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the clapping of hands and the stamping of feet and the brawling and the shouting to the quiet chamber where the Fathers gathered in Philadelphia. I appeal from the spirit of trade to the spirit of liberty. I appeal from the Empire to the Republic. I appeal from the millionaire, and the boss, and the wire-puller, and the manager, to the statesman of the elder time, in whose eyes a guinea never glistened, who lived and died poor, and who left to his children and to his countrymen a good name, far better than riches. I appeal from the Present, bloated with material prosperity, drunk with the lust of empire, to another and a better age. I appeal

I from the Present to the Future and to the Past.” 1

Table of Means for Securing Persuasion. - So much has been said on the subject of persuasion, that the student, without doubt, may become confused by the mass of theory and illustration. To make clear at a glance all the different means of securing persuasion, the following table is inserted : I. Persuasion A. To Make Proof Interesting 1. By Inspiring Confidence in, and Respect for, the

Personality of the Speaker
(a) By Indirect Appeal — through:

(I') Uprightness
(II) Earnestness
(III') Modesty
(IV') Tact

(V') Dignity
(VI') Humor
(VII') Intellectuality
(VIII') Calmness

(IX') Aggressiveness

1 Denney, Duncan, McKinney, Argumentation and Debate, p. 364.

(6) By Direct Appeal — through:

(I') Vindication of One's Self (II') Attack on Character of One's Opponents (III') Acknowledgment of Favors

(IV') Tactful Praise of the Audience. 2. By Bringing Subject Vividly within Experience of

(a) By Direct Discourse — through

(I') The Pronouns, We and You
(II') The Imperative Mood
(III') Interrogation

(IV') Direct Quotation
(6) By Concreteness — through

(I') Exhibits

(I') Vivid Word-Pictures
(III) A Typical Instance
(IV') Contrasted Types

(V') Striking Analogies B. To provide a Motive for the Acceptance of Proof 1. By Associating the Proposition with Motives that

will Lead to its Acceptance — through:
(a) Love — by:

(I') Sympathy
(II') Admiration
(III') Gratitude
(IV') Hope

(V') Pride
(6) Hate — by :

(I') Indignation
(II) Contempt
(III') Revenge
(IV') Fear
(V') Shame

Summary of the Subject of Persuasion. — Throughout the whole process of pleading with an audience, a debater must constantly keep in mind the old, familiar saying that -"A man convinced against his will, is of the same opinion still.” Conviction, therefore, in a speech cannot be

, relied upon alone; for it does not touch the will: it merely affects the understanding. Conviction is a process that must be aided always by some other process, some auxiliary process, some process that touches the feelings, that stirs the emotions, and thereby leads to action in the form of accepting the proposition which the debater advocates. This auxiliary process, that may always be relied upon to come to the aid of conviction, is called the process of persuasion.

No process, therefore, in debate is more important than the process of persuasion; and no pains should be spared on the part of the debater to acquire skill in its use. This skill, a debater may acquire by observing carefully all the principles that enable him to inspire confidence in, and respect for, his own personality; that enable him to bring his subject vividly within the experience of his audience; and that enable him to associate his proposition with motives that lead to its acceptance.




General Problems of Speech-Composition. — When the student of debate has become familiar with all the different principles of conviction and persuasion, then he is qualified to undertake a consideration of general problems that must be faced in the process of speech-composition. These problems are: First, what method he should follow in the actual work of composition; and second, what plan he should adopt in composing the more important divisions of his speech.


Use of the Brief in Composition. — The value of an outline as a guide in the actual work of composition needs no demonstration here at this advanced stage in the study of debate, but the value of a brief as the outline for a speech needs careful consideration.3

The brief, it will be remembered, is a complete written outline of all the available proof in a case assembled with the purpose of establishing the truth of one side of the proposition, and arranged so as to make clear at a glance the relation of each part of the proof to all other parts and to the proposition.

The brief is extremely formal and extremely stereotyped in its style of expression. It aims merely to convince, and

1 For lesson assignments on Speech-Composition, see Appendix A.
2 See pages 36–37.
3 See pages 203–204.

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not to persuade the reader of the truth or falsity of a proposition. It contains, furthermore, all proof that is necessary to refute any argument that may be advanced by an opponent, and, therefore, much proof that would never be called for in a debate. By containing proof that is both constructive and destructive, it contains also much proof that the brief-maker should never advance in debate until his opponent has made its presentation necessary. For all these reasons, the brief as a whole in most cases should not be used directly as the outline of a speech; but should be used, rather, as a veritable mine of information and proof upon which the debater may draw in securing materials for his speech.

The brief may very well serve as the basis of a speech outline; but its materials, in some cases, may need rearrangement, in order that they may be better adjusted to the circumstances; and, in nearly all cases, many points need to be added for the sake of persuasion, and many other points need to be withheld from presentation until an opponent has taken the initiative in raising them for consideration.

Problems in Connection with Different Types of SpeechComposition. - When a suitable outline has been constructed, then various problems arise in connection with the composition of different types of speeches employed in debate. These problems are concerned with the proper methods of composition: First, for a written speech; second, for an extempore speech; and third, for a rebuttal speech.


(A) Composition of the Written Speech Problems in Connection with the Composition of a Written Speech. — The general problems in connection with a written speech are: First, when should the work of actual composition be undertaken? — Second, should the work of

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