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Blair, or the Miss Blairs; the Messrs. Clark, or the Mr. Clarks; the Colonels Brown, or the Colonel Browns; the Drs. Hall, or the Dr. Halls. The latter of these forms is always used when the title is preceded by a numeral; as, the two Mr. Wellers; the three Miss Bartletts. When the title is Mrs., the proper sign of the plural is added to the last part only; as, the Mrs. Parkers.

6. LETTERS, FIGURES, and other symbolic characters are made plural by adding an apostrophe and s ('s); as: There are more e's than i's in this word. There are three 4's in this number.

7. NOUNS ALWAYS TREATED AS PLURALS.— The following nouns are used in the plural number only:

aborigines

alms

amends

annals

antipodes archives

credentials

dregs

eaves

embers

goods (mdse.)
headquarters

hose

belles-lettres hysterics

nuptials

vespers

oats
obsequies
paraphernalia wages

victuals

ashes

assets

billiards

bitters breeches

cattle

pincers

premises (property)

riches

scissors

snuffers

statistics

thanks

tidings

tongs

trousers

NOTE. The singular wage is sometimes used in the literature of economics. News is always singular.

8. NAMES OF SCIENCES OR ARTS ENDING IN "IC" OR "ICS." All such nouns, except politics, are always

singular. Among these are: arithmetic, mathematics, logic, ethics, æsthetics, optics, acoustics, etc. Politics was formerly treated as singular only, but writers of to-day, as a rule, treat it as plural. There is excellent authority for treating United States either as singular or as plural. The justices of the United States Supreme Court and those of other federal courts always treat United States as a plural; as, The United States were represented at The Hague Peace Congress.

Singular

bandit

beau

9. AN ENGLISH AND A FOREIGN PLURAL.- Many nouns adopted from foreign languages have both an English and a foreign plural form. Those most frequently used are the following:

cherub

focus

formula

gymnasium

memorandum

nucleus

radius

seraph

stamen

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10. FOREIGN PLURALS ONLY.-Some nouns adopted from foreign languages retain their original plural forms. The more common of these are:

Singular

alumna (fem.)
alumnus (mas.)

amanuensis

analysis

axis

basis

crisis

datum
desideratum

diæresis

ellipsis
emphasis
erratum

genus
hypothesis

madame

minutia

monsieur

nebula

oasis

parenthesis
phenomenon

proboscis

stratum

synthesis

terminus

thesis

vertebra

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EXERCISE IV

Plural

alumnæ

alumni

amanuenses

analyses

axes

bases

crises

data

desiderata

diæreses

ellipses
emphases

errata

genera
hypotheses
mesdames

minutiæ

messieurs

nebulæ

oases

parentheses
phenomena

proboscides

strata

syntheses

termini

theses

vertebræ

Write the plural of

Buffalo, mystery, ally, German, duty, calf, bamboo, salmon, major general, princess, hoof, man-of

war, talisman, x, cupful, looker-on, Frenchman, donkey, Miss Rogers, court-martial, journey, Brahman, forget-me-not, Dr. Hallam, minister plenipotentiary, mouthful, mosquito, ditch, tyro, ellipsis, genus, Dakota, Mrs. Wilson, vertebra, heathen, Mr. Stratton, Watts, snipe, Dutchman, baseball, stimulus, datum, Ottoman, poet laureate, commander in chief, alumna, postmaster general, ipse dixit, halo, Norman, teacup, son-in-law, alumnus.

brother

die

fish

EXERCISE V

Each of the following nouns has two plurals, which are different in meaning. Use in sentences both

plurals of each noun.

ashes

optics proceeds

genius

cherub

shot

assets

data

news

--

penny
staff

foot

EXERCISE VI

Use each of the following nouns as the subject of a verb:

index

horse

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GENDER

DEFINITION. Gender is a grammatical property of nouns and pronouns by which objects are distinguished in regard to sex.

A noun or pronoun denoting a male object is in the masculine gender; a noun or pronoun denoting a female object is in the feminine gender; a noun or pronoun denoting an object or an idea that has no sex is in the neuter gender (neuter means neither).

EXERCISE VII

Write the corresponding masculine or feminine form of each of the following words, according as the word given is masculine or feminine. Consult, if necessary, any dictionary.

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duck

lady

hen sparrow
Joseph

Augustus

Mrs. Brown

negro
Caroline

maiden

GENDER IN PERSONIFICATION.- When we speak of a plant or a lifeless object as if it were a person, we are said to personify it; that is, we speak or write about it as we should of a person. A word so used

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