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assisted Major Oliver in the erection of the first mills on the Ohio.

Captain Haskell was only twenty at the outbreak of the Revolution, but served with distinction; rising from the rank of ensign to that of lieutenant and adjutant.

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Of such "stern stuff" were formed the pioneer settlers of the great west, and we honor ourselves in recounting their achievements.

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In 1789 the "Society of Tammany" or "Columbian Order," was founded, as a popular order in contradistinction to that of the Cincinnati, which was deemed an aristocratic one. The chief founder, who was also the first Grand Sachem, was William Mooney, a native-born son of Irish parents and an upholsterer by trade. The name—“Tammany”—was chosen in honor of a friendly chief of the Delaware Indians. The first meeting was held May 12, 1789, and the society was incorporated in 1805, with a Grand Sachem and thirteen Sachems, to typify the thirteen original States. Tammany is nominally a patriotic, charitable and social organization, and is distinct from the Tammany Democracy, which is political in its character and cannot use Tammany Hall without the consent of the society.

In 1826 were organized the "Societies of the War of 1812," whose original members comprised those who actually served in that war in the United States military and naval forces.

In 1833 the initial steps were taken towards the formation of the Washington National Monument Society, and through its officers an appeal was made to the people of the United States to raise the sum required to build the monument. Chief Justice Marshall was the first president of the society. In order that the movement should be a popular one, no one was requested to contribute more than a dollar. The accumulation of funds was so slow that in 1847 only $87,000 had been collected; but it was determined to begin the work, and by resolution of Congress the society was authorized to erect the monument on the spot chosen by Major L'Enfant and approved by Washington for a memorial in honor of the American Revolution. During the six years following the expenditures of the society reached a quarter of a million dollars and the obelisk was raised to a height of one hundred and seventy feet; but contributions began to fail and the Civil War intervened, when all effort to complete the shaft seemed hopeless.

In the Centennial year, however, Congress passed an act creating a joint commission for the prosecution and completion of the work and by liberal appropriations so hastened the construction that on Saturday, December 6, 1884, at two o'clock in the afternoon, the Washington National Monument was finished, with the exception of the laying of the cap-stone (weighing 3,300 pounds) and the placing in position of the aluminum point, the largest ever cast, which caps the monument.

At this ever-memorable hour there were assembled on the platform, immediately under the cap-stone, about thirty persons, including, besides the workmen, members of the Monument Society and their guests, with representatives of the press. The ceremonies attending the completion of this grand and noble work—the highest monument on earth to a nation's greatest benefactor-occupied only a quarter of an hour, and as the last touch was given to the aluminum cone the Stars and Stripes were flung to the breeze and cannon in the White Lot fired a salute to the flag, thus displayed at the greatest height of construction yet known to the world. Before the firing ceased, the following resolution was offered by General Dunn and adopted :

Resolved, That we are thankful to have the opportunity of this occasion, and at this elevation, to congratulate the American people on the completion of this enduring monument of our nation's gratitude to the 'Father of his Country.''

A most interesting circumstance connected with the ceremonies of the laying of the corner-stone and of the dedication of the monument, is that the orator on both occasions—with an interval of forty-eight years—was the Honorable Robert C. Winthrop, of Massachusetts.

In 1847 the Aztec Club was formed, in the City of Mexico,

by officers of the United States Armies who served in the Mexican War.

In 1853 the first patriotic society of women—the "Mount Vernon Ladies' Association"-was founded by Miss Ann Pamela Cunningham, of South Carolina, having for their object “the purchase, restoration, care and preservation of that sacred American mecca, Mount Vernon, the home and tomb of Washington." Their efforts were successful, and the final payment for the property was made in 1860, in the name of the women of America; who have ever since been represented by the regent and board of vice-regents from the several States.

After this, there was a long lull in the expression of patriotic feeling in the formation of clubs and societies; but 1876, the Centennial year, was marked by the organization of the Sons of the Revolution and the Sons of the American Revolution.

Then followed, in close order, several women's societies. In 1888, the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, which bought and now cares for the home of Washington's mother, at Fredericksburg; in 1889, the National Mary Washington Memorial Association, through whose efforts a monument was erected in her honor; in 1890, the Daughters of the American Revolution; in 1891, the Daughters of the Revolution ; in 1892, the United States Daughters, and in 1893, the Colonial Dames.

In 1892 was organized the Society of Colonial Wars, and in 1894 that of the Mayflower Descendants—and with the Daughters of the Cincinnati, the American Legion of Honor, the Loyal Legion, the Medal of Honor Legion, the Grand Army of the Republic—with all its different auxiliaries, such as the Women's Relief Corps, Sons of Veterans, etc., comprising a membership of a quarter of a million--and the latest recruits, the Children of the American Revolution-it seems as if no one, great or small, in all this broad land should be debarred from some association with a patriotic society.

FRANCES A. JOHNSTON.

THE EFFECT OF THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION

ON THE CHARACTER OF THE WOMEN.

[Read to the Maryland Line Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, of Baltimore, Maryland, Wednesday afternoon, April 19, 1899.)

It is said that there are some qualities which men possess and which women do not, and vice versa ; but the better view is that women and men possess the same characteristics, only some qualities are latent in both sexes until called forth by great events.

For instance, women are said to possess active self-sacrifice, while their courage is passive, and that men possess passive virtue, while their courage is active.

But this is simply because the daily round of life does not bring these latent qualities to the surface.

Now, great events and revolutions which shake a nation to its very foundation, or build one up, as the War of the Revolution did with America, tend to bring many latent qualities to the surface which the individuals themselves even did not know they possessed, and the virtues active instead of passive, thus confirming Shakespeare when he says, "Courage mounteth occasion.” So, with women, the War of the Revolution brought out qualities which they hardly knew were in them. But, after awhile, things straightened themselves out, and we find that, as Pallas Athene sprang from the head of Zeus, so Phoenix-like, independence, determination, partiotism, selfreliance, self-sacrifice, love of liberty and courage, sprung fullarmed into existence in women under the influence of the War of the Revolution.

Women were not so independent before those stirring events as they subsequently became. The novels of those days depicted the heroines as pale, languid, and, on the whole, decidedly insipid and given to fainting; but those were English, for we had as yet no literature, and we may be sure our American women, whose ancestors had crossed the “briny deep,” so as to give fair play to their religious convictions, had not lost the vigor of mind inherited from those same stern ancestors.

Accordingly, that independence of character, which is so much in evidence in the present generation, was latent in the women of those days, and was only waiting to be called forth by the War for Independence, Agnes Replier tells us their first feeling of independence seemed to turn their minds to clothes, and if I may use her own witty words, records, “The stern warnings, the sharp reproofs directed from time to time against those daughters of Eve who yearned after fancy fig leaves, who let their hair stray wantonly over their brows or sought to widen their modest petticoats with the seductive crinoline," against which Thomas Chalkley so vigorously set himself and vainly remarked, "If Almighty God should make a woman in the same shape her hoop makes her, everybody would say, truly it was monstrous, so according to this real truth they make themselves monsters by art." To quote Miss Replier again : "No wife nor daughter or tradseman was suffered to enter the Assemblies, which were rigidly aristocratic, and no Alippant coquetry was permitted to interfere with the decorus order of procedure. The ladies who arrived earliest had places duly assigned them in the first set, and those who followed were distributed throughout other sets, either at the discretion of the directors or according to the numbers they drew, a melancholy arrangement fraught, like the modern dinner, with many painful possibilities.” Yet did it not shelter the girls from some agonizing doubts whether they would get a partner at all, as in some of our germans? It was Miss Polly Riche who, in 1782, first revolted against this stringent rule, and showed her love of liberty. She insisted on standing up in any set she fancied. But what other conduct could have been expected in 1782? Cornwallis had surrendered; the War of the Revolution was practically at an end; independence had been won, and Philadelphia was slowly struggling to emerge into a new law and order--an evil time for conservatives, as Miss Polly Riche doubtless understood; so she struck her little blow for liberty and struck it not in vain.

A further illustration of the determination and independence of character of the women of that day is furnished by a story, which has never found its way into print, of the ancestress of one of my friends in this city, Elizabeth Wormley Carter

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