitution; for
(a) It will establish a system of taxation by

the ministry; for
(I') The House of Commons could not

hear all the claims of the colonies
about their proper quotas without

giving up all other business. 3. This experiment will overwhelm the ministry

with perplexing problems; for
(a) The quotas never can be settled per-


(6) Every alteration in quotas will require

months of negotiation. (c) If any colony refuses to pay its quota,

then taxes must be laid by Parliament in such a way as to prevent injury to

British trade; and (d) In case of refusal also, new schemes for

coercion must be invented.
4. This experiment will bring you no revenue;

(a) It is based on taxation by imposition;

(6) Taxation by imposition is not likely to

succeed in remote countries; for
(I') British experience with this form of

taxation in Bengal has proved that
it is not likely to succeed.


I. The Affirmative in this case has proved the following

points :
A. Some change from the present policy of taxation is

necessary to restore peace in America;
B. Burke's policy of conciliation would restore peace

in America; C. Burke's policy of conciliation would not introduce

new and worse evils; and D. No other policy would be more satisfactory than

Burke's policy of conciliation.
II. The Affirmative maintains, therefore, that it has

established the proposition:
A. That England should adopt Burke's policy of con-

ciliation with the American colonies.





Preliminary Statement. - In the preceding main divisions

of this text an attempt has been made: First, under the general title, Beginning Principles, to give the student sufficient theory to enable him to begin intelligently the practice of debate; second, under the general title, Elements of Proof, to give him a thorough understanding of all the elements of proof that must be used in debate; and third, under the general title, Building the Case, to show how these various elements of proof should be assembled into a case. The purpose of the fourth and last main division of the text must be, therefore, to set forth the principles governing the most effective presentation of a case under the general title, Making the Plea.

This part of the text will develop: First, the subject of conviction in debate; second, the subject of persuasion in debate; third, the subject of speech-composition in debate; and fourth, the subject of strategy in debate.

Importance of Conviction in Debate. - Conviction is one of the most important processes that must be used in debate; for the only object in debate is to create or destroy belief in a proposition; and this object may be accomplished only by means of the twofold process of conviction and persuasion. 1 For lesson assignments on Conviction, see Appendix A.


Definition of Conviction and Persuasion. - Conviction is a process by which one is made to believe a proposition by seeing and understanding its truth; and persuasion is a process by which one is made to believe a proposition by feeling and appreciating its truth.

Conviction is a process that appeals to reason in order to get understanding; and persuasion is a process that appeals to the emotions in order to get action.

To be more specific: Conviction is a process by which the validity of all the proof in a case is made clear to the hearer; and persuasion is a process by which all the proof in a case is provided with interest and a motive for its acceptance.

Conviction is a process, therefore, that strives for clearness in proof, and persuasion is a process that strives to arouse interest and produce action.

Principles of Conviction. -- The various means by which the process of conviction secures clearness for the proof in a case are embodied in the rhetorical principles of:


1. Unity;
2. Coherence; and
3. Emphasis.


Value of the Brief in Securing Conviction. — No better method for securing these qualities of unity, coherence, and emphasis in the preparation of a case can be devised, than the method of assembling proof in a brief according to the rules laid down for that subject in the preceding chapter ;? because, in a carefully constructed brief, every phase of the case is kept as a distinct unit; the relation of each point in the proof to every other point is made clear, showing the coherence of the whole case; and every point deserving emphasis is made conspicuous by the system of headings, subheadings, indentation, numbering, and lettering.

1 See pages 226–228,

Inadequacy of the Brief for Securing Conviction. - Perfect clearness for the case should be secured by means of the brief, but unfortunately the brief cannot be used in debate for the presentation of the case. To present a case, the debater must rely upon a speech, delivered not in headings and subheadings, but in paragraphs embodying the substance of the headings and subheadings. Under the principles of conviction, therefore, the debater must learn how to preserve in his speech those qualities of unity, coherence, and emphasis, that have given clearness to his brief.


Value of Unity. Because no man can think clearly on two problems at the same time, no quality in thought or composition is more valuable than unity. If a speech is to be perfectly clear, therefore, it must possess unity as a whole, unity in its main divisions, unity in its paragraphs, and unity in its sentences.

Unity of the Speech as a Whole. - The unity of an entire speech in debate consists in its having a single, central purpose that runs through every one of its parts. This single, central purpose is always to create or destroy belief in a definite proposition by making others see and feel its truth or its falsity.

To secure unity in an entire speech, a debater must choose a single proposition for its subject and then stick to this subject throughout the speech, allowing no deviation from the single, central purpose of creating or destroying belief in its truth. When the speech is complete, the debater him

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