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to be established. President may increase them to four. Pawnee children between seven and eighteen years to be kept at school for nine months each year. Proportion of annuities deducted according to absence. Chiefs to be responsible for attendance of orphans. United States to furnish suitable school-houses and farms, and not less than $5,000 per annum for each school. President may modify regulations, or upon failure of Indians to fulfil their part may discontinue schools. (Art. 3.) Black. smith to be maintained. Pawnees to furnish apprentices. Farming utensils and stock to amount of $1,200 furnished for ten years. Farmers furnished. Steam saw and grist-mill built and maintained for ten years, and miller and engineer employed. Pawnees to furnish apprentices. Houses to be erected for employés, and the value of any injuries to them or to implements furnished to be deducted from tribal an. nuities. United States to protect Pawnees. (Art. 4.) Six laborers to teach care of stock furnished for three years. (Art. 7.) Dependence on Government acknowl. edged and peace to be maintained with Indians. (Art. 5.) United States to build and occupy military posts. Road to be opened through reservations, but no unauthorized white person to reside thereon. (Art. 6.) Offenders to be tried according to the laws of the United States. (Art. 8.) Certain half-breeds provided with land scrip. (Art. 9.) The sum of $2,000 paid to Samuel Allis. (Art. 10.) The sum of $100 apiece for damages sustained by five guides to United States troops. (Art. 11.) The sum of $10,000 set apart for claims to be proved as provided for, and United States released from all previous claims. (Art. 12.)?

Amended by Senate March 31, 1858. Amendment accepted April 3, 1838. Proclaimed May 26, 1858.

Act of Congress, June 10, 1872, authorizes that with the consent and concurrence of the Pawnee tribe of Indians, expressed in open council, the Secretary of the Interior to cause to be surveyed a portion of their reservation in the State of Nebraska not exceeding 50,000 acres, to be taken from that part of said reservation lying south of Loup Fork. The said lands so surveyed to be appraised by three competent commissioners, one to be selected by the Pawnees and the other two to be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior. After survey and appraisement said lands to be offered for sale for cash in band, proceeds to be placed at interest at 5 per cent., payable semi-annually, except such portion as Secretary of the Interior, with the approval of the President of the United States, may deem necessary to expend for their immediate use.?

For act of Congress of June 10, 1872, see Otoe treaties—Indian Territory.

Act of Congress, April 10, 1876.

With the consent of the Pawnee tribe their reservation in Nebraska to be appraised and sold in manner prescribed. (Sec. 1.) Three hundred thousand dollars appropri. ated to be reimbursed from sales ; $150,000 to be expended for defraying expenses of removal to Indian Territory and settlement therein ; $150,000 appropriated and made immediately available for expenses of appraisement, subsistence of Indians, purchase of implemonts and stock, and establishment and support of schools. (Sec. 2.) Any surplus from proceeds of sales, after reimbursement and purchase of a reservation in the Indian Territory, to bear interest at 5 per cent., payable semi-annually, except such portion as tho Secretary may deem necessary for subsistence or other beneficial objects. (Sec. 3.)

Following tract in the Indian Territory set apart as a reservation : All that tract of country between the Cimarron and Arkansas Rivers embraced within the limits of townships 21, 22, 23, and 24 north, of range 4 east, townships 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24 north, of range 5 east, townships 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 23 north, of range 6 east of the Indian meridian: “Prorided, That the terms of the sixteenth article of the Chero

1 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XI, p. 729. Ibid., Vol. XVII, p. 391.

keo treaty of July 19, 1866, shall be complied with so far as the same may be applicable thereto."

Price to be paid by Pawnees not to exceed 70 cents per acre, and that portion of reservation ceded to the United States by the Creek at 30 cents per acre. (Sec. 4.) Each head of a family or single person over twenty-one who shall so locate, shall have an allotment of 160 acres and receive certificate from Commissioner of Indian Affairs : Prorided, That whenever the allottee shall have occupied the allotment for twelve years, and shall have 25 acres fenced and in crops he shall be entitled to a patent inalienable for fifteen years, and then only with consent of Secretary of the Interior under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe. (Sec. 5.)!

OAKLAND RESERVATION.

How established.-By act of Congress, May 27, 1878. (See deed dated June 14, 1883, from Cherokees, Vol. VI, Indian Deeds, p. 476; also deed from Nez Percés, May 22, 1885, Vol. VI, Indian Deeds, P. 504.)

Area and surrey.-Contains 90,711 acres.? Tillable acres, 75,000; surveyed.

Acres cultivated.-The Indians have under cultivation 68 acres.*

Tribes and population. The tribes living here are the Tonkawas.5 Population, 91.

Location. The reservation is situated 15 miles in a north westerly direction from the Ponca Agency."

Government rations.-Fifty-five per cent of these Indians subsisted by Government rations, as reported in 1886.8

Mills and Indian employés.- Mill erected in 1882.
Indian police.-Not reported.
Indian court of offences.-Not reported.

School population, attendance, and support.-School population, as es. timated in 1886, 12;9 5 at Chilocco school ; 6 at Ponca school,

Missionary work.--No missionary work.

Act of Congress, May 27, 1878.

Twenty thousand dollars appropriated “or so much thereof as may be necessary to be expended, under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, in the removal of the Nez Percé Indians of Joseph's band, now held as prisoners of war at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., to such suitable location in the Indian Territory as the United States has a right to use for such purpose, consistent with existing trea'ies or arrangements with tribes occupying Indian Territory, and for their settlement thereon.” (United States Statutes, Vol. XX, p. 74.)

United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XIX, p. 28. 2 Report of Indian Commissioner, 1884, p. 303. 3 Ibid., p. 259. * Ibid., 1886, p. 428.

5 The Topkawas, formerly of Fort Griffin, Tex. (Report of Indian Commissioner, 1883, p. 93), were brought to this reservation on June 29, 1885, Joseph's band of the Nez Percés having left for their old home in Idaho and Washington Territory in May, 1985 (Report of Indian Commissioner, 1885, p. 96).

5 lbid , p. 395. . ? Ibid., 1832, p. 76. 8 Ibid., 1886, p. 410. 9 Ibid., p. 139.

QUAPAW AGENCY.

[Post-office address: Seneca, Newton County, Mo.)

QUAPAW RESERVATION.

How established.-By treaties of May 13, 1833, and of February 23, 1867.

Area and survey.-Contains 56,685 acres, of which 42,000 are classed as tillable. Surveyed.?

Acres cultivated.-The Indians have under cultivation 520 acres."

Tribes and population. The tribe living here is the Quapaw. Population, 61.

Location.-This reservation is situated in the north-east corner of the Indian Territory, adjoining the State of Missouri on the east and Kansas on the north, with the Neosho and Grand Rivers on the west, which separate this agency from the Cherokee country, and a geographical line extended from the south boundary of Newton County, Mo., west to Grand River forms our southern boundary. Like the State of Kansas, our average elevation above tidal wave is about 2,375 feet. In the main the land is gently rolling, but broken here and there (more especially in the eastern and south-eastern part) by high, stony ridges and bluffs--the foot-hills of the Ozark range of mountains of Missouri. A skirting of timber is found along all the rivers and numerous creeks, which flow mainly in a southerly direction. The Neosho, Spring, and Cowskin Rivers are the principal water-courses, all of which drain wide valleys by many small tributaries. The surface soil is very rich and fertile.

One-half of this large area is agricultural, while it is all fine grazing land. Probably one-half is covered with timber, principally oak on the uplands, while the bottoms abound in walnut, hickory, pecan, etc.95

Government rations.- None issued.
Mills and Indian employés.-A mill; no Indian employés reported.
Indian police.--Established.
Indian court of offences.-Established.

School population, attendance, and support.

School population as estimated in 1884
Boarding-school accommodations....
Average attendance 6
Boarding-school cost to Government.
Session (months).....

18 50

50 $5, 08:2. 27

10

1

Report of Indian Commissioner, 1831, p. 308. Ibid., p. 259. 3Ibid., 1886, p. 430. 4 Ibid., p. 398. 5 Ibid., 1882, p. 81. 6 The children of other tribes belonging to the agency attend this school. 7 Report of Indian Commissioner, 1836,

p. xcii.

SYNOPSIS OF TREATIES,

Treaty with the Quapaws, made at St. Louis, August 24, 1818. Indians acknowledge the protection of the United States. (Art. 1.) Cede to the United States the land lying between the Arkansas, Canadian, and Red Rivers. Reserve land south of the Arkansas from Arkansas Post to the Wachita, thence up to the Saline Fork, thence due north to Little Rock, thence down the Arkansas to the place of beginning; reservation to be surveyed. (Art. 2.) Quapaws to hunt in ceded territory. (Art. 3.) No person to settle upon reserve land. Right of roads and free passage established. (Art. 4.) Present of $4,000 in goods and $1,000 in merchandise ; perpetual annuity. (Art. 5.) Offenders to be delivered up to punishment and stolen property recovered or deducted from annuity. United States guaranty indemnity for property stolen by citizens upon sufficient proof. (Art. 6.) Treaty binding when ratified. (Art. 7.) Proclaimed January 5, 1819. (United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VII, p. 176.)

Treaty with the Quapaw Indians, made at Harrington's, in Territory of Arkansas, November

15, 1824.

Indians cede land reserved in preceding treaty. (Art. 1.) Five hundred dollars paid to four chiefs for losses sustained by removing, and gifts of $1,000 to tribe, and $1,000 in cash for eleven years. (Art. 2.) Right to hunt on ceded territory. (Art. 3.) Quapaws to be concentrated with Caddoes and removed within a year. (Art. 4.) Sustenance for six months, and $1,000 to assist in removal. (Art. 5.) Certain debt paid. (Art. 6.) Grants to individuals. (Art. 7.) Treaty binding when ratified. (Art. 8.). Proclaimed February 19, 1825. (United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VII, p. 232.)

Treaty with the Quapaws, made Vay 13, 1833. Whereas the Quapaws removed to the territory of the Caddoes and settled on the Bayou Treache, south of the Red River, where the land was subject to frequent inundations, thereby destroying their crops year after year, and one-fourth of their people died by sickness, the tribe returned to their old home on the Arkansas, where they suffer from settlers taking from them their improvements. Therefore they cede to the United States all their right to the lands given them by the Caddoes. (Art. 1.) The United States in lieu thereof conveys to the Quapaws one hundred and fifty sections of land west of the Missouri State line, between the Senecas and Shawnees, to be patented so long as they exist as a nation or reside thereon. Congress to protect them in their new residence. (Art. 2.) In consideration of their wretched condition, removal shall be at the expense of the United States. Cattle, farming implements, and other articles to be provided. (Art. 3.) Stock to be under the care of agent and farmer. (Art. 5.) Fariner and blacksmith to reside with them, and $1,000 paid annually for education so long as President deems necessary. (Art. 3.) In lieu of perpetual and limited annuities, United States to pay schedule of debts to amount of $4,180. Government to expend $1,000 in building houses, pay Indians $2,000 annually for twenty years out of this annuity, four chiefs or their successors to be paid each $50 per year. (Art. 4.) Interpreter to remain with the Indians. (Art. 6.)

Proclaimed April 12, 1834. (United States Statutes at Largo, Vol. VII, p. 424.)

For treaty of August 24, 1835, with Quapaw, Kiowa, Comanche, and other tribes, see Kiowa and Comanche treaty of same date-Indian Territory.

Treaty with the Quapaws and other tribes made at Washington, February 23, 1867
See Kaskaskia treaty, same date-Indian Territory.
(United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XV, p. 513.)

An act to carry into effect the fourth article of the treaty of February 23, 1867. Article 4, as amended in treaty of February 23, 1867, shall be construed to authorize the disposal of the land belonging to the Quapaws within the State of Kansas, which was sold to the United States for $1.25 per acre. (Sec. 1:) Said land declared open to entry and pre-emption with such exceptions as provided. (Sec. 2.)

Approved June 5, 1872. (United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XVII, p. 228.)

MODOC RESERVATION.

How established.-By agreement with Eastern Shawnees, June 23, 1874 (see Annual Report, 1882, p. 271); act of Congress March 3, 1875.

Area and survey.-Contains 4,040 acres, of which 1,000 are classed as tillable. Surveyed.?

Acres cultivated. The Indians have under cultivation 441 acres.?

Tribes and population.—The tribe living here is the Modoc. Population, 95.4

Location. -About one-fourth of this reservation is arable land with soil of a fair quality, but ill-watered and unproductive in any but favorable seasons.

Government rations.--Twenty-five per cent. of these Indians subsisted by Government rations as reported in 1886.6

Mills and Indian employés.- None reported.
Indian police.- None reported.
Indian court of offences.- None reported.

School population, attendance, and support.-School population, as es. timated in 1886, 20.

No schools separate from the agency.
Missionary work. -Une church building reported in 1886.

Articles of agreement made and concluded at Quapaw Agency, Ind. T., June 23, 1874, between

the Uniteil States, by II. W. Jones, United States Indian agent, and the Eastern Shawnee Indians.

Whereas it is desirable that the Modoc Indians (uow temporarily located on the Eastern Shawnee Reservation) should have a permanent home, in order that they may be enabled to settle down and become self-supporting; therefore it is agreed

Ist. The Eastern Shawnees cede to the United States a tract of land situated in the north-east corner of their present reservation in the Indian country. The land so ceded to be bounded as follows, to wit: Beginning at the north-east corner of their reservation, running south along the Missouri State line two and one-half miles ; thence west two and one-half miles; thence north to the north line of said reserve; thence east along said north line to the place of beginning, containing four thousand acres, more or less, for which the United States is to pay six thousand dollars, oue. half upon the ratification of this agreement by the Secretary of the Interior, the bal. ance in twelve montlis thereafter; said installments to be paid to the Eastern Shawnee Indians per capita, for the purpose of enabling them to enlarge their farms and otherwise improve their condition in civilization.

20. The land proposed to be purchased in the first article of this agreement shall be set apart as a permanent home for the Modoc Indians.

Report of Indian Commissioner, 1881, p. 308. * Ibid., p. 259. 3 Ibid., 1886, p. 428, 4 Ibid., p. 398. 5 Ibid., p. 140. 6 I bid., p. 416.

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