Page images

not, and after receiving the report that sent me, and be that seeth me, of the disciples, that he gave thanks seeth him that sent me.

The same to the Father, and declared of him- truth is more briefly expressed by self: All things are delivered unto the Apostle, when he asserts it to me of my Father, and no one know- be the first article of the great myseth the Son, or who the son is, but tery of godliness, that God was the Father ; neither knoweth any manifested in the flesh, and when one the Father, or who the Father he declares, that in him dwelt all is, but the Son, and he to whom the the fulness of the Godhead, bodily ; Son will reveal him. In interpret. i. e, says Parkhurst, ing these words of the will of the

“ In the body of Christ, as opposed to the Father, and of the prophetic com

Jewish tabernacle or temple; truly and mission of the Son, which might really in opposition to types and tigures; seem to be countenanced by the not only effectually as God dwells in good blessedness pronounced in St. Luke's men, but substantially or personally by narrative, on those who heard and the strictest union, as the soul dwells in saw the things which were plain to the body, so that God and man are one the disciples of Jesus, but which Christ.” others had in vain desired to know, We are to consider him therefore there is a wide departure from the as One, who for his nature and plain meaning of the words, nor for his works is rightly designawas it true, even at the time the ted the Wonderful, the image of the words were spoken, that the com- invisible God, the brightness of his mission of the Son was unknown to Father's glory, and the express any but the Father. Applied to the image of his person. mysterious and inscrutable nature Among the miraculous works of of the Father and the Son, they Jesus, may be placed the raising of announce a verity in all ages, of the dead, under circumstances very which the Church has no know- extraordinary, and illustrative of ledge but by the revelation of the divine power. The widow's son at Son. There is a passage in the Nain, though he was carried to his Gospel of St. John, which may be burial, was raised in an instant by alleged as throwing considerable the powerful word of him who said, light on this obscure and difficult young man, I say unto thee, arise. text: Jesus said, If ye had known And there came a great fear upon me, ye should have knuwn my all, and they glorified God, saying, Father also, and from henceforth that a great prophet is risen up ye know him and have seen him. among us, and that God hath visited Philip, referring to the visible ma- his people. The restoration of nifestations of the divine glory under Lazarus was still more remarkable. the law, said, Lord, shew us the He had been dead four days, at Father and it suiticeth us. Jesus which time the body usually began saith unto him: Have I been go

to putrify, and though Jesus was long with you, and hast thou not informed of his sickness, he took known me, Philip? He that hath no other notice of it, than to obseen me, hath seen the Father, and serve, this sickness is not unto how sayest thou then, show us the death, but for the glory of God, Father? Believe me, that I am in that the Son of God may be glorified the Father and the Father in me; thereby. Such was his avowed the words that I speak unto you, I knowledge of human contingencies. speak not of myself, and the Father, When he came to the place where that dwelleth in me, he doeth the he was, Martha declared, that if he works.

On another occasion he had been there, her brother would said': He that believeth

on me, not have died, and her persuasion believeth not on me, but on him corresponded with that of the peo..

[ocr errors]

ple, that he who opened the eyes self: and he not only calls Christ of the blind could have caused, that the second Adam, a title approeven this man should not have died. priate to him who was not born of So strong was their belief of his earthly parentage, but he contrasts power over life and death. Jesus, his nature with the first Adam, sayto comfort Martha, and in answer ing, The first Adam was made a to ber declaration, that even now, living soul, the last Adam was made whatsoever he would ask of God, a quickening spirit. And thus it God would give it to him, said, was written, not in the volumes of Thy brother shall rise again, Martha authentic Scripture, but of antient said, I know, that he shall rise tradition, from which Mr. Blom. again at the last day. Jesus not field has extracted the excellent only confirms this doctrine which comment : “ The Word of Jehovah he had taught and illustrated, but said, Here, Adam, whom I created, declares of himself, I am the re- is the only-begotten Son in the surrection and the life, he that world, as I am the only-begotten believeth in me, even if he die, shall Son in the high heaven.” This live, and every one that liveth and comment explains St. Paul's combelieveth in me, shall not die for parison of Adam and Christ, and ever, Believest thou this ? She saith St. John's allusion to the Word, as unto him, yea, Lord, I believe that the only begotten of the Father : thou art the Christ, the Son of the and it proves that the title the Word, living God, who should come into was of Jewish origin, and was used the world. When he came to the to designate a person distinct from tomb, Jesus lifted up his voice and the Father. The argument may be said, Father I thank thee, that thou concluded with the sublime descriphast heard me, and I know that tion which the glorified Jesus gives thou hearest me always, but be- of himself in the Apocalypse: I am cause of the people, which stand he that liveth and was dead, and by, I said it, that they may believe behold, I live for evermore; Amen, that thou hast sent me.

And when and have the keys of hell and of he had thus spoken, he said Lazarus death. come forth, and he that was dead came forth. These actions of his ministry may

AUTHORIZED VERSION OF explain his saying of himself: As

THE BIBLE DEFENDED. the Father raiseth up the dead and Mr. Editor, quickeneth them, even so the Son The first Article in your Number quickeneth whom he will, The for July is “ Remarks on the inadedead shall hear the voice of the Son quate Translation of the first Aorist of God, and they that hear shall and the perfect Tense of the passive live, for as the Father hath life in Voice in the authorized Version of himself, so bath he given to the the New Testament.” The writer, Son to have life in himself. Whoso in proceeding to allege instances of eateth my flesh and drinketh my this “ inadequate translation," adblood, hath eternal life, and I will duces a sentence from the Liturgy, ruse him up at the last day. In and says numerous other instances reference to the same power, the may be found there, justifying the Apostle exborts the Philippians to assertion, that the participle “ bekok for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus ing" is used for the compound perCarist, who shall change our vile fect" having been," and the present bodies, that they may be like unto “ am" for the perfect

have bis glorious body, according to the been;" and that the phraseology of mighty working whereby he is able our Translators is, in these respects, lo subdue even all things to him- “ now obsolete." All this, I must

[ocr errors]

confess, to me appears extremely admits of one sense only, “ among doubtful, or rather perfectly erro- those who have been sanctified," have neous,

been admitted or received into a state In English, as in Latin, there is of sanctification. no present participle in the passive I agree, then, entirely with the voice; and though in Lily's Gram- Remarker, that the texts, which he mar, prior to our present translation alleges, are, all of them, in the of the Bible, “ they are loveď" is the original, in time past ; but I differ current translation of amantur;" from him in accounting for the forin yet, strictly speaking, all our passive of expression, by which they are participles, whether ending in ed or rendered in our English version ; en, are, as they are called, prete- and I couceive that our language, in rites; and if I wished to exhibit cor- this case, has undergone no change rectly in English the Latin verberor, whatsoever; and if, through the deor the Greek Tumlousetpes, it can, fect of our language, in such inI believe, only be done by a present stances as ye are saved,it is participle in the active voice, joined doubtful whether past or present to a noun: “I am receiving stripes." time is intended, (servamini, or, as

How then is time past expressed Beza properly renders it " estis in these languages ? By combining servati,") and can only be detertogether two ideas apparently in- mined from the connection and necompatible ; by coupling a past cessary sense of the passage; the event, operation, or passion, with a very same ambiguity, so far as I can present verb; and this mode, which discover, existed formerly. necessity introduced, custom has

To some of the translations, here familiarized and sanctioned. “ Fac- given as more correct, I cannot actum est,” “ scriptum est,” “ it is cede. For instance, “ Ye are they done, made, written," &c.

that have been saved by grace," is

the translation of υμεις εσε 'O “ Scilicet et rerum facta est pulcherrima

Хет. Roma."

σεσωσμενοι, (as, υμεις δε οτι οι διαμεμε

oq xoles, Luke xxii. 28. “ Ye are they It was once committed to write which have continued,”) not' of the ing;” “ Roma condenda erat:" the real reading, (Eph. ii. 5. 8.) zagito imperial city was once in the state or ESI CEOWO ME10° which is accurately progress of being built; and what was translated, “By grace ye are saved ; written, built, &c. remains. But in all taking saved to be, as it properly is, these cases the notion of time past a preterite participle; and if this is, does not arise from a present verb, and always has been, ambiguous, or present participle, * being” for the ambiguity, unavoidable, perhaps,

having been," or am” for have in any literal translation, is easily been," but from the preterite par- obviated in a paraphrase: “ By ticiple, factum, or scriptum, what grace ye have been admitted into a has bren done, what has been written. state of salvation, and are in that

If we now advert to one of the state." texts quoted by the Remarker, The proper use and sense of the

among them that are sanctified term Being has been perplexed by by faith in me,” (Acts xxvi. 18.) this disputes. It is indisputably a premight be understood as the English sent participle, and the appropriate of you lovlar, sanctificantur, or of term in English for expressing the aynarc uivos nov, sanctificati sunt ; and case absolute. “ Pontius Pilate being since the beginning, the progress, governour (nyeponivorlo) of Judeaand the completion of sanctification, the word of God came unto John is by faith in Christ, the doctrine is, in the wilderness," (Luke iii. 1, 2.) either way, sound and good; but when used, as it often is, in prayer, the original Greek, s tuis nigraouirons, it is not, nor, from the nature of it,

[ocr errors]

(supposing a thing, not imploring very form of expression, as well as
it) can be precative, but introduces by the clause subjoined to it, “ made
or lays down some clause or con- thy children by adoption and grace,”
dition, on which a subsequent peti- (that is, having been adopted in bap-
tion (for it is always followed by a tism,) refers to a past event. AC-
petition) is grounded; and, instead cordingly, in the Greek translation
of referring invariably," as the of the Liturgy, by the celebrated
Archdeacon of Ely is “ inclined to Whitaker, of Cambridge, published
believe,” to a future benefit," it in 1569, as well as in the Latin ver-
would seem, from what has been sion, set forth by the Queen's autho-
said, that the very reverse is rather rity a few years before, (the work, I
the truth; that when combined, as believe, of the admired Latinist,
it commonly is, with a past parti- Walter Haddon) which be printed
ciple in the passive voice, it never with it, both clauses are rendered
refers to a future benefit.

by participles in the past time : However, that the worthy Arch. “ να ημεις της παλιγγενεσιας Προσαψαdeacon, if he chance to see this, μενοι, και τα σα τεκνα δι ηοθεσιας και may not be alarmed more than ne- zaglo [letoomusvose ut nos regenerati cessary, we observe, that the benetit, filiique tui per regenerationem et introduced by the term, may, at the gratiam facti.time of offering the prayer, be either “ Grant that we may look up to past, or present, or future ; but if heaven, and, being filled with the future, it is contemplated as granted, Holy Ghost, may learn to bless our and therefore past, before and in persecutors,” (St. Stephen.) “That order to, the following petition, our hearts being mortified we may which is grounded on it.

in all things obey," (Circumcision.) A few instances will make the “ Increase and multiply upon us matter clear; and I place at the thy mercy, that, thou being our head of them one with a noun, which ruler and guide, we may so pass will illustrate and confirm the cor- through things temporal," (4 Trin.) responding sense, where a participle “Grant that we being called by thy is used.

« Grant, O Lord, that we holy word, may forthwith give up being thy servants," (that is inas- ourselves obediently to fulfil thy much as we are thy servants) “ may holy commandments,” (St. Andrew.) serve thee faithfully." In the song " Grant that thy Church, being alof Zacharias, “ that we being deli- way preserved from false apostles, vered,” is in the same form, and in may be ordered and guided by faithpast time, quo Selas, “ might serveful and true pastors,” (St. Matthias.) him without fear," (Lukei. 74.)

« Wash it, we pray thee, that The following series of examples whatsoever defilements it may have are chiefly from the Collects; and I contracted, being purged and done give them as they occur, whether away, it may be presented pure they are such as clearly corroborate and without spot,"' (Commend. the explanation now given, or such Prayer, Visit. of Sick.) “That we, as some may endeavour to bend to being delivered from this distress, a different meaning. “Grant that may live to serve thee,” (2d Collect we, being regenerate, may daily be in Storm.) “ For which we, now renewed, (Collect for Nativity.) being in safety, do give all praise,” If regenerate, like other words of (2d Thanksgiving after Storm.) that form, as create, uncreate, &c. “ Be thou still our mighty Prois strictly a verbal adjective, not a tector - strengthen, &c. that our participle, it is used, however, as gracious sovereign, and his realms, ibey are, for the preterite participle, being preserved and protected, we regenerated; and therefore, by the may all duly serve thee,” (2d Collect after Litany, Gunpowder Treason.) or desire, that it may be accomHere the protection, first of all im- plished. When a storm rages, the plored, is not again implored in the first petition naturally is, that it may same collect, in the words “ being be quelled : “O send the word of protected," but is supposed, as the thy command to rebuke the raging ground of the prayer which imme- winds and roaring seas :" and when diately follows, “ that we may all the supplicant goes on to implore a duly serve thee." "That being not further blessing, laying down deli. carried away with vain doctrine, we verance as the condition or ground may be established,” (St. Mark.)


of it, “ that we, being delivered from In the form for receiving children this distress, may live to serve thee," that have been privately baptized, he probably accompanies it with a “ Give thy Holy Spirit to this in- silent but fervent wish, that the confant, that he being born again, and dition itself may be granted, “ and being made an heir of everlasting oh! that we may be delivered !" salvation, may continue thy ser- but the clause, in itself, neither is vant,” clearly referring to the bap. nor can be a petition, being clearly tism previously administered, "That indicative of time past. he, being delivered from thy wrath, In the Book of Homilies, the first may

be received into the ark of part of the Sermon for Whitsunday Christ's Church,” (1 Coll. Public thus concludes ; Baptism.) Deliverance from sin, or, which is the same thing, from divine

“ In the mean season, let us (as we are wrath, is the first step, and recep

most bound) give hearty thanks to God tion into the Church is the second ; sending down his Comforter into the world,

the Father, and his Son Jesus Christ, for second in order and in the nature humbly beseeching him, so to work in our of the case, though both conferred bearts by the power of this Holy Spirit, alike in baptism.

that we being regenerate and newly born I give a single instance from St. again in all goodness, righteousness, 80Paul: “ That ye being rooted and briety, and truth, may in the end be made grounded,(clearly denoting time partakers of everlasting life in his heavenly past, according to ihe

original, upei- kingdom, through Jesus Christ our Lord ζωμενοι και τεθεμελιωμενοι) “may be able to comprehend, and know the love Now whether the author of this of Christ," (Eph. iii. 17, 18.) Homily here intended the new birth

Other examples, were not the list in baptism, inceptive of all spiritual already too large, might easily be life, as the natural birth is inceptive adduced, both from the Liturgy and of our natural life; or whether, confrom Scripture. We may observe trary to the general usage of our upon them in general, that the pre- Church and our early divines, as sent participle, being, coupled with also in violation of the proper sense a past participle, as delivered, of the words, (for being born eviborn, risen," &c. universally desig- dently means having been born) by nates a time or event which is past; the terms "regenerate and newly which therefore, as such, cannot be born again," he meant progressive the subject of prayer, but is intro- renovation, going on from baptism duced as the ground of a petition to death, the clause, like all those ' or prayer subjoined to it.' This,

This, before adduced, is not precative, , however, we may concede, that but the foundation of the prayer when the event or condition, thus which follows, “ that having walked supposed, is subsequent to the time in all sobriety and truth, we may in of uttering the prayer, the suppli- the end be made partakers of ever, cant may, in uttering the clause, lasting life." accompany it with a tacit petition,

A. R. M.

« PreviousContinue »