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approval of this Department, and I respectfully recommend that an order be issued by the Executive setting apart the lands referred to for the purpose indicated. I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

B. R. COWEN,

Acting Secretary.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, January 9, 1873. Let the lands described in the within letter be set apart as a reservation for the bands of Indians in California therein named, agreeably to the recommendation of the Acting Secretary of the Interior.

U. S. GRANT.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, October 3, 1873. It is hereby ordered that the following tract of country be, and the same is hereby, withheld from sale and set apart as a reservation for the Tule River, King's River, Owen's River, Manche Cajon, and other scattered bands of Indians in the State of California, to be known as the “Tule River Indian Reservation,” this being in lieu of the reservation set apart for those Indians by Executive order dated the 9th of January last, which is hereby cancelled: Commencing on the south fork of Tule River, 4 miles below the Soda Springs, on said river; running thence north to the ridge of mountains dividing the waters of the North Fork and Middle Fork of Tule River; thence on said ridge easterly, extending if necessary to a point from which a line running due south would intersect a lice running due east from the place of begioning, and at a distance of 10 miles therefrom; thence from said point due south to the ridge, extended if necessary, dividing the waters of the South Fork of Tule River and Deer Creek; thence westerly on said ridge to a point due south of the place of beginning; thence north to the place of beginning.

U. S. GRANT.

By the Executive order of August 3, 1878, all that portion of the Tule River Indian Reservation lying within the following boundary, viz: Commencing at a place where a line runniug due north from a point on the South Fork of the Tule River, 4 miles below the Soda Springs on said River, crosses the ridge of mountains dividing the waters of the South Fork and Middle Fork of Tule River; thence north to the ridge of mountains dividing the waters of the North Fork and Middle Fork of Tulo River ; thence on said ridge easterly to a point from which a line running due south would intersect a line running due east from the place of beginning and at a distance of 10 miles therefrom; thence from said point due south to the ridge of mountains dividing the waters of the South Fork and Middle Fork of Tule River; thence westerly on said ridge to the place of beginning, was restored to the public domain.

YUMA RESERVATION.

(Under the charge of Colorado River Agency, Arizona.]
How established.-By Executive order, January 9, 1881.
Area and surrey.-Contains 45,889 acres. Surveyed.
Acres cultivated.-Not reported.

Tribes and population. The tribe living here is the Yuma; population, 930.2

Location.-Situated on the west bank of the Colorado River and forming the southeast corner of the State of California.

Government rations.- Not reported separately from the agency.
Mills and Indian employés.--None reported.
Indian police.- None reported.

"Report of Indian Commissioner, 1834, p. 236. 2 Ibid., p. 284.

Indian court of offences.- None reported.

School population and attendance.—School population as estimated in 1886, about 100; boarding and day school accommodation, 200 board. ing and 100 day; average attendance, 29; ten months' session; cost to Government, $6,066.80.

Missionary work.- No missionary work reported among these people.

Yuma Reserve.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, July 6, 1883. It is hereby ordered that the following-described tract of country in the Territory of Arizona, viz, beginning at a point in the channel of the Colorado River, opposite the mouth of the Gila River, thence up the channel of the Gila River to the range line (when extended) between ranges 19 and 20 west of the Gila and Salt River meridian; thence north on said range line to the first standard parallel south; thence west on said parallel to the channel of the Colorado River; thence down the channel of said river to the place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby, withdrawn from settlement and sale and set apart as a reservation for the Yuma and such other Iudians as the Sec. retary of the Interior may see fit to settle thereon: Provided, however, That any tract or tracts included within the above-described boundaries to which valid rights have attached under the laws of the United States are hereby excluded from the reservation hereby made.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, January 9, 1884. In lieu of an Executive order dated July 6, 1883, setting apart certain lands in the Territory of Arizona as a reservation for the Yuma. Indians, which order is hereby cancelled, it is hereby ordered that the following described tract of country in the State of California, except so much thereof as is embraced within the Fort Yuma Military Reservation, viz, beginning at a point in the middle of the channel of the Colorado River due east of the meander corner to sections 19 and 30, township 15 south, rauge 24 cast, San Bernardino meridian; thence west on the line between sections 19 and 30 to the range line between townships 23 and 24 east; thence continuing west on the section line to a point which, when surveyed, will be the corner to sections 22, 23, 26, and 27, in towuship 15 south, range 21 east; thence south on the line between sections 26 and 27, in township 15 south, range 21 east, and continuing south on the section lives to the intersection of the international boundary, being the corner to fractional sections 34 and 35, in township 16 south, range 21 east; thence easterly on the international boundary to the middle of the channel of the Colorado River; thence up said river, in the middle of the channel thereof, to the place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby, withdrawn from settlement and sale and set apart as a reservation for the Yuma and such other Indians as the Secretary of the luterior may see fit to settle thereon: Provided, however, That any tract or tracts included within the foregoing.described boundaries to which valid rights have attached under the laws of the United States are hereby excluded out of the reservation hereby made.

It is also bereby ordered that the Fort Yumna Military Reservation before mentioned be, and the same is hereby, transferred to the control of the Department of the Inierior, to be nsell for Indian purposes iu connection with the Indian reservation estab. lished by this order, said military reservation baving been abandoned by the War Department for military purposes.

CHESTER A. ARTHUR. | Report of Indian Commissioner, 1086, p. lxxxviii. ? I bid., 10cb, pp. 313-314.

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CHAPTER IX.

INDIAN RESERVATIONS OF COLORADO.

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The provisions of the treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo extend over the Indians of this State.

That part of the lands ceded by Mexico covering the present States of Colorado and Nevada and the Territories of Utah and Wyoming were in 1850 formed into the Territory of Utah. The Indians claiming this land were the several tribes of Utes and the Shoshones who lived west of the Rocky Mountains. East of that range the Cheyenne and Arapahoes claimed the territory north of the Arkansas River, and the Kiowas and Comanches the region to the south of the river.

It is stated of the Pai-Utes that when the first emigrant company passed through their territory in 1947 en route to California these Indians bad “wheat and corn fields, and the company would have fared bailly but for the wheat, corn, peas, and beans purchased from the Indians.” In 1849 a treaty was made with the Ute Indians at Santa Fé, N. Mex., and in 1850 an agent was dispatched from the Indian Department to investigate the condition of these Indians. By the act of February 27, 1851, one agent was authorized for Utah Territory, and the laws regulating trade and intercourse extended over the Indians of tbat region.

The stream of emigration flowing towards California demanded pro. tection, and in accordance with the treaty of 1849 military reservations and agencies were established. They were needed not only on account of the encroachments of Mormon settlers upon the best lavds, to the dissatisfaction of the Iudians, wbo often avenged their wrongs upon the innocent, but becanse of a set of traders called “ Freemen,” a " mixture of all nations," " who settled around and among the Indians; some marrying among them,” and who “induced the Indians to drive off the stock of emigrants, so as to force them to purchase of the · Free. men’at exorbitant prices; and, after the emigrants had lefi, made a pretended parchase of the Indians for a mere trille, and were really to sell again to the next train, which may have been served in the same manner."

Report of Indian Commissioner, 1859, p. 366. 2 United States starutes at Large, Vol. IV., p. 984. 3 Report of Indian Commissioner, 1850, p. 12. * United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IV., p. 587. 6 Report of Indian Commissioner, 1851, p. 184.

1

Farms were opened for the Indians at Twelve-mile Creek, in the north. east portion of the present Territory of Utah, at Corn Creek, towards the western part, and at Spanish Fork, near Utah Lake. At these points and in the valleys scattered along the south-western part of the Territory the Indians were reported to be industrious and willing to learn. The agent writes in 1856 of a band living on the Santa Clara River: I visited several of their little farms or patches,

where their corn was 2 feet high, which had been planted in land prepared with no other implement than a rough stick taken from the cottonwood tree, and hewn with a knife something in the shape of a spade. One instance I will mention, which shows the industry and perse. verence of this band. One of the chiefs, Que-o-gan, took me to his farm and showed me the main irrigating ditch to convey the water from the river on his land, which I found to be half a mile long, 4 feet wide, 4 feet deep, and had been dug principally through a gravel bed with wooden spades, similar to the one before mentioned, and the dirt thrown out with their hands, the last being performed by the squaws and children, while the men were employed in digging. He also showed me a dam, constructed of logs and brush-wood, which he had made to turn a portion of the water from the river and convey it to his farm through this ditch. * I saw others of a similar kind, but these I have noticed more particularly to show that, with proper assistance from the General Government, these Indians could in a few years be taught the arts of civilized life, and would depend upon their own labor for a support; and I am well persuaded that this course would be most economical and best adapted to their wants.

The Piede Indians have been much diminished of late years by the cruelty practiced towards them by the Utahs in stealing their squaws and children and selling them as slaves to other tribes, as well as to the Mexican people.3

In 1859 the Indian Commissioner states, concerning the Utes : The whites are in possession of most of the little comparatively good country there is, and the game bas become so scarce as no longer to afford the Indians an adequate subsistence. They are often reduced to the greatest straits, particularly in the winter, · which is severe in that region, and when it is no uncommon thing for them to perish of cold and hunger. Even at other seasons numbers of them are compelled to sustain life by using for food reptiles, insects, grass-seed, and roots. Several farms have been opened for the benefit of the Indians in different localities, and many of them have manifested a disposition to aid in the cultivation of the land; but, unfortunately, most of the crops were this year destroyed by the grasshopper and other insects. Many of the numerous depredations upon the emigrants have doubtless been committed by Indians in consequence of their destitute and desperate condition. They have at times been compelled to either steal or starve, but there is reason to be apprehended that in their forays they have often been only the tools of the lawless whites residing in the Territory.

That this was the case in the atrocious and dreadful inassacre at Mountain Meadow in September, 1857, the facts stated in the report of the superintendent in regard to that occurrence leave no room for doubt.4

Some of the Utes living in that part of Utah Territory, now covered by the State of Colorado, joined certain bands of the Jicarilla Apaches, who lived in the mountains lying between Santa Fé, Taos, and Abiquiu,in a desultory warfare; these met with a severe defeat after a vigorous campaign, and treaties of peace were made in 1855, with the

Report of Indian Commissioner, 1836, p. 225. Ibid., p. 233. 3 Ibid., pp. 234, 235. * Ibid., 1859, pp. 21, 22 5 Ibid., 1860, p. 159.

S. Ex. 95-16

Ka-poti and Mauchi bands of Utes. “Each treaty containing a stipulation requiring the Indians to cultivate the land assigned to them.” 1

In 1856 the Indian Commissioner writes, “The Utes are quietly awaiting the ratification of the treaties concluded with them, and will commence farming whenever permanent homes are assigned them."2 Meanwhile they suffered from war parties of Kiowas and Indians of the Arkansas River. Until 1861 the agency for the Southern and Eastern Utes was at Taos, N. Mex., and the yearly presents voted by Congress were distributed at Abiquiu or Conejas. The failure to ratify the treaties and to assign reservations to these Indians prevented their having an agent with them and receiving encouragement to cultivate the soil. Meanwhile the unsettled state of the country, owing to the refusal of the Mormons to permit any military occupation, and the discovery of gold in the mountains of California, brought on conflicts between the Indians and the prospectors who killed the game or drore it from the country, while Mormon missionaries, who in 1856 had been sent by the seini-annual conference of Latter-Day Saints to the Lamon. ites, as the Indians were termed, sought to bind the Utes to the Mormon cause. In 1861 the Territory of Utah was divided, and Colorado and Nevada organized.

The only Indian reservation remaining in the State is the Southern Ute, having an aggregate area of 1,094,400 acres.

SOUTHERN UTE AGENCY.

[Post-office address, Ignacio, La Plata County, Coio.]

UTE RESERVATION.

How established.- Established by treaties of October 7, 1863; March 2, 1868; act of Congress, April 29, 1874; executive orders, November 22, 1875; August 17, 1876; February 7, 1879; August 4, 1882, and act of Congress, July 28, 1882.

Area and survey.-Contains 1,094,400 acres, of which 8,000 are classed as tillable. Out boundaries surveyed."

Acres cultivated. The Indians have under cultivation 110 acres 10

Tribes and population. The tribes living here are the Ka-poti, Mauchi, and Wiminuchi Ute. Total population, 991."

Location. The reservation is a strip of country 15 by 120 miles, and borders on New Mexico and Utah. It is a rough, mountainous country, suitable only for grazing purposes, it being well watered by the Piedra, Rio Los Pinos, Florida, Animas, La Plata, Mancos, and Dolores Rivers.

1 Report of Indian Commissioner, 1855, p. 507. 2 Ibid., 1856, p. 15. 3 Ibid., p. 184. * Ibid., 1857, p. 279; 1859, p. 335. 5 Ibid., 1859, p. 313. 6 I bid., 1859 pp. 343, 344; 1860, p. 163. ? Ibid., 1857, p. 305; 1858, p. 195 ; 1859, p. 336. 8 Ibid., 1884, p. 304. 9 Advanced sheets for 1885, by courtesy of the Indian Commissioner. 10 Report of Indian Commissioner, 1884, p. 304. 11 Ibid., p. 236.

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