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Two high schools, one at Wewoka and one at Sasakwa.

The Presbyterian board furnished $1,700 for Wewoka, and the Methodist $600 for Sasakwa Female Academy. The Seminoles have also four district schools, which are in a prosperous condition.'


Treaty with the Florida tribes, made at Camp on Moultrie Creek, Florida, September

18, 1823.

Protection of the United States acknowledged. All claims to territory in Florida relinquished, except the following tract (Art. 1): Beginning 5 miles north of Okahumka, running west within fifteen miles of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, south 12 miles, south-east to 5 miles of main branch of Charlotte River, thence to within 20 miles of the Atlantic Coast, thence north to 15 miles west, and thence 50 miles to place of beginning. Florida Indians to be concentrated and confined within the above tract. (Art. 2.) Commissioners, accompanied by Indian delegate, to mark boundary of reservation. (Art. 8.) To meet the objection of the Indians to concentration on reservation on account of the insufficient quantity of good land to subsist them, it is expressly understood that should more be needed the commission shall remove the northern boundary so far north as to embrace a sufficient quantity of good, tillable land. (Art. 9.) United States to protect Indians who shall refrain from making war without the consent of the United States. On removal to reservation an agent to be provided, agricultural implements, stock to the amount of $6,000, and $5,000 a year for twenty years under the direction of the President. (Art. 3.) Right to open roads granted. No white person to settle or hunt upon reservation. Authorized persons to travel unmolested. (Art. 4.) Rations provided for the first year af. ter removal, and $4,500 to be distributed among persons abandoning improvements. The sum of $2,000 appropriated for removal. (Art. 5.) Agent, subagent, and interpreter to reside with the Indians. Sum of $1,000 for maintenance of school for twenty years. Same amount for blacksmith. (Art. 6.) Indians to prevent fugitive slaves from taking shelter among them. (Art. 7.) One section of land granted to agent and one to interpreter. (Art. 10.) Six of the principal chiefs, parties to the treaty, permitted to remain on following lands inhabited by them: For Neamathla and his connections 2 miles square on Rocky Comfort Creek; for Blunt and Tuskihajo 4 miles on Appalachicola, extending west 2 miles; for Mulatto King and Emathlochee 4 miles on the Appalachicola, extending west 1 mile; for Econchatimico 4 miles on the Chattahoochee, extending west 1 mile. Peaceable possession guaranteed to chiefs and descendants only during occupation and cultivation of the same. If abandoned, reservation to be included in cession of article 1. Chiefs to furnish to the Indian superintendent of Florida names of individuals who are to reside on said reservations. Chiefs to be beld responsible for conduct of individuals. Indians to be permitted to remove voluntarily to the reservation set apart in article 2, United States reserving the right to order their removal in case of misconduct. Eight hundred dollars of the amount stipulated in article 3 to be expended for these Indians. Also to receive their proportion of annuities. Sum of $5,000 of the money set apart in article 5 to be given Neamathla for improvements relinquished by him.

Proclaimed January 2, 1824.2

Treaty made at Paine's Landing, May 9, 1832.

Seminole Indians relinquish to United States all lands they occupy in Territory of Florida. Agree to emigrate west of Mississippi River, an additional tract being added for them to Creek country. Delegation to be sent to examine territory. (Art.

Report of Indian Commissioner, 1886, pp. Ixxii-lxxiii. 2 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VII, p. 224.


1.) United States to pay $15,400, to be divided proportionately between chiefs and warriors of their several towns. (Art. 2.) Blauket and homespun suit given to each emigrant on arrival at Creek country. (Art. 3.) Blacksmith provided according to article 6, preceding treaty, to be continued for ten additional years, and $3,000 paid for fifteen years after removal of whole tribe. (Art. 4.) United States to take the cattle belonging to Seminoles and pay in money or stock on their arrival west. (Art. 5.) Demands for damages by Seminoles to the amount of $7,000 to be paid. (Art. 6.) Seminoles to move within three years. To be subsisted for twelve months. (Art. 7.) Removal to take place within 1833 and 1835. (Art. 8.)

Proclaimed April 12, 1834.1

Treaty with the Appalachicola band of Indians, made at Tallahassee, Fla., October

11, 1832.

Blunt and successor to Tuskihajo surrender their reservation on the Appalachicola River, set apart for them in the preceding treaty, and agree to remove with their followers, two hundred and fifty-six souls, west of the Mississippi, beyond the limits of the United States. (Art. 1.) Sum of $3,000 in cash paid down and $10,000 for the subsequent removal of the whole party. (Art. 2.) Indians to remove, if possible, within one year, certainly within two. Portion of annuity provided in article 3 of treaty of April 18, 1823, to continue to these chiefs. (Art. 3.)

Proclaimed February 13, 1833.2

Treaty made at Fort Gibson, March 28, 1833.

Tract of land between the Canadian River and its north fork, in the Creek country, set apart for Seminole Indians. Nation agrees to remove to that location. Indians request that Major Phagan superintend removal.

Proclaimed April 12, 1834.3

Treaty with the Appalachicola band, made at Pope's, Fayette County, Fla., June 18, 1833

Indians relinquish reservation set apart by treaty of September 18,1823, on the Appalachicola River. (Art. 1.) United States to convey in three years by patent to Mulatto King and head chief of Emathlochee's band a section and a half each, to be laid off in accordance with public surveys under the direction of the President, so as to embrace their fields and improvements. Chiefs may dispose of said land before three years, but as soon as the Seminoles shall have gone west of the Mississippi the United States to withdraw protection, and Indians to become subject to government and laws of Florida. (Art. 2.) Proportion of annuities provided in article 3 of treaty of September 18, 1823, to be paid this band. If hereafter chiefs elect to sell their patented land and go west of the Mississippi they must defray their own expenses; but if they surrender land to the United States they may receive $3,000 and become parties to the provisions of the treaty of May 9, 1832. (Art. 3.)

Proclaimed February 12, 1834.4

Treaty between United States, Creeks, and Seminoles, made at Creek Agency, January

4, 1845.

Whereas article 4 of Creek treaty of 1833 provides that the Seminoles shall be considered as a part of the Creek Nation, and a permanent home secured in the Creek country, and a large portion of the Seminoles having refused to submit to Creek government, and these Seminoles having settled on lands secured to other tribes to the 1 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VII, p. 368. Ibid., p. 377.

3 Ibid., p. 423. * Ibid., p. 427.

detriment of said tribes: This treaty is made to reconcile all difficulties between the Creeks and Seminoles respecting location and jurisdiction. (Preamble.) Creeks agree that Seminoles shall be entitled to settle in Creek country. Seminoles to make their town regulations subject to general control of Creek council, in which they shall be represented. Each tribe to manage its own money affairs and neither to interfere with the other. (Art 1.) All Seminoles to permanently settle in Creek country. (Art. 2.) Contested cases between two tribes subject to decision of President of United States. (Art. 3.) Additional annuity of $3,000 for education allowed Creeks for twenty years. All educational funds, including above, to be under the direction of the President. (Art. 4.) Rations to be issued to Seminoles removiug, and tribes to be sustained for six months. Those in Florida allowed twelve months wherein to remove. (Art. 5.) Sums provided in articles 2 and 4 of treaty May 9, 1832, to be paid as stipulated, and additional $2,000 for fifteen years. (Art. 6.) Sum of $1,000 per annum for five years and agricultural implements given in satisfaction of all claims for property abandoned in Florida. (Art. 7.) Boundary between Creeks and Seminoles distinctly marked. (Art. 8.)

Treaty amended March 6, 1845.
Proclaimed May 28, 1845."

Treaty made with the United States, Creeks, and Seminoles, at Washington, dugust 7, 1856.

See Creek treaties, same date, p. 405.

Treaty made at Washington, March 21, 1866.

Amnesty granted and annuities restored, the provisions made being generally the same as those of the treaties with the Creeks of June 14, 1866, except article 3, in which they cede to the United States a tract of land containing 2,169,080 acres ceded to them by the Creek Nation in the treaty of August 7, 1856, the United States to pay the sum of $325,362, being at the rate of 15 cents an acre, and to grant to the Seminoles a portion of the territory purchased from the Creeks, for which the Seminoles pay $100,000, to be deducted from the sum received for their lands. Balance due to be paid in the following manner :

The sum of $30,000 under direction of the Secretary of the Interior for improving farnis; $20,000 for stock, seed, and agricultural implewents; $15,000 for the erection of mill; $70,000 at 5 per cent. interest, $50,000 of which will be a permanent school fund, interest on the remaining $20,000 for the support of the Seminole government; $40,362 for subsisting said Indians ; $50,000 for the payment of losses sustained by loyal Seminoles during late War, said losses to be ascertained by a board of commissioners.

Seminole district.-Beginning on Canadian River, at the line dividing the Creek lands, according to their sales to the United States by treaty of February 6, 1866, north on said line to the North Fork of Canadian, up said fork to a distance sufficient to make 200,000 acres by running due south to the Canadian River; thence down said Canadian River to place of beginning.

Proclaimed August 16, 1866.3

For Creek agreement of February 14, 1881, and act of Congress confirming the same, see Creek treaties.

United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 821. I bid., Vol. XI, p. 699. 3 Ibid., Vol. XIV, p. 755.

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For the early history of the Territory from which Iowa was formed, see Dakota. Organized as a Territory June 12, 1838;' admitted as a State March 3, 1845.?

The Indians that formerly dwelt here, the Sacs and Foxes, Otoes, Ioways, and Sioux, have all been removed; the Sacs and Foxes contending by force of arms for their old home here and in the adjoining eastern States, ander the leadership of Black Hawk. A portion of the Sac and Fox tribe purchased the only reservation in the State.

Has one reservation, the Sac and Fox, containing a united area of 1,258 acres. This land was purchased by the tribes residing there. Total Indian population, 280.

The Sac and Fox Agency has charge of the reservation of that name.


[Post-office address: Montour, Tama County, Iowa.]


How established.-By purchase. See act of Congress, March 2, 1867. (United States Statutes, Vol. XIV, p. 507.) Deeds, November, 1876, 1882, 1883.3

Area and survey.-Contains 1,258 acres. Survey not reported.”
Acres cultivated. Two hundred and twenty-five reported in 1886.4

Tribes and population.—Pottawatomies, Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi, and Winnebagoes. Total population, 380.5

Location.—Located in Tama County, Iowa, the land held in trust for them by the Governor of the State of Iowa. Individual Indians also own 85 acres in their own right. This tract of land is about one-third timber, and the balance good grazing and farming land, though subject to overflow in time of high water.

Government rations.- None issued. i United States Statutes, Vol. V, p. 235.

3 Report of Indian Commissioner, 1886, p. 385. 4 Ibid., p. 430. I bid., p. 400.

2 I bid.,

p. 742.


School population, attendance, and support. School population as estimated in 1886 was ..

EO Day-school accommodation..

40 Average attendance.....

12 Day-school, cost to Government

$350 In session (months).

5 Missionary work.-Not reported.

By act of Congress (Indian appropriation act), March 2, 1867, provided, that the band of Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi, now in Tama County, Iowa, shall be paid pro rata, according to their numbers, of the annuities, so long as they are peaceful and have the assent of the government of Iowa, to reside in that State.2


For the early history of the Territory from which Kansas was formed, see Dakota. Organized as a Territory May 30, 1854;3 admitted as a State June 29, 1861.4

The Indians originally occupying this locality are all removed to the Indian Territory. Those holding reservations at the present time were placed there by the United States when this region was known as the Indian Territory.

Act of March 3, 1863.5


SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That the President of the United States be, and is hereby, authorized to enter into treaties with the several tribes of Indians, respectively, now residing in the State of Kansas, providing for the extinction of their titles to lands held in common within said State, and for the removal of such Indians of said tribes as hold their lands in common to suitable localities, elsewhere within the ter. ritorial limits of the United States, and outside the limits of any State.

There are three reservations, containing an aggregate area of 109,828.03 acres. The Indian population is 1,318. There is one agency, the Pottawatomie and Great Nemaha, having charge of the Chippewa and Munsee, Kickapoo, and Pottawatomie Reservations and the Iowa and Sac and Fox Reservations, partly in Nebraska.


[Post-office address, Silver Lake, Pottawatomie County, Kans.]


How established.-By treaty of July 16, 1859.7

Area and survey.-Contains 4,395 acres, of which 4,000 are classed as tillable. Surveyed.”

Report of Indian Commissioner, p. xcii. 2 United States Statutes, Vol. XIV, p. 507. 3 I bid., Vol. X, p. 277. 4 I bid., Vol. XII, p. 126. 5 lbid., chap. 99, p. 793. 6 For Pottawatomie treaties, see Pottawatomie Reservation-Indian Terrtory. 7 For treaty, see Chippewa treaty, same date--Michigan. 8 Report of Indian Commissioner, 1884, p. 310. 9Ibid., p. 261.


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