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serves and helps the people, copes with their problems and aids in their struggle for a more abounding commonweal. Municipal government has not been included, since that subject is now handled in all the universities as a separate and distinct part of the field with its own special literature. Special acknowledgment is due to the editor of this series, Dr. Richard T. Ely, for his invaluable criticism, suggestion, and advice. With the faculty and student body at Pennsylvania the author also enjoys such an intimate relation that he feels the book to be largely a product of their inspiring friendship. To them it is dedicated.

APRIL, 1915.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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PAGE

PREFACE..........

LIST OF CASES CITED ...............................

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION..

II. THE PRESIDENT.........................

III. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES...

IV. THE SENATE....

V. THE POWERS OF CONGRESS-TAXATION AND FINANCE....... 94

VI. THE POWERS OF CONGRESS—THE REGULATION OF COMMERCE 119

VII. THE POWERS OF CONGRESS—THE SHERMAN ACT........... 141

VIII. THE POWERS OF CONGRESS-PUBLICITY, THE TRADE COM-

MISSION AND THE CLAYTON ACT........

............ 165

IX. THE POWERS OF CONGRESS-FEDERAL POLICE POWER OVER

INTERSTATE COMMERCE...

......... 187

X. THE POWERS OF CONGRESS-THEIR RELATION TO STATE Pow-

ERS OVER COMMERCE......

203

XI. THE POWERS OF CONGRESS—THE POSTAL POWER.......... 219

XII. THE POWERS OF CONGRESS—THE WAR POWER...

231

XIII. THE POWERS OF CONGRESS-CONTROL OVER THE TERRITORIES

AND OTHER POWERS ......

245

XIV. THE NATIONAL CONSERVATION POLICY.

XV. THE FEDERAL JUDICIARY.......

275

XVI. THE STATE GOVERNMENT-THE CONSTITUTION............. 298

XVII. THE STATE_CONTINUED—THE EXECUTIVE, LEGISLATURE AND

COURTS.........

............. 314

XVIII. THE STATE AND ITS WORK-BUSINESS PROTECTION AND REGU-

LATION........

XIX. THE STATE-CONTINUED-LABOR.....

....... 369

XX. THE STATE-CONTINUED—THE STATE AND EDUCATION...... 399

XXI. THE STATE-CONTINUED HEALTH, CHARITIES AND CORREC-

TION............

.............................. 419

XXII. THE STATE--CONTINUED HIGHWAYS AND FINANCES........ 442

XXIII. CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTION OF BUSINESS AND PERSONAL

RIGHTS–SAFEGUARDS OF INDIVIDUALS AND CORPORATIONS... 453

XXIV. CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTIONS—CONTINUED—THE POLICE

POWER..........

XXV. CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTIONS-TAXATION.....

519

XXVI. THE PARTY.......

XXVII. PUBLIC OPINION......

XXVIII. THE CIVIL SERVICE...

XXIX. DIRECT LEGISLATION—THE SHORT BALLOT...

APPENDLX A-THE CONSTITUTION........

APPENDIX B–THE DISTRUST OF STATE LEGISLATURES—THE REMEDY., 643

THE SHORT BALLOT.......

TABLE OF CASES CITED

Adams Express Co. v. Kentucky, | Caldwell v. N. C., 187 U. S. 622, 1903. 206 U. S. 129, 1907. 215.

529. Adams Express Co. v. Ohio, 165 U. S. California v. The Central Pacific R. 104, 1897. 534.

R. Co., 127 U. S. I, 1888. 530. Addyston Pipe Co. v. U. S., 175 U. S. Central Lumber Co. v. S. Dakota, 211, 1899. 146.

226 U. S. 157, 1912. 361, 483. Allgeyer v. Louisiana, 165 U. S. 578, Champion v. Ames, 188 U. S. 321, 1897. 470.

1903. 192, 508. American Steel & Wire Co. o. Speed, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 0. 192 U. S. 500, 1904. 524.

McGuire, 219 U. S. 549, 1911. Anderson v. U. S., 171 U. S. 604, 513. 1898. 145.

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul R. R. Atlantic Coast Line v. The R. R. Com Co. v. Iowa, 233 U. S. 334, 1914. missioners of S. C., 207 U. S. 328,

283. 1907. 210, 485.

Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 Dallas, 419, Austin v. Tennessee, 179 U. S. 343, 1793. 280. 1900. 485.

Civil Rights Cases, 109 U. S. 3, 1883.

486, 488. Bacon v. Illinois, 227 U. S. 504, 1913.

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & 525.

St. Louis Ry. v. Illinois, 177 U. S. Bailey 0. Alabama, 219 U. S. 219, 514, 1900. 209, 485. 1911. 459.

C. C. C. & St. L. Ry. v. Backus, Baldwin v. Franks, 120 U. S. 678, 154 U. S. 439, 1894.533. 1887. 26.

Coe v. Errol, 116 U. S. 517, 1886. Baltic Mining Co. 9. Massachusetts, 523. 231 U. S. 68, 1913. 641.

Collector, The, v. Day, in Wallace, B. & 0. o. Interstate C. C., 221 U. S. 113, 1870. 97, 102. 612, 1911, 135, 511.

Commonwealth v. Hamilton Mfg. Co., Barbier 0. Connolly, 113 U. S. 27, 210 Mass. 383, 1876. 503. 1885. 482.

Connolly v. Union Sewer Pipe Co., Barron v. Baltimore, 7 Peters, 376, 184 U. S. 540, 1902. 480. 1833. 458.

Cooley 0. The Port Wardens of Bauer & Co. v. O'Donnell, 229 U. S. Phila., 12 Howard, 299, 1851. I, 1913. 156.

203, 484. Beer Co. v. Massachusetts, 97 U. S. Corfield v. Coryell, 4 Washington 25, 1877. 502.

C. C. 371, 1823. 487. Binghampton Bridge Case, 3 Wallace, Crandall v. Nevada, 6 Wallace, 35, 51, 1865. 464.

1865. 487. Board of Trade of Chicago v. Christie Grain & Stock Co., 198 U. S. 236, Daniel Ball Case, The, 10 Wallace, 1905. 145.

557, 1870. 134. Bonaparte o. The Tax Court, 104 U. S. Darnell Co. v. Memphis, 208 U. S. 592, 1882. 522.

113, 1906. 526. Bowman v. Chicago Railway Co., 125 Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 4

U. S. 465, 1888. 204, 213, 214. Wheaton, 518, 1819. 463, 499, Brown 0. Houston, 114 U. S. 622, 501. 1885. 524.

Davidson v. New Orleans, 96 U. S. 97, Brown 7. Maryland, 12 Wheaton, 1877. 510. 419, 1827. 121, 203, 279.

Debs, In re, 158 U. S. 564, 1895. 34. Browning, E. A., v. The City of Way Degge v. Hitchcock, 229 U. S. 162, cross, 233 U. S. 16, 1914. 527.

1913. 222. Bucks Stove & Range Co. v. Gompers, Dent . West Virginia, I29 U. S. II4,

et al., 221 U. S. 418, 1911. 150. 1889. 503.

98.

Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U. S. 244, | Hurtado v. California, 110 U. S. 535, 1900. 100.

1883. 474.

Hylton v. U. S., 3 Dallas, 171, 1796. Eastern States Retail Lumber Dealers'

Assoc. v. U. S., 234 U. S. 600, 1914. 151.

Intermountain Rate Cases (U. S. v. Erie R. R. v. John Williams, 233 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe U. S. 671, 1914. 211, 391.

R. R.), 234 U. S. 199, 1914. 129. Escanaba Co. v. Chicago, 107 U. S. International Harvester Co. v. Mis678, 1883. 204.

souri, 234 U. S. 199, 1914. 481. Express Co. v. Kentucky, 214 U. S. || International Text Book Co. v. 218, 1909. 214.

Pigg, 217 U. S. 91, 1910. 216,

486. Fertilizer Co. v. Hyde Park, 97 U. S. Ives v. S. Buffalo Ry. Co., 201 N. Y. 659, 1878. 502.

271, 1911; 94 N. E. 431. 380. Ficklen o. Shelby Co., 145 U. S. 1, 22, 1892. 538.

Johnson Case, The Dr., “cancerine” Field v. Clark, 143 U. S. 649, 1892. remedy, 221 U. S. 488, 1911. 195. 257.

Joint Traffic Association Case, 171 Flint v. The Stone Tracy Co., 220 U. S. 505, 1898. 144. U. S. 107, 1911. 100, 538.

Jones v. The U. S., 137 U. S. 202, Frigate Gray v. The Ship Fraser, 21 1890. 43.

Howard, 184, 1859. 317, 484. Juillard v. Greenman, 110 U. S. 421, Frisbie o. U. S., 157 U. S. 160, 1895. 1883. 111. 479.

Kane v. Erie R. R., 142 Fed. Rep. Galveston Ry. 0. Texas, 210 V. S. 682, 1906. 378. 217, 1908. 535.

Keller v. U. S., 213 U. S. 138, 1909. Geoffrey v. Riggs, 133 U. S. 258, 189. 1890. 26.

Kentucky 9. Dennison, 24 Howard, German Alliance Insurance Co. v. 66, 1860. 325.

Ike Lewis, 233 U. S. 389, 1914. 469.

Lake Shore & Michigan So. Ry. v. Gibbons v. Ogden, 9 Wheaton, 1, Ohio, 173 U. S. 285, 1899. 209, 485. 1824. 203.

Legal Tender Cases, 110 U. S. 421, Gompers v. The Bucks Stove & Range 1884. 111.

Co., 221 U. S. 418, 1911. 292. Leisy 0. Hardin, 135 U. S. 100, 1890. Gompers v. U. S., 233 U. S. 604, 1914.

212, 214, 485. 277.

Leloup v. Mobile, 127 U. S. 640, 1888.

530. Harrison 0. The St. Louis & San Live Stock Exchange Cases. 145.

Francisco Ry. Co., 232 U. S. 318, Loan Association v. Topeka, 20 Wal1913. 475.

lace, 655, 1874. 519. Henry v. Dick, 224 U. S. 1, 1912. Lochner v. New York, 198 U. S. 45, 155, 158, 176.

1905. 507. Hepburn v. Griswold, 8 Wallace, 603, Loewe v. Lawlor, 208 U. S. 274, 1908. 1869. 111.

150, 153. Hoke & Economides v. U. S., 227 U. S. 308, 1913. 191.

McCall 0. California, 136 U. S. 104, Hoke'v. U. S., 227 U. S. 316, 1913. 1890. 530. 508.

McCray v. U. S., 195 U. S. 27, 1904. Holden v. Hardy, 169 U. S. 366, 1898. 103. 373, 508.

McCulloch v. Maryland, 4 Wheaton, Hopkins v. U. S., 171 U. S. 578, 1898. 316, 1819. 102, 181, 255, 521. 145.

McDermott v. Wisconsin, 228 U. S. Horn Silver Mining Co. v. New York, 115, 1913. 198, 424.

143 U. S. 305, 1892. 539, 543. Magoun v. Illinois Trust Co., 170 U.S. Houston Railway v. U. S. (The 283, 1898. 544.

Shreveport Case), 233 U. S. 342, Maine v. Grand Trunk Ry. Co., 142 1914. 136, 349.

U. S. 217, 1891, 535, 538.

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