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minister, applied himself to the study of the Indian tougne, and began to preach to the natives in 1618–49, with satisfactory results.

In September, 1654, he was informed that certain allowances would be made him for carrying on the work there, in addition to the £10 for his personal services, as follows: For a school-master and two assistants

£30 a year. For relief of sick Indians

10 a year. For building a church 1 (in nails, glass, etc.)...

40 For building a boat .

In September, 1654, an allowance of £40 each was paid to Messrs. Eliot and Mayhew for their services, and at the same time, the ques. tion of what proportion of cows and goats should be allowed for the new Indian towns, and certain other matters respecting payments to school. masters and interpreters, and for medicines furnished the sick, were referred to the Massachusetts commissioners.

In 1657 Mr. Thomas Mayhew, Jr., sailed for England, intending to make a visit to his old home, but the vessel was lost at sea. His father, who was less skilled in the language of the Indians, did not suffer the mission to die, but “ struck in on his son's death."

In 1664 he reported two churches organized, and ten Indian preachers. The people were divided into seven jurisdictions, where meetings were held every Sunday. The heads of each jurisdiction were Christian Indians, and all the families praying.” “ For schools, sometimes there are some, sometimes not. But many can read and write Indian, very few English, none to great purpose. Myself and my two grandsons ean speak the language of the island, but my grandsons are not yet employed. John, the younger, doth teach the Indians and is like now to suppose to be encouraged by the commissioners. Matthew, my eldest grandchild, hath also preached, and I think when settled will begin.”2

The Indians on Martha's Vineyard "plant English as well as Indian corn, spin and knit stockings, are diligent and poor.93

In 1674 on Nantucket there were three praying towns with 300 souls; one church, of which John Gibbs was the preacher.

In 1694 the population was 500; there were five assemblies of Pray. ing Indians, two Congregational churches and one Baptist.

The Indians of all the praying towns subsisted largely by agricult. are. They also owned considerable numbers of cattle, horses, and swine. Many of them worked on the farms of their English neighbors. Efforts were made to induce all the Indians that could be reached to settle in towns, to be set apart for them, in order to prevent future

I The Indians were expected to do the work, as at Natick." % Mass. Hist. Coll., 1st series, Vol. I, pp. 204-205.

3 Ibid., p. 206. In 1720 there were six small villages, and a population of 800 souls; each village had an Indian preacher. In 1764 Duke County had a population of 313, and the Indians began to intermarry with the negroes. In 1792 the population, pure and mixed, was 440.

* In 1763 there were 385 souls; a fever raged six months, and 222 died. In 1792 there were 20 sonls.-Mass. Hist. Coll., 1 series, Vol. I, p. 207.

differences between the English and Indians as to the titles to land; and to secure permanent homes for the latter.

In 1653 Mr. Abram Pierson, of " Braynford, within New Haven jur. isdiction," was paid " the summe of twelve pound towards his charge and paines in fiting himselfe to teach the Indians ;” and the amount was increased to fifteen pounds the following year, besides five pounds "to be disposed of to sneh Indiaus as desire to be instructed in the knowledge of Christ.”

Mr. Pierson at his death was succeeded by Mr. James Fitch, of Norwich, who began to work among the Mohegans. "" They suffered great persecution, reproaches, revilings, and threatenings, especially in a private and clandestine manner, to destroy them.” “For the settlement and encouragement of these Indians," Mr. Fitch writes, "I have given them of mine own lands and some that I had procured of our town above 300 acres of good improveable land, and made it secure to them and theirs as long as they go in the ways of God."

In 1676 it was said of the Indians in Rhode Island that they “ are active, laborious, and ingenious," and that “more are employed at hard labours than any other Indian people or neighbors.” In 1792 they numbered 500.2

Few Indians were known to live in the territory of New Hampshire, and none in Vermont, all having gone from there to Canada.

In Maine there were sixty Roman Catholic families on the Penobscot and thirty families on the Passa maquoddy; there was a chapel in each place.

NEW YORK.

The amicable visit of Hudson in 1609 to the river now bearing his name resulted in a peaceable trade between the Dutch and the Indians. In 1615 a trading-post, containing within its stockade a truck house and building for the garrison, was completed on the site of the present city of Albany. A friendly trade grew up, and a treaty was ratified between the Dutch and the Five Nations, which, it is stated, was never broken by the former.* In 1626 Peter Minuit purchased Manhattan Island for 60 guilders. This was the first land transaction between the Indians and the Dutch; other purchases followed.

The traffic in otters and beavers employed the Indians in the pursuit of the game as far as the St. Lawrence, “and the skiffs of the Dutch, in quest of furs, penetrated every bay and bosom and inlet from Narragansett to the Delaware.95 The sale of intoxicating liquors and the dishonest practices of the traders brought on bloody quarrels, the Indians being maddened by drink. The Indians plead against this trade, say.

Mass. Hist. Coll., 1st series, Vol. I, p. 209. In 1774 there were 1,303 Indians between Norwich and New London. The Mohegans went with Mr. Sampson Occom to Oneida. - Mass. Hist. Coll., 1st series, Vol. I, p. 210. 3 Ibid., p. 211. + Baneroft: Hist. of the U. S., Vol. II, p. 976. *Ibid., pp. 279-280.

ing, "You ought not to craze the young Indians with brandy. Your own people when drunk fight with knives and do foolish things."}

The effect of "strong drink" upon the Indians is particularly disastrous. Those living in the east and north were ignorant of fermented liquors until the white people introduced them. These Indians, bred of a race unused to stimulants of that character, became as great a prey to the desire for the effects of liquor as when the white man's diseases swept the natives off by the hundred. The records of colonial and later times are full of protests and pleadings that this seductive enemy be kept from Indians, protests and prayers from the Indians, and from those who desired to elevate the race. The French, who traversed a wider range of country during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, carried the havoc more widely. The English settled among the tribes living on the coast, endeavored to restrain by law the selling of liquors to the Indians living within the colonies, with more or less success. Private interest and desire for gain tempted many to surreptitiously furnish the Indian with fire-water in spite of the statute book.?

With regard to the dealings of the Dutch with the Indians Mr. Ellis remarks:3

A journal written in the Dutch province, at Albany, N. Y., soon after 1640, traces the beginnings of discordant relations with the neighboring Indians to the misdoings of the whites. The writer says that, instead of trading as a company and by system with the natives, each man set up for himself, roamed in the wilderness for free traffic, and was mastered by a jealous selfishness. They drew upon themselves contempt instead of respect from the Indians by overfamiliarity, admitting them to their cabins, feasting and trifling with them, and selling them guns, powder, and bullets. At least four hundred armed savages were then found between the Dutch settlements and Canada, and were thus placed at an unfair and mischievous advantage over other Indians.

From 1640 to 1643 the war then raging between the Dutch and the Indians threatened to become general through the colonies. The traders up the Hudson had defied all the rigid prohibitions against the selling arms to the Indians, and the Mohawks, with their confederates on the river, nearly exterminated the settlers at Manhattan. Then the massacre of the Indians by the Dutch at Pavonia and Corlaer's Hook was attended by barbarons tortures, which rivaled in cruelty and horror even the savagery of the natives. Fearful devastation and terror followed. Two Indians were so shockingly tortured by the Dutch at Manhattan that even some squaws, as they looked on, cried "Shame!” Captain Underhill, leading the Dutch, massacred nearly seven hundred Indians near Greenwich and Stamford. It was estimated that sisteen hundred sav. ages were killed in this war.

These wars finally broke the power of the Algonquins.

During the contentions between the New Netherlanders and the New England settlers the Five Nations remained faithful friends of the Dutch, saying, “With them we keep but one council fire. We are united by a covenant chain." Bancroft: Hist. of the U.S., Vol. II, p. 289. ? The efforts put forth by the Jesuit missionaries to stay this traffic, and the opposition offered by traders, backed by the king and court interested in money-getting, is ably set forth by Mr. Parkman in his Old Régime in Canada. 'Ellis: The Red Man and the White Man, pp. 343–341. * Bancroft: Hist. of the U. 8., Vol. II, p. 311.

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94

In 1664, upon the surrender of New Netherlands to the Duke of York, the Indians of that province became subject to the English rule.

The Five Nations played an active part in the history of the colonies during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Their hereditary enemies, many of whom resided within the limits of the colonies to the south and east of them, were frequently warred against and the white settlers became more or less involved. The Senecas were particularly troublesome to the colonies to the southward, and the Mohawks spread desolation through the Connecticut Valley, their war parties sometimes penetrating to the towns near the coast. The complications between England and France increased the importance of the Iroquois group, and a history of them is largely the history of the contest of England for the possession of the territory claimed by France.

In 1664 a body of laws “ collected out of the several laws now in force in His Majesty's American Colonies and Plantations," including the Massachusetts colony, was adopted for the Duke of York's province, afterwards a part of New York. Under the head of “Bond Slavery," there is a provision that “no Christian shall be kept in Bond Slavery, Villanage, or Captivity,” except as therein stated, excluding from this exemption, agreeably to the prevailing notion of some of the English courts, all such as were in fidels or heathen.'

ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS.

Florida.--In 1601 the Governor of Florida made an appeal for mis. sionaries. The following year the bishop of Cuba visited the colony, and within a few years so many missionaries were sent thither that Florida was made a Franciscan province under the name of St. Helena. In 1612 twenty-three missionaries arrived; in 1613, eight; and in 1615, twelve more. "In less than two years they were established at the principal points, and numbered no less than twenty convents or residences in Florida."2

In 1638 the Appalaches attacked the Spaniards and were defeated. The prisoners were put to work on the fort and public buildings, and here the missionaries gained access to them, and through them to the 'villages of their tribe. Missions were also begun among the Creeks in west Florida and Georgia, and among the Cherokees, a chief of which tribe was baptized in 1643.3

In 1684 the Yamassees drove away the missionaries and joined the English, and the next year attacked and destroyed the Spanish mission of St. Catharine's.4 The Franciscans established convents on the Flint, and on the Appalachicola and other rivers in Florida.

New lexico.-In 1626 a memoir was addressed to the Spanish court by Father Benavides, of New Mexico, and twenty-seven stations re

N. Y. Hist. Coll., Vol. I, p. 312; Massachusetts and its early History, Lowell Inst. Lectures, p. 203. - Shea : Catholic Missions, p. 71. 3 Ibid., p. 72.

+ I bid.,

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but many

ported. Residences or convents were established at Saint Antonio or Senecu, Socorro, Pilabo, Sevilleta, Saint Francis, Isleta, and Acoma, among the Topiras, the Teoas, the Picuries, and at Zuñi, and churches built at Santa Fé, Pecos, Saint Joseph or Hemes, and the Queres; but before 1660 the Territory was abandoned.

In that year two missionaries returned and remained for two years, when the Indians, after stripping them naked, drove them out of their villages. The missionaries returned the next year and founded several missions. In 1680 all the Indians except three of San Juan de los Caballeros joined in a general insurrection, destroyed several of the stations, and killed a number of the missionaries. The Moquis and Navajoes also killed the missionaries who had ventured among them. “After a few years

*

the missions rose again, churches were never rebuilt, for the new colonies were much harassed by the Apaches."

California.-Three Carmelite friars accompanied Vizcaino's expedi. tion to Upper California in 1601. At Monterey an altar was raised under an oak and services beld, but no mission work was instituted.3

Maine.-In March, 1613, French missionaries landed on Mount Des. ert Island, and buildings were erected. During that year the English under Argall captured the post and took the priest prisoner. In 1646 a mission was begun, by the Jesuits on the Kennebec River, among the Abnakis. A chapel was built a few miles above the English trading. post of Norridgewock, and with the exception of a hiatus between 1656 and 1688 the mission continued throughout the seventeenth century. During the period the Abnakis were without a priest a number were induced to emigrate to Canada, and finally settled in the village of Saint Francis, where their descendants still live. A portion, however, remained and were ministered to by Father Sebastian Rale, who compiled a dictionary of the Abnakis language. These Indians were allies of the French and became involved in the wars of the period, taking part against the English. The mission was for a time broken up amid scenes of disaster, and many of the survivors joined their relatives at Saint Francis, Canada. The missions on the Penobscot and Saint John's remained for a time longer.5

Michigan and the Lakes. The war between the Flurons and the Five Nations resulted disastrously to the former. About 1650 a number of Hurons were received into the Seneca tribe in New York. Another band of Hurons, the Tionontates or Tobacco Nation (at present known as the Wyandottes), driven northward, formed an alliance with the Ottawas, and settled, first at Michilimackinac, next near Green Bay, Wis.; moving to the Mississippi they met the Dakotas, who drove them back

Shea: Catholic Missions, pp. 80, 81, 82. ? I bid., p. 82. 3 I bid., p. 88. 4 Parkman : Pioneers of France in the New World, pp. 271-280; Shea: Catholic Missions, pp. 132, 133; IIolmes : Annals of America, Vol. I, pp. 143-144. 5 Shea : Catholic Miesions, pp. 136-152.

S. Ex. 95-5

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