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authority and funds to relieve them; but you may yourself, or allow General Crook, to appoint these temporary agents regardless of rank.
The citizens of Arizona should be publicly informed of these events, and that the military bave the command of the President to protect these Indians on their reservations, and that under no pretense must they invade them, except under the leadership of the commanding officer having charge of them.
The boundaries of these reservations should also be clearly defined, and any changes io them suggested by experience should be reported, to the end that they may be modified or changed by the highest anthority.
After general notice to Indians and whites of this policy, General Crook may feel assured that whatever measures of severity he may adopt to reduce these Apaches to a peaceful and subordinate condition will be approved by the War Department and the President. I am, your obedient servant,
W. T. SHERMAN, General.
EXECUTIVE MANSION, December 14, 1872. It is hereby ordered that the following tract of country be, and the same is hereby, withheld from sale and set apart as a reservation for certain Apache Indians in the Territory of Arizona, to be known as the “Chiricabua Indian Reservation,” viz:
Beginning at Dragoon Springs, near Dragoon Pass, and running thence northeasterly along the north base of the Chiricahua Mountains to a point on the summit of Peloncillo Mountains or Stevens Peak range; thence running southeasterly aloug said range through Stevens Peak to the boundary of New Mexico; thence running south to the boundary of Mexico; thence running westerly along said boundary 55 miles; thence running northerly, following substantially the western base of the Dragoon Mountains, to the place of beginning.
It is also hereby ordered that the reservation heretofore set apart for certain Apache Indians in the said Territory, known as the “Camp Grant Indian Reservation," be, and the same is hereby, restored to the public domain.
It is also ordered that the following tract of country be, and the same is hereby, withheld from sale and added to the White Mountain Indian Reservation in said Territory, which addition shall hereafter be known as the “San Carlos division of the White Mountain Indian Reservation,” viz:
Commencing at the southeast corner of the White Mountain Reservation as now established, and running thence south to a line 15 miles south of and parallel to the Gila River; thence west along said line to a point due south of the southwest corner of the present White Mountain Reservation; thence north to the said southwest corner of the aforesaid White Mountain Reservation, and thence along the southern boundary of the same to the place of beginning; the said addition to be known as the "San Carlos division of the White Mountaiu Reservation,” which will make the entire boundary of the White Mountain Reserve as follows, viz:
Starting at the point of intersection of the boundary between New Mexico and Arizona with the south edge of the Black Mesa, and following the southern edge of the Black Mesa to a point due north of Sombrero or Plumoso Butte; thence due south to said Sombrero or Plumoso Butte; thence in the direction of the Piache Colorado to the crest of the Apache Mountains, following said crest down the Salt River to Pinal Creek to the top of the Pinal Mountains; thence due south to a point 15 miles south of the Gila River; thence east with a line parallel with and 15 miles south of the Gila River to the boundary of New Mexico; thence nortb along said boundary line to its intersection with the south edge of the Black Mesa, the place of beginning.
U. S. GRANT. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
Washington, D. C., July 30, 1873. Russpectfully submitted to the President, with the recommendation that all that portion of the valley of the Gila River in the Territory of Arizona hitherto included
in the San Carlos division of the White Mountain Indian Reservation, as established by executive order, dated December 14, 1872, lying east of and above the site of old Camp Goodwin, be restored to the public domain, as recommended by the Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
B. R. COWEN,
EXECUTIVE MANSION, August 5, 1873. Agreeable to the above recommendation of the Acting Secretary of the Interior, it is hereby ordered that the land therein described be restored to the public domain.
U. S. GRANT.
EXECUTIVE MANSION, July 21, 1874. It is hereby ordered that all that portion of the White Mountain Indian Reservation in Arizona Territory lying east of 109° 30' west longitude be restored to the public domain.
U. S. GRANT.
EXECUTIVE MANSION, April 23, 1875. All orders establishing and setting apart the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, in the Territory of Arizona, described as follows: "All that portion of country adjoining on the northwest side of and above the military reservation of this (Camp Verde) post, on the Verde River, for a distance of 10 miles on both sides of the river to the point wbere the old wagon road to New Mexico crosses the Verde, supposed to be a distance up the river of about 45 miles," are hereby revoked and annulled ; and the said described tract of country is hereby restored to the public domain.
U. S. GRANT.
EXECUTIVE MANSION, April 27, 1876. It is hereby ordered that all that portion of the White Mountain Indian Reservation in Arizona Territory lying west of the following-described line, viz: Commencing at the northwest corner of the present reserve, a point at the southern edge of the Black Mesas, due north of Sombrero or Plumoso Butte; thence due south to said Sombrero or Plumoso Butte; thence southeastwardly to Chromo Peak; thence in a southerly direction to the mouth of the San Pedro River; thence due south to the southern boundary of the reservation, be, and the same hereby is, restored to the public domain.
U. S. GRANT. Chiricahua Reserve. 1
EXECUTIVE MANSION, October 30, 1876. It is hereby ordered that the order of December 14, 1872, setting apart the following-described lands in the Territory of Arizona as a reservation for certain Apache Indians, viz: Beginning at Dragoon Springs, near Dragoon Pass, and running thence northeasterly along the north base of the Chiricahua Mountains to a point on the summit of Peloncillo Mountains or Stevens Peak Range; thence running southeasterly along said range through Stevens Peak to the boundary of New Mexico; thence running south to the boundary of Mexico; thence running westerly along said boundary 55 miles; thence running northerly, following substantially the western base of the Dragoon Mountains, to the place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby, canceled, and said lands are restored to the public domain.
U. S. GRANT.
EXECUTIVE MANSION, January 26, 1877. It is hereby ordered that all that portion of the White Mountain Indian Reservation in Arizona Territory lying within the following-described boundaries, viz: Commencing at a point known as corner I of survey made by Lieut. E. D. Thomas, Fifth Caralry, in March, 1876, situated northeast of, and 313 chains from, flag-staff of Camp
Report of Indian Commissioner, 1886, pp. 293, 301. For Executive order of December 14, 1872, setting apart this reserve, see“ White Mountain Reserve."
Apache, magnetic variation 13° 48' east; thence south 65° 34' west, 360 chains, to corner II, post in monument of stones, variation 13° 45' east; thence south 7° 5' west, 240 chains to corner III, post in monument of stones, variation 13° 43' east; thence north 680 34' east, 360 chains to corner IV, post in monument of stones, magnetic variation 13° 42' east; thence north 7° 15' east, 240 chains to place of beginning, comprising 7,421.14 acres, be restored to the public domain.
U. S. GRANT.
EXECUTIVE MANSION, March 31, 1877. It is hereby ordered that allthat portion of the White Mountain Indian Reservation in the Territory of Arizona lying within the following-described boundaries, be, and the same hereby is, restored to the public domain, to wit: Commencing at a point at the south bank of the Gila River, where the San Pedro empties into the same; thence up and along the south bank of said Gila River 10 miles; thence due south to the • southern buandary of the said reservation; thence along the southern boundary to the western boundary thereof; thence up said western boundary to the place of be. ginning.
R. B. HAYES. MOQUI RESERVATION. (Under the charge of the Navajo Agency, New Mexico.] How established.-By executive order, December 16, 1882.
Area and survey.--Contains 2,508,800 acres, of which 10,000 are classed as tillable. Not surveyed.
Acres cultivated.-Six thousand five hundred acres reported."
Tribes and population.—The tribe living here is the Moqui. Population, 1,920.5
Location. Located 90 miles from the junction of the San Juan and the Colorado rivers (south), and about 75 miles east from the point where the Little Colorado River joins its larger namesake. Three of these villages are upon the point of the first or most eastern mesa. Seven miles farther west are three other villages, similarly situated, upon what is locally termed the second mesa, and about 8 miles still farther west is the village of Orabi.6
Government rations.- None reported.
School population and attendance.-School population, 512. No school reported.?
Missionary work.-No missionary work reported. Executive order, December 16, 1882.-It is hereby ordered that the tract of country in the Territory of Arizona, lying and being within the following described boundaries, viz: Beginning on the one hundred and tenth degree of longitude west froni Greenwich, at a point 36° 30' north, thence due west to the one hundred and eleventh degree of longitude, and thence due north to place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby, withdrawn from settlement, and sale, and set apart for the use and occupancy of the Moqui and such other Indians as the Secretary of the Interior may see fit to settle thereon.8
1 Report of Indian Conmissioner, 1834, p. 256. 2 Ibid., p. 304. 3 Ibid., p. 301. *Ibid., p. 256. 5 Ibid., p. 137. • Ibid., p. 136. ? Ibid., 1886, p. 205.. Ibid., 1883, p. 221.
INDIAN RESERVATIONS OF CALIFORNIA.
The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo covered the Territory of Califorpia and the Indians residing there.
The policy of the Mexican Government in not recognizing the Indian's right of occupancy seems to have been followed by the United States, as no compensation has been made the California Indians for their lands, except in the establishing and maintaining of certain reservations and agencies.
On September 28, 1850, Congress providedThree agents for the Indian tribes within the State of California. After these agents were appointed it was found that no appropriation had been made for their salaries and the necessary expenses of their agencies. Their functions as ageats were therefore suspended; but, as there was an appropriation for negotiating treaties with the Indians in that State, they were constituted commissioners for that purpose.?
These commissioners were instructedTo conciliate the good feelings of the Indians; and to get them to ratify those reel. ings by entering into written treaties binding on them towards the Government and each other.3
A little over a year previously, the Department had authorized an agent to report upon the Indian tribes; he states :
They have an indefinite idea of their right to the soil, and they complain that the pale faces are overrunning their country and destroying their means of subsistance. The immigrants are trampling down and feeding their grass, and the miners are destroying their fish-dams; for this they claim some remuneration—not in money, for they know nothing of its value, but in the shape of clothing and food.*
When the commissioners arrived in California the Indians, owing to the encroachments of miners and other settlers, had fledto the mountains, leaving behind them their principal stores of subsistence, intending to return for them as necessity required. The wbites in pursuing the Indians burnt and destroyed all that fell in their way; consequently, at the time the different treaties were entered into, the Indians of this region were destitute of anything to subsist upon, even if left to range at liberty over their native hills. Under each treaty they were required to come from the mountains to their reservations on the plains at the base of the hills.5
Treaties were entered into with eighty or ninety bands of Indians (none were ever ratified), and a large number of reservations established in different parts of the State in accordance with the following acts of 1854 and 1555.
1 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 519. * Report of Indian Commissioner 1850, p. 10. 3 Ibid., p. 122. * Ibid., p. 92. 6 Ibid., 1851, p. 250. 6 Ibid., p. 9.
ACTS OF CONGRESS.
ACT of Congress making Appropriations for tlie current and contingent Expenses of the Indian De
partment and for fulfilling Treaty Stipulations with various Indian tribes, and for other purposes, Approred July 31, 1854.
For defraying the expenses and continuing the removal and subsistence of Indians in California, three military reservations in accordance with the plan submitted by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs of that State and approved by the President, the sum of two hundred thousand dollars.
And provided, The subagents created by this act shall not exceed one for each reservation, nor three in all; the said reservations to contain not less than five nor more than ten thousand acres; and the said superintendent is authorized to apply out of the sum hereby appropriated, not exceeding twenty-five thousand dollars in the extinguishment of conflicting titles and rights to said reserved lands at a price not exceeding one dollar and swenty-five cents per acre for a valid and indefeasible title to the land so purchased : And provided, The State of California shall cede the necéssary jurisdiction in such cases with regard to the land so purchased. (United States Statutes at Large, Vol. X, p. 332.) AN ACT making Appropriations for the Current and Contingent Expenses of the Indian Department
and for fulfilling treaty stipulations with various Indian tribes, and for other purposes. Approved March 3, 1855.
For collectivg, removing and subsisting the Indians of California (as provided by law) on two additional military reservations to be selected as heretofore, and not to contain exceeding twenty-five thousand acres each, the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars : Provided, That the President may enlarge the quantity of reservations heretofore selected, equal to those hereby provided för.
(United States Statutes at Large, Vol. X, p. 699.)
The difficulty of maintaining so many agencies and the pressure of immigration resulted in the frequent breaking up of a reservation and removal of the Indians. In 1857 the number of reservations was re. duced to five-Sebastian or Tejon, Fresno Farm, Nome-Lackee, Mendo. ceno, and Klamath. Under various pretenses the Indian lands were taken, and even the reservation teams and farming implements seized."
In 1862 an agent writes from one reservation: The settlers have succeeded in destroying a large portion of the small grain, and the corn crop entirely. The corners of the fence had been raised and chunks of wood put in, so that the largest hogs could walk in. Where they had destroyed the erops, the Indians were told that there was nothing for them to eat, and that they would have to starve or steal, and that if they did not leave they (the settlers) would kill them.
Although the sentiment of the great mass of the people of California, embracing every class in life, was all that the friends of the Indian could desire,93 serious disturbances occurred in various parts of the State, consequent upon the unsettled status of Indian lands. The act of 1864 was passed to meet these difficulties.
AN ACT to provide for the better Organization of Indian Affairs in California. April 8, 1864.
(United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XIII, p. 39. ] Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That, from and after the first day of April, anno Domini eight
Report of Indian Comniissioner, 1857, p. 10.
Ibid., 1862, p. 311.
Ibid., 1856, p. 17.