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Forty-four lots of plants were sent out and thirty-two of those receiving them reported this fall upon the success of their planting. Some few had lost all their plants, but on the whole the results were very satisfactory, considering the dry time after planting.

Twenty-six experimenters report upon he fruiting of those plants sent out the year before. With nearly every one of them Columbian had given the heaviest yield, and Marlboro' the next heaviest. This was a ii ttle surprising, as Cuthbert is usually conceded to be a better yielder as well as a better berry. Golden Queen is the best of the yellow raspberries, but has proved far less productive than the other varieties.

Twenty-seven reports were received upo i the plants sent out previous to 1902, an average of which shows that Cuthbert holds first place. Shaffer was then on the list instead of the Columbian, as at present, an a number of experimenters report that that variety suffered badly with anthracnose, a fungous disease on the canes, which has also been our experience with it here.

THE BLACK RASPBERRY EXPERIMENT.

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1. Prepare the land deeply and thoroug? ly, working in, if necessary, a liberal application of manure.

2. Plant in rows 5 or 6 feet apart, with plants 5 feet apart in the row.

3. Give clean, thorough cultivation until about the beginning of August, and never allow the soil to become crusted.

4. Pinch off any blossoms which may form the first year, that the plants may not waste their energies trying to produce fruit.

5. To make the bushes stout and stocky, nch off the ends of the new canes during the carly summer, when they are two or three feet high.

(In northern localities, where winter protection is needed, this should not be done, as the canes should grow long and slender, that they may be more easily laid down.)

6. In the fall, or early in the spring, cut out all old canes that have fruited, and leave about six of the strongest new canes o each bush. Shorten the ends of these to a uniform height, making the bushes uniform and symmetrical.

7. In northern localities, where winter protection is needed, bend down the canes late in the fall, and cover the tops with eartho keep them under the snow.

8. Should any spaces have to be filled, or should the experimenter wish to increase his stock of any of the varieties, it may readily be done by propagating new plants from the tips of the new canes, which should be bent down and covered with earth in August. They will make good plants by the next spring.

9. Carefully weigh and record the weight of each picking from each variety, and report as soon as possible after the fruiting season.

For this experiment the varieties were Gregg, Kansas, Palmer, and Souhegan. Forty-four lots were sent out and thirty-three reported this fall upon the growth of the plants. In this experiment there are usually more failures in transplanting than with any of the other fruits, and this year was no exception to the rule. This is because these plants have soft, tender roots, which are more liable to be injured in transmission in the mails. They are easily propagated, however, and if the grower gets one or two of each variety to live he can soon propagate as many more as he wants. One experimenter who received plants five years ago reports having increased the Hilborn, the variety which did best with him, till he had a two-acre plantation of it.

Thirty-four experimenters report upon he fruiting of plants sent out previous to last year. The reports are far from satisfactory on account of the poor stand of plants, but on the whole the Palmer has given the best results. Two of the favorite varieties in our experiments at the College have been the Older and Smith's Giant, but I have not yet been able to get these in sufficient quantity for distribution to the experimenters.

THE BLACKBERRY EXPERIMENT. 1. Prepare the land deeply and thoroughly, working in, if necessary, a liberal application of manure. 2. Plant in rows 5 or 6 feet apart, with plants 5 feet apart in the row.

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3. Give clean, thorough cultivation until about the beginning of August, and never allow the soil to become crusted.

4. Pinch off any blossoms which may form the first year, that the plants may not waste their energies trying to produce fruit.

5. To make the bushes stout and stocky, pinch off the ends of the new canes during the early summer, when they are two or hree feet high.

(In northern localities, where winter protection is needed, this should not be done, as the canes should grow long and slender, that they may be more easily laid down.)

6. In the fall, or early in the spring, cut out all the old canes that have fruited, and leave about six of the strongest new canes to each bush. Shorten the ends of these to a uniform height, making the bushes uniform and symmetrical.

7. In northern localities, where winter protection is needed, bend down the canes late in the fall, and cover the tops with earth to keep them under the snow.

8. Should any spaces have to be filled, or should the experimenter wish to increase his stock of any of the varieties, it may readily be done by taking up the young suckers which spring up about the bushes.

9. Carefully weigh and record the weight of each picking from each variety, and report as soon as possible after the fruiting eason.

The varieties for this experiment were Agawam, Gainor, Kittatinny, and Snyder. Forty-seven lots were sent out, and thirty-eight of the experimenters report excellent results in transplanting. The majority have a full stand of plants.

Thirty-six experimenters report upon the plants sent out in 1901 and 1902. Little or no fruit was borne on the 1902 bushes, as it usually takes these bushes two years to begin fruiting. Of those sent out in 1901, Agawam is reported as being the hardiest and most productive.

THE CURRANT EXPERIMENT. 1. Prepare the land deeply and thoroughly, working in, if necessary, a liberal application of manure.

2. Set the plants five feet apart each way, in one or more rows, as convenient.

3. Give clean, thorough cultivation until about the first of August, and never allow the soil to become crusted.

4. Look out for currant worms on the lower parts of the bushes soon after the leaves are fully grown. They may be destroyed by spraying with Hellebore (1 72. to 3 gallons of water), or Paris green (1 oz. to io gallons of water).

5. Prune carly every spring. A good ni thod of pruning is to leave six branches to form the bush, then keep up a renewal of new wood by cutting out, every year, two o: the oldest branches, and allowing two strong new ones to take their place. Cut out ail other new canes, and shorten back the new wood left, nearly one-half.

6. Carefully weigh and record the weight of the crop from each variety, and report as soon as possible after the fruiting season.

The varieties sent out for this experiment were: Fay, Raby Castle, Victoria, and White Grape.

Twenty-nine experimenters received plants this spring, all but three of whom reported this fall on the growth of the plants. Nearly all report all plants living and doing well. The currant stands shipment and transplanting better than most any other fruit, and for this reason experimenters are nearly always successful with the plants sent. Fifty-one reports have been received, upon he bushes sent out previous to last year. Victoria has given the heaviest yield, and Raby Castle comes next, but Fay is a favorite because of its extra large, fine berries. The White Grape is one of the best of the white currants, and although it does not begin bearing quite as soon as the other kinds, it is generally reported as one of the most productive after the bushes get well estab. lished.

A BLACK CURRANT EXPERIMENT. A black currant experiment was added to the list this year for the first time. The cultural directions for which are practically the same as those for the red and white varieties.

Forty-three experimenters took this experiment this year, thirty-five of whom reported this fall upon the growth of the plants. Twenty of these report all plants living and doing well, while very few of the other report more than one plant failed. This promises

well for iuture reports. The varieties sent out were: Champion, Lee's, Naples, and Black Victoria. No fruiting could, of course, be expected from these this year.

THE GOOSEBERRY EXPERIMENT.

1. Prepare the land deeply and thoroughly, working in, if necessary, a liberal application of manure.

2. Set plants five feet apart each way, in one or more rows, as convenient.

3. Give clean, thorough cultivation until about the first of August, and never allow the soil to become crusted.

4. Look out for currant worms on the lower parts of the bushes soon after the leaves are fully grown. They may be destroyed by spraying with Hellebore (1 oz. to 3 gallons of water), or Paris green (1 oz. to 10 gallons of water). )

5. Whitesmith. is subject to mildew. This may to a great extent be prevented by spraying with potassium sulphide (i oz. in 2 or 3 gallons of water.) It should be applied early in the season, just as the buds are swelling, and five or six times afterwards, at intervals of ten days or two weeks.

6. Prune early every spring. A good method of pruning is to leave six branches to form the bush, then keep up a renewal of . ew wood by cutting out, every year, two of the oldest branches, and allowing two strong new ones to take their place. Cut out all other new canes, and shorten back the new wood left nearly one-half.

7. Carefully weigh and record the weight of the crop from each variety, and report as soon as possible after the fruiting season.

For the gooseberry experiment the varieties sent out were: Downing, Pearl, Red Jacket, and Whitesmith. Of the thirty-nine experimenters who received plants last spring, twenty-six have reported this fall. On the whole, the planting of these has been very successful, the chief failures being among the plants of the Whitsmith. This is one of the English varieties, which is naturally less vigorous than the other varieties.

Sixty-two reports were received on the bushes sent out previous to this year. The varieties vary more or less in different sections, but on the whole Pearl is the favorite variety, because of its good size and great productiveness. Downing comes next, and is much like Pearl. Red Jacket and Whitesmith rank next, in the order named. Both of these produce much larger berries than the other two, but are not so productive, and in some places the Whitesmith is reported to have been badly mildewed. This disease very seldom attacks the other varieties.

VALUABLE FEATURES OF THIS CO-OPERATIVE WORK.

In conclusion, we may add that the greatest value of this co-operating testing is not seen in the brief summary presented at this annual meeting, but it naturally accrues to the men who carry on the work on their own farms. The following might be mentioned as a few of the ways in which this work is doing good :

1. Through our distribution many are getting a start in the growing of small fruits, who would probably never have made a start had the plants not been given them.

2. The cultural directions furnished afford a means of College extension work, which is enabling growers to begin right.

3. The varieties sent out are those which have been found by repeated tests at the College and our Fruit Experiment Stations to be the most likely to prove satisfactory.

4. From the plants furnished, the experimenter may, if he wishes, soon propagate enough to set out a good-sized plantation.

5. The experience and information gained in properly conducting one of these tests is an education well worth the effort required.

W. A. McKinnon, Ottawa : I should like to call the attention of the Union to what was the key-note of the Fruit Growers' Association meeting at Leamington. It was co-operation for the advancement of the well-being of the fruit industry of Ontario. There is no more fitting place to urge the claims of co-operative work than before this

Union. I should like to say in what respects the fruit-growers may co-operate, and in what respects the farmers who are fruit growers may improve their returns. First, they may co-operate in the purchase of trees in order to secure the best varieties for their respective sections; second, in the methods o cultivation, pruning and spraying; and, third, in the purchase of power outfits, by which, it is safe to say, the returns from an apple orchard alone would be increased fifty per cent. annually. Co-operation will secure a uniform product as regards quality. Then, by the adoption of the central packinghouse idea, the fruit can be graded and packed alike, and assorted in large shipments. Much better return would then be secured on the British market, for the reason that buyers could obtain as many barrels as they wanted of the varieties they desired.

CO-OPERATIVE EXPERIMENTS IN FORESTRY.

By Roland D. Craig, B.S.A., F.E., Director of Cooperative Experiments in Forestry,

Pasadena, Cal.

Resolution: The following resolution wa moved by Mr. Nelson Monteith, ex-M.P. P., Stratford, Ontario, and seconded by Mr. Ernest C. Drury, Crown Hill, Ontario, and carried, at the Annual Meeting of the Experimental Union, held in December, 1902 :

"The Experimental Union, recognizing the urgent necessity for action in the reforesting of the waste lands throughout Old Ontario, would recommend that the Department of Crown Lands be requested to provide material sufficient to re-forest areas sufficiently large to provide forest conditions in typical situations throughout Ontario, the Union undertaking to supervise the distribution.”

Report on Resolution : After the last annual meeting of the Experimental Union, the resolution passed at the meeting was forwarded to the Hon. E. J. Davis, Minister of Crown Lands for Ontario. Soon afterwards the Secretary of the Union received a private letter from the Crown Lands Department, stating that the resolution would receive their best consideration. Nothing has been heard in reference to the matter since receiving the letter here referred to.

It is with much regret that I find it impossible to attend the annual meeting of the Experimental Union, and I trust that it may be as profitable and enjoyable this year as those of former years which I have been permitted to attend.

It is to be regretted that, owing to the lack of encouragement given to the Committee on Forestry, it has been unable to carry on the work outlined in the last report, and the Committee has to make another appeal to the Experimental Union and to the Government for aid.

Last year the Committee asked for means to supply farmers with working plans for their woodlots, and to establish a nursery to supply plant material where planting was advisable. The Minister of Agriculture gave but slight encouragement for the establishment of a nursery on the Ontario Agricultural College property, and it was suggested that the Department of Crown Lands be asked to supply a site in the woods of Northern Ontario. Mr. South worth was very willing to do so, but he could find no one experienced in nursery practice to manage a nursery if established. Those who suggested putting the nursery in the backwoods evidently mistook the policy of the Experimental Union, and expected it to undertake the reforestation of the lumber districts of Ontario, rather than the encouraging of woodlots on the farms. To repeat the suggestion of last year,—the Experimental Union will find enough to do in its own sphere without attempting to reforest the Crown Lands. The Union is an agricultural organization, and its efforts should be for the farmers before the lumbermen.

Our object should be to improve and increase the forested area in our agricultural districts, in order, first, to supply fuel, posts, and other forms of wood useful on the farm; second, for the conservation of water; third, for protection from wind, lightning, etc.

Most people recognize the value of forests, but not of forestry; they see the evil effects of denudation, but have never considered the possibility or advisability of restoring former conditions by artificial means. It remains with us to show them that such a thing is, first, advisable, and then that it is possible. Forestry has been one of the subjects discussed at the Farmers' Institutes for some years, and should be made a still more prominent feature in the meetings in order that the advisability of cultivating forests may be demonstrated. But what the Experimental Union should do is to prove by actual experiment that practical forestry is possible on an Ontario farm.

In the United States any farmer, upon niaking application to the Bureau of Forestry, can have his woodlot examined and a working plan made for it. At very little expense, a member of this committee could visit woodlots throughout the Province, and advise the owners as to the management.

In many cases, natural reproduction is not sufficient, nor of the proper kind, and planting will have to be resorted to. At present, it is almost impossible to procure plant material for forest planting, because many nurserymen rear seedlings only for ornamental purposes, and expect fancy prices. It is, therefore, almost necessary that a nursery be established, from which to supply farmers with plant material free, or at a nominal price. Thee requisites for such a nursery are :

1. Suitable soil and climate.
2. Skilled management.
3. Facilities for shipping easily and quickly to all parts of the Province.

4. That it be located so that it may be used for instruction and demonstration to the farmers of Ontario.

Northern Ontario could undoubtedly fur nish suitable soil and climate, but it is doubtful if the timber-jacks would be capable of taking care of a nursery, or if shipping facilities would be as good as in a more central place, and certainly the last very important feature would be entirely lost.

Guelph particularly well suited for such a nursery, and surely two or three acres might be spared from the 550 acres belonging to the College.

The use of "pulled" seedlings from the woods was suggested at the last annual meeting, but experience has shown that this practice is a failure, for several reasons, viz.:

1. Seedlings grown in the shady and sheltered woods have their organs for transpiration, assimilation, etc., developed for that condition, and when brought out to a light, exposed place, are unable to cope with the new conditions, and die.

2. Their root system grows long and spreading, so it is almost impossible to pull them without greatly injuring the roots.

3. It is so difficult to pull them, and they grow so scattered in the woods that, in the end, it is cheaper to grow them from seed in a nursery.

Canada is certainly very slow in realizing the importance of forestry, as one sees when comparing the forestry departments of Germany and the United States. The Bureau of Forestry alone spends $375,000 annually, besides the many thousands spent by the individual States in the protection and investigation of the forests. The State of California has voted $15,000 for two years' investigations, the Bureau of Forestry duplicating this amount. I merely mention this to show that it would not be unreasonable to expect the Ontario Government to grant $500 for the protection and improvement of the farmers' woodlots.

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