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book will be found useful to many practitioners of medicine who may wish to keep themselves in touch with the development of modern physiology. For this class of readers references to literature are not only valuable, but frequently essential, since the limits of a text-book forbid an exhaustive discussion of many points of interest concerning which fuller information may be desired.

The numerous additions which are constantly being made to the literature of physiology and the closely related sciences make it a matter of difficulty to escape errors of statement in any elementary treatment of the subject. It cannot be hoped that this book will be found entirely free from defects of this character, but an earnest effort has been made to render it a reliable repository of the important facts and principles of physiology, and, moreover, to embody in it, so far as possible, the recent discoveries and tendencies which have so characterized the history of this science within the last few years.

CONTENTS OF VOLUME I.

PAGE

INTRODUCTION (By W. H. HOWELL).

17

Definition of physiology and protoplasm, 17--Animal and plant physiology, 17– Vital

irritability, 18-Nutrition, assimilation and disassimilation, anabolism, katabolism,

metabolism, 19—Reproduction, 20, 28-Contractility and conductivity, 20-Physiologi.

cal division of labor, 2.2--- Pflüger hypothesis of the structure of the living molecule,

23-Loew's and Lathan's hypothesis of the structure of the living molecule, 23—The

chemical structure of proteids, protamine, 24-Physical structure of living matter, 24

– Vital force, 25–Secretion and absorption, 27—Heredity and consciousness, 28—Gen-

eral and special physiology, 29—Methods of investigation used in the science of

physiology, 30.

BLOOD (By W. H. HOWELL)

33

A. GENERAL PROPERTIES 5-PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CORPUSCLES

33

Histological structure of blood, 33– Definition of blood-piasma, blood-serum, and

defibrinated blood, 33-Reaction of blood, 34--Specific gravity of blood, 34--Histology

of red corpuscles, 35--Condition of the hæmoglobin in the red corpuscles, 35–Laking

of blood, 35-Globulicidal and toxic action of blood-serum, 36-Isotonic, hypertonic,

hypotonic solutions, 36-Nature and amount of hæmoglobin, 37-Compounds of hæmo-

globin with O), CO, NO, and CO2, 38-The iron of the bæmoglobin molecuie, 39- Hæmo-

globin crystals, 40— Absorption spectra of hæmoglobin, 40— Derivative compounds of

hemoglobin, 44-Origin and fate of the red corpuscles, 4.5—Variations in the number

of red corpuscles, 16—Morphology and physiology of the leucocytes, 47--Physiology

of the blood plates, 49.

B. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE BLOOD-COAGULATION—TOTAL QUANTITY OF

BLOOD--REGENERATION AFTER HEMORRHAGE

50

Composition of the plasma and corpuscles, 50—Proteids of the blood plasma, 51–

Serum albumin, 52- Paraglobulin, 53-Fibrinogen, 53-Coagulation of blood, super-

ficial appearances, 54–Time of clotting, 55–Theories of coagulation, 55—Nature and

origin of fibrin ferment, 58--Intravascular clotting, 60— Means of hastening or retard-

ing clotting, 61– Total quantity of blood in the body, 63-Regeneration of the blood

after hemorrhage, 63—Transfusion of blood and salines, 64.

C. DIFFUSION AND OSMOSIS, AND THEIR IMPORTANCE IN THE BODY

65

Osmotic pressure, 65—Calculation of, 67-Electrolysis, 67—Grammolecular solutions,

67-Osmotic pressure of proteids, 69–Diffusion of proteids, 70.

LYMPH (By W. H. HOWELL).

70

Lymph-vascular system, 70- Formation of lymph, theories of, 70—The factors con-

trolling the flow of lymph, 75, 145— Pressure in lymph-vessels, 146– Effect of thoracic
aspiration on lymph-flow, 147-Effect of body movements and valves on lymph-flow,
147.

79

D. THE CAUSES OF THE PRESSURE IN THE ARTERIES, CAPILLARIES, AND VEINS . . . 91

Balance of the factors producing arterial pressure, 92—The arterial pulse, 93—The

capillary pressure and its cause, 93-Extinction of the arterial pulse in the capillaries,

94--Venous pressure and its causes, 94--Subsidiary forces assisting the blood-flow, 95-

Respiratory pulse in the veins, 96— The dangerous region, entrance of air into veins, 97.

E. THE VELOCITY OF THE BLOOD IN ARTERIES, CAPILLARIES, AND VEINS . .

98

Measurement of velocity in large vessels. Stromuhr, 98—Measurement of rapid

changes in velocity, 100— Velocity and pressure of blood compared, 101-- Relation of

velocity to the sectional area of the vascular bed, 102—Time spent by blood in

capillary, 103.

F. THE BLOOD-FLOW THROUGH THE LUNGS

103

G. The PULSE VOLUME AND THE WORK DONE BY THE VENTRICLES

The cardiac cycle, 104—The pulse volume, 105—The work of the ventricles, 106-

Heart's contraction as a source of heat, 108.

II. THE MECHANISM OF THE VALVES OF THE HEART

108

Use of the valves, 108-The auriculoventricular valves, 108-- Use of the tendinous

cords, 109-The papillary muscles and their uses, 110—The semilunar valves, 110–

Lunulæ and corpora arantii, 111.

I. THE CHANGES IN FORM AND Position OF THE BEATING HEART, AND THE CARDIAC

IMPULSE .

112

General changes in the heart and arteries, 112— The heart and vessels in the open

chest, 113-Changes of size and form in the beating ventricles, 113—Changes of posi-

tion of the ventricle, 114-Changes in the auricle, great veins, and great arteries, 115

- Effects of opening the chest, 115-Probable changes in heart in the unopened chest,

116—The cardiac impulse cr apex beat, 117.

J. THE SOUNDS OF THE HEART.

118

Relations and character of the heart-sounds, 118-Cause of the second sound, 118—

Causes of the first sound, 119.

K. THE FREQUENCY OF THE CARDIAC CYCLES

121

L. THE RELATIONS IN TIME OF THE MAIN EVENTS OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE. 121

The auricular, ventricular, and cardiac cycles, 122—The variability of each cycle,

123—-Relative lengths of ventricular systole and diastole, 123—-Lengths of auricular

systole and heart pause, 124.

M. THE PRESSURE WITHIN THE VENTRICLES

125

Range of pressure within ventricles, 125- Methods of recording ventricular press-

ures, 126—General character of curve of intraventricular pressure, 128- Etfect of

auricular systole on the curve of ventricular pressure, 130—The opening and closing

of the heart valves in relation to the curve of ventricular pressure, 130— Analysis of

the curve of ventricular pressure, 133—Negative pressure within the ventricles, 134.

N. THE FUNCTIONS OF THE AURICLES

135

The auricle as a force pump. 135— Time relations of auricular systole and diastole,

136-Statement of functions of auricles, 136—Negative pressure within the auricles,

137—- Is the auricle emptied by its systole ? 138-Question of regurgitation from auri-

cles to veins, 138.

0. THE ARTERIAL PULSE

139

Nature and importance of the arterial pulse, 139— Rate of transmission of the pulse-

wave, 140----Frequency and regularity of the pulse, 141- Arterial tension as indicated

by the pulse, 141-Size and celerity of pulse, 141-The pulse-trace, or sphygmogram,

112-Analysis of the sphygmogram, 143—The dierotic wave, 113—The diagnostic use

of the sphygmogram, 145.

PART 11.—THE INVERVATION OF THE HEART (By W. T. PORTER)

148

The cause of the rhythmic heart-beat, 148— The intracardiac ganglion cells and

nerves, 145—The nerve theory of the heart-beat. 149–The muscular theory of the
heart-beat, 150—The excitation wave and its passage over the heart, 152— The passage
of the excitation wave from auricle to ventricle, 154-The refractory period and com-

pensatory pause, 136.

A. THE CARDIAC NERVES

Anatomical arrangement of the heart nerves, 159—The inhibitory nerves, 161-

Effect of inhibition on the ventricles 162– Effect of inhibition on the auricle and

sinus, 161-Effect of inhibition on the bulbus arterio-us, 165— Effect of inhibition on

the irritability of the heart. 16.5 - Relation of inhibition to rate and strength of stim-

ulus, 105– Arrest of the heart in spatole. 105-Comparative inhibitory power of the

two vagi, 166– Effect of the sptal nerves on the inhibition, 166— Theories of the

11 ture of vagus inhibition, 166--- Relation of age, temperature, and intracardiac press-

to inhibition. 167 - The augmentor or accelerator nerves of the heart, 167--- Effect

ulating the augmentor nerves. 169 -- Simultaneous stimulation of the accelerator

hibitors fibres, 170-Classification of the inhibitory and augmentor fibres. 171-

centripetal nerves of the heart, 17!-- Existence of sensory nerves in the heart,

172— The depressor nerve of the heart, 172-Analysis of the effect of stimulation of

the depressor nerve, 173—Retlex effect of sensory nerves on the heart, 175—Reflex

etfects through the sympathetic system on the heart, 175.

B. THE CENTRES OF THE HEART-NERVES

176

The inbibitory centre, 176—Tonus of the inhibitory centre, 176—Origin of the car-

dio-inhibitory fibres, 177-Position of the augmentor centre, 177--Action of higher

parts of the brain on the cardiac centres, 178—The existence of peripheral reflex

centres, 178-Ligatures of Stamuins, 178.

PART III.—THE NUTRITION OF THE HEART (By W. T. Porter)

Spongy structure of frog's heart, 179—The coronary arteries in the dog, 179—The

terminal nature of coronary arteries, 180—The effect of closure of the coronary arte-

ries, 181–The cause of the arrest of the heart after closure of the coronary arteries,

182—Fibrillary contractions and recovery from, 183—Closure of the coronary veins,

184–The volume of the coronary circulation, 184- The effect of the heart-contractions

on the coronary circulation, 185--The vessels of Thebesius and the coronary veins,

186—Blood-supply and heart-beat, 186--Lymuphatics of the heart, 186.

C. SOLUTIONS WHICH MAINTAIN THE BEAT OF THE HEART

187

Methods of nourishing the heart with solutions, 187--The composition and action of

nutrient solutions, 189--The effect of CO2, organic substances, and physical character-

istics of nutrient solutions, 191-Nourishment of tbe isolated mammalian heart, 191.

Part IV.-THE INNERVATION OF THE BLOOD-VESSELS (By W. T. Porter). .

192

Historical account of the discovery of vaso-inotor nerves, 192—Methods of demon-

strating vaso-motor phenomena, 195—Experimental distinctions between vaso-constric-

tor and vaso-dilator nerve-fibres, 196— Anatomical course of vaso-motor fibres, 197–

Vaso-motor centre in the medulla, 198–Vaso-motor centres in the spiual cord, 199

Sympathetic vaso-motor centres-peripheral tone, 200-Rhythmical changes in vascular

tone, 201— l'aso-motor retlexes, 201, 202, Relation of cerebrum to vaso-motor centres,

202—Pressor and depressor fibres, 202— Vaso-motor fibres to the brain, 203—Vaso-motor

fibres to the head, 204-Vaso-motor fibres to the lungs, 205--Vaso-motor fibres to the

heart, 206—Vaso-motor fibres to the intestines, 206—Vaso-motor fibres to the liver, 206

– Vaso-motor nerves of the kidney, 207– Vaso-motor nerves of the spleen, 207-- Vaso-

motor nerves of the pancreas, 207– Vaso-motor nerves of the external generative organs,

207---Vaso-motor nerves of the internal generative organs, 208—Vaso-motor nerves of

the portal system, 209–Vaso-motor nerves of the limbs, muscles, and tail, 209.

SECRETION (By W. H. HOWELL)

211

A. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

211

Definition of gland and secretion, 211–Types of glandular structure, 212–Older

views of secretion and excretion, 213-General proofs that gland cells take an active

part in secretion, 214--Filtration through living and dead tissues, 215.

B. MucOUS AND ALBUMIXOUS GLANDS-SALIVARY GLANDS

215

Distinction between mucous and albuminous glands, 215-Goblet cells as unicellular

mucous glands, 216– Anatomical relations of salivary glands, 217--Nerve-supply to

salivary glands, 218-Histology of salivary glands, 219-Composition of the saliva,

220-Siguificance of the potassium sulphocyanide in saliva, 221-Discovery of secre-

tory nerve-tibres to the salivary glands, 221-Distinction between “chorda" and

"sympathetic " saliva, 22:2—Effect of varying the strength of the stimulus upon the

composition of the saliva, 223--Theory of trophic and secretory fibres, 224 – Vacuoles

in gland cells during secretion, 2:26 — Histological changes in glands as a result of func-

tional activity, 226 - Action of atropin, pilocarpin, and nicotin on secretory fibres, 229

- The normal mechanism of salivary secretion, 230-Electrical changes in the salivary

glands during secretion, 231.

C. THE PANCREAS-GLANDS OF THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES .

231

Anatomical relations of the pancreas, 231-Histological characters of the pancreas,

231-Composition of the pancreatic secretion, 232-Secretory nerves of the pancreas,

232—Histological changes in pancreatic cells during secretion, 233—Distinction

between enzymes and zy mogens, 235 – The normal mechanism of the pancreatic secre-

tion, 235-The histological characteristics of the gastric glands, 237--Composition of

the gastric secretion, 238--Secretory nerves of the gastric glands, 239—The normal

mechanism of the gastric secretiou, 240-Histological changes in the gastric glands

during secretion, 242-The secretion of the intestinal glands, 243.

D. LIVER AND KIDNEY .

244

Histology of liver in relation to the bile-ducts, 244–Composition of the bile, 21.5—

The quantity of bile secreted, 246— Relation of the blood-flow to the secretion of bile,

247--Secretory nerve-fibres to the liver cells, 247--Motor innervation of the bile-ducts

and gall-bladder, 248- The normal mechanism of the bile secretion, 248– Effect of

occlusion of the bile-ducts, 249— Histological characteristics of the kidney, 249-Com-

position of the urine, 250-General theories of the secretion of urine, 251-Secretion

of urea and related nitrogenous bodies, 252-Secretion of the water and salts, 253—

The blood-flow through the kidney and its relations to secretion, 255.

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