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The following propositions are offered as material for criticism in connection with the study of Choosing the Subject : 1. All colleges should revise their admission requirements

especially in regard to the dead languages. 2. Something should be done to relieve the unbearable bur

dens inflicted upon people by the present income-tax

laws. 3. The official attitude of the United States government

toward Chinese and Japanese immigration should be

reversed. 4. The refusal of the United States government to ratify the

Treaty of Versailles was wise. 5. The United States should not adopt the British system of

responsible cabinet government. The following propositions were printed in The Literary Digest for April 1, 1922, as the demands of Turkey to which the Allied Powers must accede in order to restore harmony in the Near East: 1. The pre-war status must be restored in Constantinople

and the Allied occupation of this city must be imme

diately discontinued. 2. Smyrna, as well as other territories occupied by Greece,

must be unconditionally restored to Turkey. 3. No special privileges can be granted to the Christian mi

norities in territory of the Ottoman Empire, except those compatible with the Kemalist pact, as formulated by the National Assembly. Furthermore, the Allies must refrain from any intervention in favor of Armenians.

Propositions for Criticism


4. The Allies must recognize all the international treaties

concluded by the government of Angora. 5. Complete independence must be assured to Turkey in

military, economic, and financial questions. 6. The autonomous régime must be set up in Western Thrace,

while Eastern Thrace must be restored to Turkey. 7. Turkey will have the right to have the army and navy she

needs to protect herself from an eventual aggression. 8. The future status of the straits will be agreed to by Turkey

and Russia.

The following partial propositions are taken from the platform of the Foreign Trade Council which met in Cleveland on May 7, 1921 : 1. Immediate creation of foreign trade financing corpo

rations under the provision of the Edge Act. 2. Increasing of imports of raw materials and of merchan

dise not detrimental to existing industries of the United

States. 3. Delaying of the disposal of government-owned ships to

private owners until more favorable prices can be ob

tained. 4. Enactment of the maritime insurance law. 5. Adoption of a uniform letter of credit as urged by the

American Bankers' Association. 6. Enactment by Congress of a bargaining tariff. 7. Reorganization of the foreign service of the United States

to provide unified supervision. 8. Creation of a foreign service trade training academy pat

terned after West Point. 9. Increased congressional appropriation for the bureau of

foreign and domestic commerce and a bureau of standards

of the department of commerce, 10. Enactment of the China trades act to permit the forma

tion of American companies to trade in China on a plan of tax equality with foreign competitors.


11. Removal of income tax upon American citizens living

abroad, and deriving their income from abroad. 12. Taxation of foreign postal communication and inter

national parcels post. 13. Creation of congressional standing committees of foreign

commerce. 14. Development of national waterways. 15. Expansion of international telegraphic communication

under American control and operation. 16. Approval of the policy of the State Department regard

ing mandates.



The following excerpts are taken from the speeches delivered by the counsel for and against Louis Wagner, put on trial for his life, on a charge of murdering Karen and Anethe Christensen, at the Isles of Shoals, off Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1873.

The theory of the prosecution was that Wagner, a fisherman, rowed in a small boat from Portsmouth to the Shoals on the night of the murder, when he knew the two women were alone on the island, called Smutty Nose Island; that he murdered the two women, robbed them of their savings, and then returned before morning to his boarding house at Mrs. Johnson's, pretending that he had got drunk and was delayed until late in getting home.

First Excerpt — from the Speech for the Defense

The first proofs I direct your attention to are concerning the declarations of Wagner before the homicide, coming from Hontvet, Inglebretzen, Lee, and Charlie Johnson.

Mr. Inglebretzen tells you that Wagner told him three months before the murder, fixing the time first about three 5 weeks before Christmas, and then sizing it down to the 20th of December, "that he was going to have money if he had to murder for it.” He does not stop there. He does not give you that simple general statement that he is going to have money if he has to murder for it that is not quite 10 enough for him, but he goes and tells you he was going to have it in three months. And you will notice, gentlemen, that he fixes the time when the conversation took place a very little less than three months before the homicide, evi

dently intending to have you believe it was in the general 15 form that some make it, but he wants it minute, he wants to connect it with this transaction if possible, and, with no reason given or to be given, he puts it December 20.

Now Mr. Lee comes along and truthfully or under the guiding hand of somebody undertakes to add more to it 20 and says

that he told him that if he could get a boat to go down to the Shoals, he could get money enough down there. It was another conversation, as he says, but the design was to point to this transaction which took place within three months.

25 Charlie Johnson says that within a week or ten days of this transaction he told him he was going to have money if he had to murder for it, and Charlie wants to make certain of this and so he says Wagner repeated it a number of different times to him and told it in his father's bar-room 30 in the presence of Kenniston, but you will remember that Kenniston does not remember any such thing.

Now what is this kind of stuff in for? Does the government officer intend to argue that Wagner on the 20th of December intended to murder these women, or that at the time 35 Lee puts it he intended to go down to the Shoals and rob these women, or that he intended this homicide and told Charlie Johnson repeatedly of it and declared it openly in the bar-room? Do you mean to say that he went around proclaiming he was going to commit this murder? If this 40 was true, he is a fit subject for the insane hospital, and if you believe their statements you must find him not guilty by reason of insanity. Who ever heard of a man going around and making proclamation of his intention to commit such a crime? Gentlemen, it is pure fabrication by these 45 ignorant men, supposing it will convict the prisoner. Hontvet, and Inglebretzen, and Charlie Johnson are bound to convict him. Their imprecations upon him filled the air as he was led from prison in Portsmouth and their missiles were hurled at him to kill him.


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