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THE

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME II

ANDROS to AUSTRIA

NEW YORK

THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY

1910

Ref
AE

5

.E36

1910a
V.2

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,
by

The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.

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INITIALS USED IN VOLUME II. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS, WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

ANDREW ALEXANDER BLAIR.

Chief Chemist, U.S. Geological Survey and Tenth U.S. Census, 1879-1881. Assaying.
Member American Philosophical Society. Author of Chemical Analysis of Iron; &c.

ALFRED BARTON RENDLE, F.R.S., F.L.S., D.Sc.

Keeper of the Department of Botany, British Museum.

ALBERT CHARLES ROBINSON CARTER.

Editor of The Year's Art.

ARTHUR COE SPENCER, PH.D.

Geologist to the Geological Survey of the United States.

ARTHUR FRANCIS LEACH, M.A.

Charity Commissioner since 1906. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 1874-1881..
Formerly Assistant Secretary, Board of Education. Author of English Schools at
the Reformalion; History of Winchester College; Bradfield College; &c.

{ Angiosperms (in part); Apple.
{Art Societies.
{Appalachian Mountains.

ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HIST.SOC.

Professor of English History in University of London. Fellow of All Souls' College, Askew.

Oxford.

Ascham.

MAJOR ARTHUR GEORGE FREDERICK GRIFFITHS (d. 1908).

H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate; Anthropometry.
Secrets of the Prison House; &c.

REV. ARCHIBALD HENRY SAYCE, D.LITT., LL.D., D.D.

See the biographical article: SAYCE, A. H.

ANDREW LANG.

See the biographical article: LANG, Andrew.

AGNES MARY CLERKE.

See the biographical article: CLERKE, A. M.

ALEXANDER STUART MURRAY, LL.D.

See the biographical article: MURRAY, ALEXANDER STUART.

SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E.

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.

ANDREW JACKSON LAMOUREUX.

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News Asunción;
(Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901.

ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, M.A., LL.B.

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws
of-England.

{

Assur: City; Assur-Bani-Pal.

Ardebil.

Argentina: Geography.

Atacama, Desert of.
Apparitions.

Astronomy: History.

Aqueduct (in part).

ANTOINE THOMAS, D.-ES-L.

Professor in the University of Paris. Member of the Institute of France. Director Aubusson: Town.

of Studies at the École Pratique des Hautes Études. Author of Les États pro-
vinciaux de la France centrale sous Charles VII; &c.

Apportionment;
Arbitration.

LORD BALCARRES, M.P., F.S.A.
Eldest son of the 26th Earl of Crawford. Trustee of National Portrait Gallery. Art Galleries.
Hon. Secretary, Society for Protection of Ancient Buildings. Author of Donatello; &c.

SIR BOVERTON REDWOOD, D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), Assoc.INST.C.E., M.INST.M.E. [

Adviser on Petroleum' to the Admiralty, the Home Office and the Indian Office. Asphalt.

President, Society Chemical Ind., 1907-1908.

CHANNING ARNOLD.

University College, Oxford. Barrister-at-law. Author of The American Egypt. Australia: Aborigines.

CHARLES BÉMONT, D.-ES-L., D.LITT. (Oxon.).

See the biographical article: BÉMONT, CHARLES.

CHARLES CHREE, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.
Superintendent, Observatory Department, National Physical Laboratory. Formerly
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. President, Physical Society of London.

'A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

V

Annals; Anselme;

Arbois de Jubainville; Aulard.

Atmospheric Electricity;
Aurora Polaris.

C. EL.

C. F. A.

C. H. Rd.

C. PI.

C. Pl.

C. W.*

C. W. W.

D. C. B.

D. F. T.

D. G. H.

D. H.

E. Br.

E. B. T.

E. C. B.

Ed. M.

E. G.

E. 0.*

E. P. H.*

E. R. L.

E. Tn.

E. V. L.

SIR CHARLES NORTON EDGECUMBE ELIOT, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Scholar of Balliol, Oxford, 1881-1885.
Hertford, Boden, Ireland, Craven and Derby Scholar. Fellow of Trinity. Third
Secretary Embassy at St Petersburg, 1888-1892; Constantinople, 1893-1898. Asia: History.
Commissioner for British East Africa, 1900-1904. Author of Turkey in Europe;
Letters from the Far East.

CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON.

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.

CHARLES HERCULES READ, LL.D. (St Andrews).

Keeper of British and Medieval Antiquities and Ethnography, British Museum. Archaeology.
President of the Society of Antiquaries of London. Past President of the Anthro-
pological Institute. Author of Antiquities from Benin; &c.

CHRISTIAN PFISTER, D.-ÈS-L.

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author
of Etudes sur le règne de Robert le Pieux.

CHARLES WALDSTEIN, M.A., D.LITT., PH.D.

Slade Professor of Fine Art, Cambridge. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge.
Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, 1883-1889. Director of the
American Archaeological School at Athens, 1889-1893.

REV. CHARLES PLUMMER, M.A.

Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1901. Author of Life Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. and Times of Alfred the Great; &c.

:{

SIR CHARLES WILLIAM WILSON, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1897).

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com-
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-
General of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartum;
Life of Lord Clive; &c.

DEMETRIUS CHARLES BOUlger.

Author of England and Russia in Central Asia; History of China; Life of Gordon;
India in the 19th Century; History of Belgium; &c.

DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY.

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising The
Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.

{

DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A.

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford.
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899
and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905: Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at
Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.

ERNEST BARKER, M.A.

Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of
Merton College.

EDWARD BURNETT TYLOR, F.R.S., D.C.L. (Oxon.).
See the biographical article: TYLOR, E. B.

RIGHT REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., D.LITT. (Dubl.).
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath.

EDUARD MEYER, D.LITT. (Oxon.).

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des
Alterthums; Forschungen zur alten Geschichte; Geschichte des allen Aegyptens; Die
Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstamme; &c.

EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D.

See the biographical article: GOSSE, E. W.

EDMUND OWEN, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital,
Great Ormond Street. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cam--
bridge, Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.

Arms and Armour: Firearms;
Army; Artillery.

DAVID HANNAY.

Anson, Baron;

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal Antonio, Prior of Crato;
Navy, 1217-1688; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.

Aranda, Count of; Armada.

Aulic Council.

ERNEST PRESCOT HILL, M.INST.C.E.

Member of the firm of G. A, Hill & Sons, Civil Engineers, London.

SIR EDWIN RAY LANKESTER, K.C.B., F.R.S., D.Sc. (Oxon.) LL.D.

Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. President of the British Association, 1906.
Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in University College, London,
1874-1890. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford, 1891-1898.-
Director of the Natural History Departments of the British Museum, 1898-1907.
Vice-President of the Royal Society, 1896. Romanes Lecturer at Oxford, 1995.
Author of Degeneration; The Advancement of Science; The Kingdom of Man; &c.

Antrustion;
Austrasia.

EDWARD VERRALL LUCAS.

Editor of Letters of Charles and Mary Lamb. Author of Life of Charles Lamb.

Argos: The Heraeum.

Ararat;
Armenia;
Asia Minor.

Antwerp.

Aria.

Antioch; Apamea; Arabgir;
Asia Minor; Aspendus;

Assus.

Anthropology.

Anthony, Saint; Augustinian
Canons; Augustinian
Hermits; Augustinians.
Arbaces; Ardashir; Arsaces;
Arses; Artabanus;
Artaphernes; Artaxerxes;
Astyages.

Asbjornsen and Moe;
Assonance.

Aneurysm;
Appendicitis.

Aqueduct: Modern.

Arachnida;
Arthropoda.

REV. ETHELRED LEONARD TAUNTON (d. 1907).

Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in Aquaviva, Claudio.
England; &c.

{Austen, Jane.

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