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government, that was not yet under communist control, require that all civilian government officials and employees take Marxism-Leninism courses?
Mr. LANZA. Because there was control in the ideological part of the government; there was not control, until later, in the administrative part of the government.
Mr. Schmitz. What is the ideological part of the government?
Mr. LANZA. Amongst those persons who teach and to promote the doctrines of Marxist-Leninism which were being taught in Cuba. I will try to make it clearer. As to this ideological plan,
the leader was Anevalez Calantay, a well-known communist. Now, in the army, there were some cadre where there was no communist influence yet-I mean there wasn't communist domination yet; in others there were.
Mr. SCHMITZ. To summarize, then-and I don't expect an answer unless you feel you want to answer—but I find if, on one hand, the communists did not take control of the government until 1962, I find it strange that they were requiring Marxism-Leninism courses for their government officials and employees in 1961 and giving courses in Marxism-Leninism in the armed forces in 1959.
The reason I asked this is because it leads to my next question. You say, "Through my personal knowledge of Fidel Castro I can state that he is a total opportunist interested only in power." In your personal knowledge, what actions of Fidel Castro distinguish him as an opportunist rather than a cryptocommunist who surfaces at a certain time, in the light of his activities in Bogota in 1948?
Mr. LANZA. The comment I will make--and this will surprise youis that I will say I truly don't believe Fidel Castro is a communist; he is a Fidelista; he is a man who does things for his own conveniences, for his own faith, his own personal one. He has changed many times. There were times in which he has operated with his colleagues that were with him at the beginning who were not communists. There were other times in which he acts only with communists. I would say this is the reason why I say he is an opportunist; he is not a man of principle, but a man who will take advantage of the situation.
Mr. SCHMITZ. In other words, he doesn't think Fidel Castro is a communist today even?
Mr. LANZA. I was expressing this in a figurative sense. I was saying this in merely a figurative sense. He is not a communist in the traditional sense of a communist who is willing to submit himself to the disciplines of the communist party. He certainly does as he pleases to the extent that if I were going to define him I would have to define him as an anarchist. We must also remember that he is quite egocentric; he loves himself; he loves himself more than anything else.
Mr. SCHMITZ. One last very quick question : Are you familiar with the exporting of military personnel to Portuguese Africa to aid in the revolution against Portugal!
Mr. LANZA. Yes, sir. I know something about it.
Mr. Schmitz. I don't want to take up time. Do you have any short comments on the exporting of military personnel?
Mr. LANZA. It is common to see in Cuba. Frequently you see persons, usually blacks—I am sorry-blacks who have been--were veterans of actions that had taken place in Portuguese Guinea and also in the Congo.
Mr. SCHMITZ. Thank you.
Mr. PEPPER. Mr. Suarez, we wish very much to thank you for your valuable testimony and for your kindness in coming to testify before our committee today. We respect you for having defected from communism in Cuba and doing what you can in bringing to the awareness of the people of this country what communism means and what communism is doing in Cuba. Thank you very much.
Mr. LANZA. Thank you very much for your kindness, sir.
Will you be sworn, please, Mr. Marin. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?
Mr. MARIN. I do.
TESTIMONY OF GUSTAVO B. MARIN
Mr. PEPPER. We are running a little late and we have important legislation on the floor. I wonder if it would be all right with you and counsel if we put your entire statement in the record for the benefit of the committee and that you then be invited to give a summary of your testimony in summary form and state what you would like to say to the committee today. Would that be all right with you?
Mr. MARIN. Yes, sir.
Mr. PEPPER. Without objection, the entire statement of Mr. Gustavo B. Marin will appear in the record. (Mr. Marin's biographical sketch and formal statement follows:)
AGRUPACION ESTUDIANTIE ABDALA
OCTOBER 2, 1971.
Graduated from St. Francis College, New York City, 1970, B.A. in Latin American Studies.
Now completing studies toward M.A. in Spanish literature at Hunter College of the City of New York.
Teacher of social studies and languages at a local high school.
Active participant in Cuban anti-Castro groups. Concluded, after such participation, that Cuba's liberation could only be achieved through a massive effort by Cuban youth in exile a generation committed to the present and future destiny of our Nation.
One of the original members of Spanish-speaking Y.C.S. (Young Christian Students), 1964, which worked among Spanish-speaking minority groups and in social action programs.
Founder of the ABDALA Student Movement, January 28, 1968. President of that organization.
Was one of the 16 members of ABDALA who chained themselves at U.N. Security Council chamber, during protest on behalf of 40,000 Cuban political prisoners. Was arrested as a result. (March 13, 1971).
Active organizer of student confrontations with the Venceremos Brigade in the United States.
On January 28, 1968, a number of Cuban students in the United States came together and founded what started as study group with the only purpose ostensibly-of keeping informed on everything revelant to the present situation of our country. We thus hoped to maintain the national spirit alive among young Cuban exiles. But almost immediately the motive expanded to the unification of a stateless but not rootless, fighting generation—with Cuba's liberation from Soviet totalitarianism as our goal, and a free Cuban government based on democracy, social justice and the self-determination of the Cuban people as our aim.
Young, committed only to the task of freedom for our enslaved nation and a Cuban future that we hope to make better, we named the new movement after our José Martí's youthful epic hero: ABDALA. OPERATIONS
We now have more than 500 active members operating from chapters throughout the East and Midwest in the United States, as well as in Latin America and Spain-coordinated by a National Directorate.
As of our First National Congress, ABDALA's ranks have expanded to include a young workers' division and an Institute of Cuban Studies (Instituto de Capacitación y Estudios Cubanos ABDALA, I. C. E. C. A.) with the cooperation and direct involvement of established exiled Cuban intellectuals: writers, professionals and university professors.
ABDALA currently publishes its own monthly newspaper, with contributed articles from I. C. E. C. A.'s activists, which has 10,000 circulation in the United States and abroad, including Cuba. ACTIVITIES OF CUBAN AND LATIN AMERICAN COMMUNISTS ON CAMPUS-WHAT ABDALA
FACES The Venceremos Brigade
Their present activities, as we see them. Our chapter at State University of Illinois at Champaign reports that the l'enceremos Brigade conducts recruitment of students and professors on campus. One exiled Cuban professor teaching at Champaign was invited to visit Cuba and declined the invitation.
From our members' personal observation, Venceremos Brigade recruiting officers are now giving preference to students of Oriental extraction.
Alleged dissenters within Venceremos Brigade remain silent-reasons unknown-upón return to the United States.
One incident reported in the Midwest where Venceremos Brigade members attempted to speak to an elementary school class.
Explosive weapons seized by police in Brookline, Mass., resulting in the arrest of four people, two of them closely affiliated to the Venceremos Brigade (Boston Globe, Boston Herald, September 17, 1971). Several Cuban military medals were found among material confiscated by police. The two Venceremos Brigade members involved in the incident flew to Cuba from Mexico; their return to the ['nited States through Canada was allegedly financed by Castro's government.
Rutgers University at Newark, and Rutgers University at Livingston are planning to offer trips to Cuba as a 16 credit study program.
Hunter College of the City of New York has an extreme left dominated Hostos Society directed by an active member of the Venceremos Brigade.
We consider the Venceremos Brigade to be at present Fidel Castro's main instrument of instigation, subversion and communist propaganda on U.S. college campuses. The Venceremos Brigade has been widely proved to be the melting pot of all Extreme Left factions within the United States, as well as the communist-organized utilizer of naive idealism among some American students. Confrontation with ABDALA
1969—Hunter College of the City of Ver York.-Heated argument with Venceremos Brigade speaker, member also of the Youth Socialist Alliance.
1971-Rutgers, New Brunswick.- Venceremos Brigade showed film "Compañeros y compañeras" and sought financial contributions. Sponsored by several S. D. S. inspired groups.
1971–Rutgers, Livingston.—Venceremos Brigade showed $4.00 admission to showing of same film after New Brunswick confrontation with ABDALA mem
bers; Castro-sympathizers admitted free. Violent attempt against ABDALA members, one of which requested open discussion with Venceremos Brigade. After four hours of debate, Venceremos Brigade's arguments were allegedly destroyed by ABDALA members.
1971-Rutgers', Newark.--Venceremos Brigade presented speaker. Debate with ABDALA members ensued.
1971-University of Illinois.--Confrontation at the university with members of ABDALA, and the Cuban Student Association. The student government granted the Venceremos people $500 for one week of workshops, rallies, and pro-Castro movies. The Cuban students were ignored and had to finance their anti-Castro campaign with their own pocket money. The propaganda war was won by the Cubans--as a Venceremos Brigade rally attracted less than 50 Peuple--most of them Cuban students out to confront the Brigade. And the week ended in a two and one-half hour radio debate between two Cuban students and a team of sereral Venceremos members.
1971—Kent State University.—Confrontation with a debate between one of ABDALA's member and an unidentified member of the Venceremos Brigade, believed to be Mr. Hutchins or Mr. Hutchinson.
1971-Radio Debate.--Debate in WIND radio (Chicago) between an ABDALA's member and a member of the Brigade who used the pseudonym "John Smith". Tapes of this two-hour debate are available.
1971–University of Illinois.--Public debate between a representative of ABDALA and two members of the Brigade.
1971-La Gente.-There is a possibility that Venceremos Brigade members were involved with a small leftist group in Chicago known as La Gente. La Gente sponsored a pro-Castro support picnic on the 26 of July, 1971, in a vacant lot in Chicago. Propaganda from Cuba was distributed. The day ended with a violent confrontation between ABDALA and Brigade members,
1971-Champaign, Illinois.-ABDALA found out that the Venceremos Brigade was going to go to a local school to speak and distribute propaganda. Steps were taken to counter-act the Brigade, but when they found out about ABDALA preparing for a confrontation, the Brigade cancelled their scheduled appearance. Other Confrontations on Campus
1968—Columbia University.-ABDALA members attended lecture on Cuba by Prof. Edward Boorstein of Cornell University, American economist who worked in Cuba under Che Guevara and self-confessed Marxist-Leninist champion of Castro's regime. Debate ensued.
1969-Cornell l'niversity.-Prof. Boorstein expelled two Cuban students-one of them a member of ABDALA-from his class. Massive protest correspondence to Cornell followed an ABDALA-organized campaign. Boorstein was replaced shortly after.
1969-N.Y.U., Washington Square.-Confrontation between ABDALA and members of S.D.S. and American Communist Party during S.D.S.-sponsored lecture on Cuba.
1970–Manhattan College.-- Guest lecturer, Prof. Boorstein revisited by ABDALA members. Confrontation with sponsoring Lucha and Castro sympathizers.
1970–Rutgers, Newark.-Several confrontations by ABDALA members studying a course on Latin American affairs conducted by a Dr. Spalding, who emphasized Che Guevara's guerrilla warfare tactics in the lectures. Dr. Spalding, who visited Cuba with Venceremos Brigade, suddenly moved to Peru in 1970. Shortly after her departure a pro-Che Guevara student group called Free People actively appeared on campus. ABDALA Outside the Campus: Meetings, Demonstrations, Protest Marches
October 5, 1968.-Student meeting at N.Y.U. to recruit members and sympathizers. Attended by Cuban students mostly although also by people from other "spheres”. Our first public meeting. Fidel Castro burned in effigy, Washington Square Park,
November 24, 1968.-First "Student March" to the U.N. through Avenue of the Americas.
March 9. 1969.-First march to protest against conditions of political prisoners in Castro's Cuba. Open demand to U.X. Commission of Human Rights. Triggered by newspaper stories and letters regarding Pedro Luis Boitel and inhumanities inflicted him in a prison. Shortly after protest march, he was transferred to a military hospital by Castro's government.
July 26, 1969.-Demonstration in condemnation of the Cuban Mission to the U.N. 26th of July Movement's degeneration into a reign of terror. Burning of the Russian flag resulting in the arrest of one of our members for the first time.
September 21, 1969.- Second protest march regarding political prisoners. 5,000 Cubans attended from the Cuban Mission to the U.N. to José Marti's statue.
May, 1969.-Demonstration before a New York theatre which presented "Che", a movie about Guevara.
January 28, 1970.–ABDALA's anniversary, José Marti's birthday. Public meeting attended by several representatives of Cuban organizations in exile. All generations, all social levels, all occupations represented.
July, 1970.-U.N. World Youth Assembly. Sought to gain access through regular procedure but were denied expression inside U.N. Shortly after the Assembly closed we received a letter from Sweden from Lars Thalen, Secre tary General of the Assembly, explaining denial was caused by pressure from membership from communist bloc.
October 12, 1970.-Visit of Fidel Castro. U.N. protest attempt to lower the Russian flag.
October 23, 1970.–Protest before Cuban Mission to U.N. Burning of Russian flag. Four of our members arrested.
November 27, 1970.-"Cuban Student Day". Public meeting.
January 28, 1970.-ABDALA's anniversary, José Marti's birthday. Public meeting.
March 13, 1971.—Disrupted U.N. Council Meeting. Sixteen of our members arrested. First page Daily News, New York Times, third page.
June 8, 1971.-Boston protest against pro Castro article published by The Pilot. July, 1971.–First National Congress :
(a) Drawing of a series of conclusions pertaining to our position regarding the Cuban situation.
(6) Unanimous backing from exiled community.
No right, no left. Cuba and whatever is best for it regardless of all
foreign powers and independent of all foreign influence. Correspondence to U.S. publications, English and Spanish, speaking, college and otherwise.
Involvement of our members in their own campus publications.
Mr. PEPPER. Now, Counsel, if you will invite Mr. Marin to make a summary statement, we would be pleased to have it.
Mr. SCHULTZ. Mr. Marin, would you state your full name and present address, please?
Mr. MARIN. Gustavo B. Marin, 3326 82d Street, Jackson Heights.
Mr. Schultz. Mr. Marin, would you proceed now, as the chairman recommended, to summarize your statement to the committee?
Mr. Marin. I first would like to summarize my personal opinions on the Cuban-American affairs and the Cuban-American relations and a question that is often asked by many Americans to Cubans on our type of relations: Where did the U.S. go wrong, and where are we willing to go?
I would like to begin by saying, when our struggle began, those Cubans who left everything behind and came to the land they had perhaps idealized might have wanted to serve the United States as the Venceremos Brigade now serves Castro's Cuba.
However, after a Bay of Pigs; after a Cuban missile crisis, which brought memories of the Paris Treaty of 1898 behind doors closed on
1 The U.N. Latin American Caucus held evening sessions attended only by Marxist delegates from L.A. Members of the Cuban delegation to the U.N. were among those presiding. It is my belief that certain subversive groups now operating in L.Å. were organized during such sessions.-G. M.