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Five civilized tribes.1

4,100

Whites unlawfully on reserves..

MISSIONARY STATISTICS OF OTHER THAN THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES. Missionaries 1 ....

129 Church buildings . Amount contributed for education by religions societies?

$115, 325 Aniount contributed for other purposes by religious societies 3.

$52, 706

Civilized tribes.

Missionaries
Church buildings!
Amount contributed for education by religious societies?
Amount contributed for other purposes by religious societies?

93

178 $13,578 $17, 651

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Support and payment of Indians.3 Annuity goods.....

$371, 073. 79 Subsistence supplies

2,160, 967.92 Purchase and inspection of annuity goods and supplies..

24, 803. 12 Advertising expenses and telegraphing

21, 196, 88 1 Report of India Commissioner, 1884, p. 302. ? Ibid., 1833, p. 284. 3 Partial report. *Ibid., 1884, p. xviii.

Expenses of transportation and storage...
Payment of annuity in money

$285, 148.76 298, 666. 56

Total......

$3, 161, 857,03 In this amount are included : 1 A special appropriation for the subsistence of the Arapahoes, Cheyennes, Apaches, Kiowas, Comanches, and Wichitas, 1884....

$413,000.00 A like appropriation for the subsistence of the Arickarees, Gros Ventres, and Mandaus, 1884...

38,000.00 For the Assinaboines in Montana, 1884.

15, 000,00 For the Blackfeet, Bloods, and Piegans, 1834.

35,000.00 For the Chippewas of Lake Superior....

15,000.00 Chippewas of Red Lake and Pembina, 1884.

15,000.00 Chippe was, Turtle Monntain band, 1884.

9,000.00 Chippewas on White Earth Reservation.

8,000.00 Confederated tribes and bands in middle Oregon, 1884.

7,000.00 D’Wamish and other allied tribes in Washington, 1884.

8,000.00 Flathead and other confederated tribes, 1884...

13,000.00 Gros Ventres in Montana, 1884....

18,000.00 Kansas Indians, 1884..

5,000.00 Kickapoos, 1884

6,000.00 Makahs, 1894

5,000.00 Monomonees, 1884...

5,000.00 Modocs in the Indian Territory, 1884.

5,000.00 Navajoes, 1-84......

30,000.00 Nez Percés of Joseph band, 1834.

20,000.00 Quinaielts and Quillehutes, 1884.

5,000.00 Shoshones in Wyoming, 1884.

15,000.00 Sioux of Lake Traverse, 1834.

8,000.00 Sioux of Devil's Lake, 1884.

8,000.00 S'Klallams, 1881.

5,000.00 Tonkawas at Fort Griflin, Tex., 1884.

3,000.00 Walla-Walla, Cayuse, and Umatilla tribes, 1831

8,000.00 Yakamas and other Indians, 1884....

20,000.00 Indians in Arizona and New Mexico, 1884.

300,000.00 Indians of Central Superintendency

18,000.00 Indians of Fort Hall Reservation, 1834..

20,000.00 Indians of Fort Peck Agency, 1884.

70,000.00 Indians of Klamath Agency, 1884.

6,000.00 Indians of Lemhi Agency

19,000.00

Total......

. $1,175,000.00

The extinction of game throws some tribes temporarily on the Government for subsistence, so that this class of expenditure can not be ex. pected to disappear eutirely for some time to come, though the amount will undoubtedly diminish from year to year, as habits of industry and providence increase among the Indians.

Besides the expenditure already stated, the United States annually pays a large sum as interest due certain tribes on stocks and bonds, and trust funds in the Treasury. The amount of Indian trust funds,

1 Report of Indiau Commissioner, 1884, pp. 236, 240.

1

according to the report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the year 1881,' wasStock and bonds held in trust

$1,800, 016. 83 Funds in United States Treasury to credit of Indians.

16,668, 233. 84 Total.......

18,468, 250.67 The interest on the above paid to or expended for the Indians, viz: On stock and bonds......

.... $112, 341.01 On funds in United States Treasury, uninvested

821,511. 59 Total.

933, 852.60 In the appropriation for current and contingent expenses of the Indian Department" a part of this sum is included; and it is sometimes forgotten that this money is a payment made to the Indians as an income earned by their own funds, and not bestowed as gratuity.

The picture presented by these statistics varies from year to year; happily the change is in the line of self-support and civilization. For later statistics see Report of the Indian Cominissioner for 1006.

CHAPTER VI.

INDIAN EDUCATION.

2

On the 12th of July, 1775, the Continental Congress appropriated $500 for the education of Indian youth at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire.

The Mohegans declared that year to the commissioners, appointed to treat with the Indians at Albany, “their desire to have teachers and in. structors among them which the commissioners promised to report to Congress." In December of the same year Captain White Eyes, a Delaware chief, being introduced to Congress, the President said: “We will send you, according to your desire, a minister and a schoolmaster.” This promise was renewed on April 10, 1776. Similar requests were made in behalf of the Queidas.5

Cornplanter, speaking for the Senecas, said to the President:

Father, you give us leave to speak our minds concerning the tilling of the ground. We ask you to teach us to plow and to grind corn; to assist us in building saw-mills, and to supply us with broad axes, saws, augers, and other tools, so that we may make oor houses more comfortable and more durable; that you will send smiths among us, and, above all, that you will teach our children to read and write, and our women to spin and to weave. The manner of your doing these things for us we leave to you, who understand them; but we assure you that we will follow your advice as far as we are able.

Father, you have not asked any security for peace on our part, but we have agreed to send nine Seneca boys, to be under your care for education. Tell us at what time you will receive them, and they shall be sent at the time you shall appoint. This will assure you that we are, indeed, at peace with you, and determined to continue 80. If you can teach them to become wise and good men, we will take care that our nation shall be willing to receive instruction from them.6

General Washington replied, through the Secretary of War: You will also inform the Indians how desirons tbe President of the United States is that the Indians should have imparted to them the blessings of busbandry, and the arts, and of his willingness to receive the young sons of some of their principal chiefs, for the twofold purpose of teaching them to read and write, and to instruct them fully in the arts of husbandry. If they shonld readily accede to this proposition, you may receive the children to be educated, either at the time of the treaty, or at such other time aod place as you may agree."

On February 5, 1776, the Committee on Indian Affairs reported : Tbat a friendly commerce between the people of the United Colonies and the Indians, and the propagation of the Gospel, and the cultivation of the civil arts among

American Archives, 4th series, Vol. II, col. i879. ' Ibid., 5th series, Vol. I, col. 903. 3 Ibid., 4th series, Vol. III, col 1953. * Ibid., Vol. V, col. 1663. 5th series, Vol. I, cols. 902, 903. American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 144. *Ibid., p. 166. S. Ex. 95 -11

161

6 Ibid.,

the latter, may produce many and inestimable advantages to both, and that the commissioners for Indian affairs be desired to consider of proper places, in their respective departments for the residence of ministers and school-masters, and report the same to Congress.

On May 22, 1792, the following was included in the instruction to Brig. Gen. Rusus Putnam, who was sent to negotiate with the late hostile Indians near Lake Erie :

That the United States are highly desirous of imparting to all the Indian tribes the blessivge of civilization, as the only means of perpetuating them on the earth. That we are willing to be at the expense of teaching them to read and write, to plow and to sow, in order to raise their own bread and meat, with certainty, as the white peo

ple do.2

The first treaty agreement providing for any forın of education was made December 2, 1794, with the Oneida, Tuscarora, and Stockbridge Indians, who had faithfully adhered to the United States during the Revolution. For three years one or two persons were to be employed to instruct in the arts of the miller and sawyer.3

The second treaty agreement for education was with the Kaskaskias, Angust 13, 1803, wherein the United States promised to give annually for seven years $100 toward the support of a Roman Catholic priest, who, beside the duties of his office, was “to instruct as many of the chil. dren as possible in the rudiments of literature." 4

The treaties negotiated during the fifteen years following make no mention of education. They were mainly devoted to cessions of land and to the establishing of peace after the disturbances incident to the war of 1812. The great religious awakening which occurred about that period and which resulted in the formation of missionary associations and the Bible and the tract societies made itself felt in a revival of in. terest in Indian education and civilization.

On January 22, 1818 the House Committee on Indian Affairs re. ported :

We are induced to believe that nothing which it is in the power of Government to do would have a more direct tendency to produce this desirable object (civilization] than the establishment of schools at convenient and safe places amongst those tribes friendly to us. The committee are aware that many plausible objections may be raised against the proposed measure; but we believe that all difficulties on this subject may be surmounted, and that the great object may be carried into practical effect. In the present state of our country one of two things seems to be necessary. Either that those sons of the forest should be moralized or exterminated. Humanity would rejoice at the former, but shrink with borror from the latter. Put into the hands of their children the primer and the hoe, and they will naturally, in time, take hold of the plow, and as their minds become enlightened and expand the Bible will be their ok, and they will grow up in habits of morality and industry, leave the chase to those whose minds are less cultivated, and become useful members of society. The committee believe that increasing the number of trading-posts, and establishing schools on or near our frontiers for the education of Indian children, would be atteuded with beneficial effects both to the United States and the Indian tribes, and

American Archives, 4th series, Vol. IV, col. 1662. 2 American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol.I, p.235. 3 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. II, p. 48, art. 3. * Ibid., p. 79, art. 3.

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