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overlap of four degrees in latitude, but it was provided that no settlement should be made nearer one already made by the other than one hundred miles.

This charter reveals the indifference at that time by the English to the possibilities of the great interior, also, that it left a “no man's land,” between 38° and 41°. Yet, under this charter the first permanent English settlement was made at Jamestown on the James River, in 1607. This historical date, this Society has the special right and honor to place upon its seal.

This charter of 1606 proved unsatisfactory and a new one was granted the London Company, known as the “Virginia Charter of 1609," "being in that part of America called Virginia," two hundred miles along the sea coast, northward and southward "from the said point of Cape Comfort," "throughout, from sea to sea," and including adjacent islands. This included from 34° to 40° very nearly, and "from sea to sea."

In 1620 the Plymouth company, known as the “Plymouth Council of New England," was reorganized and its limits were extended from the northern line of Virginia (about 40° latitude) to 48° latitude and also, “from sea to sea.”

Meantime, the Dutch had begun to make settlements along the Hudson as early as 1614, and the Swedes disputed their occupation further to the southward along the lower Delaware. The English never recognized the validity of the French, Dutch, or Swedish occupation, yet the latter by their settlements practically confined the New England “sea to sea” charter to comparatively narrow limits.

Thus, although we have at times complained of the "land rapacity” of England, yet in all fairness it must be stated that when a “sea to sea” charter was granted in 1609, it meant nothing less, and her honorable and energetic descendants of that colonial period have not been lacking in a prompt appreciation of the true value of territorial property by either occupation or acquisition.

The territory which now may be only considered, is that of the London Company, to the history of which I can properly ask your further attention.

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In 1611 and 1612 the "Third Charter of Virginia" was granted, which increased its extent northward to 41° latitude and southward to 30° latitude. In 1624 this charter was forfeited and Virginia became a royal province under a royal governor, the boundaries however remaining the same. This territory was reduced by a charter to "Carolana," in 1629, but which was suffered to lapse. In 1632, Charles I granted to Lord Baltimore a territory given the name of Maryland. It extended southward from the southern boundary of the New England Company, and lying between the Potomac River to its first fountain and the Delaware Bay to the east. The portion on the Delaware was found to be occupied by the Swedes. The first settlement was made at St. Mary's in 1634, near the Potomac River, on tidal waters.

In 1664, Charles II granted a charter to the Duke of York, which included the settlements on the Hudson and Delaware, and infringed upon a portion of Maryland. This he held and governed as part of the province of New York. Charles II also rewarded the Earl of Clarendon, in 1665, by a grant of all that territory lying between 30° 30' and 29° of latitude, and "from sea to sea.” This included a portion of the southern part of Virginia.

In 1681, William Penn received a grant in the “no man's land," this being the last piece of land in the gift of the king. Its boundaries were so vaguely specified as to give rise to controversies with the New York and Maryland provinces, which continued with the latter as late as 1760, when a compromise boundary was agreed upon with Maryland at 39° 43' latitude. Penn purchased Delaware, and the controversy with Virginia in consequence of the French and Indian wars was postponed to a still later day.

The French, with the stealthy skill and determination of military engineers, had been making strong and sure their approaches along the St. Lawrence and Ohio Rivers. Their advance was at Lake Huron in 1615, at Lake Michigan in 1634, and in 1682 La Salle had followed the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. But the "mountain land,” with the indomitable Iroquois, the great Indian confederacy of the Six Nations, stood like a line of fire across their eastward advance.

The colonists of the English settlements had already begun their westward march and were finding their way into the "mountain land." In 1726 the Six Nations, under promise of protection, conveyed to England in trust all their lands. In 1738 the General Assembly of Virginia created Augusta County, bounded by the Blue Ridge on the east and on “the west and northwest by the uttermost limits of Virginia.” Again, in 1744, Virginia succeeded in obtaining from the Six Nations a complete deed of all their territory. This was a perfect title and an important acquisition of domain. Its west and northwest boundaries were the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, thence along the east side of Lake Michigan, including Lake Huron, thence to the Ottawa River, which it followed to its junction with the St. Lawrence, and thence to the head of Lake Champlain. Its eastern boundary conflicted with the western limits of nearly every grant that has been here mentioned, except Maryland. This deed at the successful close of the American Revolution gave the Mississippi River as the western boundary of the new nation, but there will ever arise a sigh of regret that the line of Virginia along the Ottawa River could not have been retained.

The French ascendency received its death blow on the Plains of Abraham in 1759, and at the treaty of peace which followed in 1763 all the possessions of France east of the Mississippi River fell to the English, and the boundaries of the colonies of Virginia and Maryland remained unchanged until the settlement of the national boundaries by the treaty of peace with Great Britain in 1783.

GILBERT THOMPSON.

UNITED STATES COMMISSIONERS AT GHENT

HISTORICAL SUMMARY.

U. S. stands for Universal Sovereignty, and when we review the history of our country, its rapid growth, progress and aggrandizement, we venture to hazard the forecast that the republic might become as powerful as Rome, when Rome was mistress of the world, and arbiter of the fate of nations.

However, the United States would exercise no despotic rule, but a beneficent government, so that all, both high and low, miglit bask in the vivifying rays of the Sun of Liberty.

Like a magnet our country has the power of attraction. And it draws to our shores all sorts and conditions of men from the Old World, who desire to enjoy freedom and equal rights.

At the end of the war for Independence the Cnited States had a population of over three millions, which increased more and more, until now there are seventy million souls in our republic.

Washington appeared to have an insight into the future when he prognosticated the brilliant destiny in store for the young republic, but at the same time in his "Farewell Address" he uttered a word of warning bidding the people to beware of entangling alliances or imbroglios with foreign powers.

The life of this great man ebbed away with the eighteenth century, and December 14, 1799, his spirit was freed from earthly bonds.

For a while his successors followed his wise precept's.

Jefferson inaugurated a new era through the acquisition of the province of Louisiana in 1803, and thus the country acquired more land and greater responsibilities in dealing with the natives, mostly French and Spanish "origin belonging to the Latin race the opposite of the Anglo-Saxon," and somewhat antagonistic in some respects; however, the heterogeneous population was skillfully moulded into a harmonious condition, and disturbances and heart burnings were quelled, for thu Anglo-Saxon is a dominant race, which assimilates all peoples who come under its influence.

When the nineteenth century dawned, the United States was still weak, although in its incipiency Washington's skillful government had averted financial ruin, as well as inaugurated the lines for a judicious and wholesome policy. The Constitution was drawn up, and Washington proved himself to be a wise ruler, judicious statesman as well as brilliant commander-inchief, and thus is worthy to be enshrined in the hearts of all good Americans with the name of the “Father of His Country.”'

America proved her prowess in her first encounter with England, and she entered the lists again in the War of 1812 with the Mother Country. Previous to that date, however, the Republic had difficulties with France, when Washington refused to recognize the Directory, considering its government neither judicious, nor humane. It also waged war against the Barbary States during which the American Navy taught them a wholesome lesson.

England and France browbeated and bullied the United States, especially during Napoleon's reign, until between English exactions and French spoliations it was on the verge of ruin. The Orders in Council and the Berlin decrees hung over its head like the sword of Damocles.

Jefferson issued the Embargo Act, which was repealed afterwards. He averted war with England during his administration, but Madison was obliged to take up the gauntlet and declare war, although inclined to pursue a peaceful policy. The burning wrongs our people suffered from England, the curb she put on our commerce, the seizure and impressment of our sailors could no longer be endured by free born Americans.

When the War of 1812 broke out the United States only possessed a few wooden ships to confront England's superb navy. But Americans possessed true grit. Logs were hewn, and ships were constructed posthaste and before the wood was seasoned were put into the water to defy England's power on sea. Great Britain was amazed and overwhelmed at her subsequent defeat.

Russia desired to restore peace between England and the United States, and offered to intervene. After some reluctance England agreed to negotiate a treaty, preferring, however to deal directly with America.

Adams and Bayard were appointed commissioners, and Gallatin, Russell and Clay later, and they all met at Ghent.

They awaited the coming of the English commissioners, who did not reach Ghent until several weeks after with haughty disregard of time and convenience.

The Englishmen called to see the commissioners and only found Bayard in. They desired the Americans to repair to the British legation on the following day. “Meet them

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