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In conclusion, let me ask every member of the Union to cooperate with the Committee on Forestry by voting for a resolution asking the Government to establish a forest nursery at the Ontario Agricultural College, and a grant of $500 for its maintenance and for inspection of woodlots.

Mr. E. C. Drury : I think that our motion of last year has been somewhat misunderstood. That motion did not contemplate the reforesting of Crown Lands to the north. The intention was this : There are acres and acres of waste land scattered among the farming land in some parts of Simcoe County, and in other counties. It is not of much value agriculturally, but it was once covered with a good crop of small pine. This land was cut over carelessly and burned, the means of reforestation were destroyed, and much of it is now entirely waste. These areas could be reforested with great advantage, and our motion was that the Government should allow us to experiment with one such area, in the hope of inducing the municipalities to take hold of the matter. I still think that this is a matter that is worth attention. In one other matter, I think the Union could do something, and that is in regard to the taxation of woodlots. I believe that in some municipalities a reduction of taxes is made on woodlots, but in many of the townships in the district where I live the woodlots are assessed for their value as land, plus the value of the timber, which is certainly a heavy burden on the man who leaves a woodlot, and the Union might well draw attention to the folly of such a system.

Mr. C. A. Zavitz : It will be difficult to carry out a project of this kind until we have a better home for forestry in Ontario. The committee itself is composed of men who are located in different parts of the continent. If we could locate a home of forestry at some definite point, with a permanent director and a committee to assist him, it seems to me that there would be an opportunity for some splendid work. I think that the move to establish a School of Forestry is in the right direction, and I move that a committee be appointed to make a recommendation on the subject for the meeting to take action upon.

After this resolution was seconded, a discussion took place as follows :

Mr. T. H. Mason: I think that the work of our forestry section should take two distinct lines. First, efforts should be made to induce the Provincial Department of Crown Lands to withdraw altogether from settlement those sections of the north country that are unsuited to agriculture, making such sections into forest reserves. By that means the errors of the past may be a voided in future. If the Government had done that in the back part of Addington, Hastings, and some other counties, it would have been far more profitable. We should also urge the desirability of reforesting sections in Old Ontario where the natural power of reforestation has been destroyed.

The second aim should be to atouse the farmers as to the desirability of properly preserving their woodlots.

Dr. W. H. Muldrew: I have taken a iive interest in the subject in a practical way for some years. I should like to refer to the cost of providing seedling trees for farmers. Last year in the State of New York a large number of pine seedlings were grown and planted out. They cost the purchaser at the State nurseries half a cent each. I obtained a box of these seedlings from Prof. Gifford, and we planted them in the school grounds at Gravenhurst. If any of the members of the Union should visit that town, I hope they will go to the High School, and look up the small plot containing the two hundred pine trees which my pupils set out. So far, the results have been very gratifying. The little trees took root and grew rapidly, for it is well known that the pine will grow much more rapidly under cultivation than in the woods.



As to the regrowth of the pine, I have direct knowledge of a farm in Simcoe County where the second-growth pine sold from a portion of a fifty-acre farm netted $2,000. I suppose there are in Simcoe, and in every other county, hundreds of farms having considerable sandy land which is now going to waste, but which if planted with pine could be made to yield very profitable returns. I am very much in sympathy with what has been said as to the necessity for some centre for the forestry work.

Mr. Mason: I had a ten-acre lot covered with second-growth pine, chestnut and cherry, which I sold last year at $200 an acre. It was eighty years old.

Prof. J. W. Gilmore, Cornell University: In New York State, we are making an effort to beautify the school grounds, and are interesting the scholars in the work. The children take a great interest in the work of planting trees and flowers and watching them grow. These things have an important bearing on the development of rural liie, and in keeping the children interested therein. When once they have learned to appreciate these things at school, they will introduce them in the garden at home and into the farm life, and efforts will be made to beautify the farm home and improve its surroundings. If the committee having this matter in charge could get the work started in the schools and get the children interested in it, it would be a great feature.

R. R. Elliott, Owen Sound: The forestry question is a very important one, and in the interest of the country, it is time that something was done. The Union help to do it by talking it up among the farmers, writing it up in the press, and getting people interested. Then something will be done.

Mr. J. H. Faul, University of Toronto: It was not until 1898 that the Forestry Act was passed by the Provincial Legislature, and the Government has not yet taken any steps towards preserving the forest lands in Ontario. However, Hon. Mr. Davis, Commissioner of Crown Lands, stated in an inter view recently that the policy of the future was that mature timber only should be removed, and that an attempt should be made towards reforesting. If the large area to the north of us, which is to water and timber supply, is to be properly cared for, it must be in the hands of foresters who have had careful, scientific training, and if the announcement of Mr. Davis meant anything, it meant the establishment of a School of Forestry, where competent men could be trained to deal with these questions. It is important also to give instruction and advice to the farmer in the conservation of his woodlot, and instruction to students of institutions such as this, so that they may deal intelligently with the matter on their own farms.

The resolution was carried by vote of the members.

The President then appointed Dr. W. H. Muldrew, N. M. Ross, and E. C. Drury a committee to consider the matter and report.

The committee presented the following resolution, which was adopted on the motion of Mr. Drury, seconded by Mr. T. G. Raynor :

Whereas, in many sections of settled Ontario, the process of deforestation has been carried on far beyond the proportion between woodland and cleared land, shown by the experience of other countries to be necessary to the best maintenance of agricultural conditions, of climate and water supply ;

"And, whereas, a very considerable proportion of lands thus deforested are totally unfit for agriculture, and, in consequence, are at present unproductive :

And whereas, the feasibility of profitably maintaining such area of forest lands has been demonstrated in this Province ;

And whereas, the present method of taxing farm woodlands discourages their preservation ;

“And whereas, the supply of wood products necessary for the general interests of the Province is rapidly diminishing;

conserve our

Therefore, the Ontario Agricultural and Experimental Union would strongly urge upon the Government the necessity,

" (1) For establishing at the earliest possible date a School of Forestry, where instruction will be given in practical methods of dealing with forestry problems ;

" (2) For collecting accurate information from the municipal authorities as to the amount of lands unfit for agriculture in the settled townships of Ontario ;

(3) For undertaking the practical re-forestation of areas sufficiently large to afford forest conditions, as a demonstration of the utility of the work on these lands, which, from their surroundings, enjoy practical immunity from fire ;

(4) For considering some means of adjusting taxation so as to encourage rather than to discourage the preservation of farmi ers' woodlots."

Hon. John Dryden, Minister of Agriculture: I have been very much interested in the discussion on the forestry question, and while I can agree with everything that has been said, I am not prepared to say, as I have no doubt you would like me to do, what can be done with regard to creating a centre for forestry operations. A great many men in public life are moved this way or that by the politics in it, so that you have to keep up the agitation, and if you young men who are just coming into usefulness in this country will keep stirring up this question, you will probably get what you are working for.

I cannot sit down without saying, as I have oiten said before, that this organization of young farmers and older farmers is one of the most important agricultural organizations we have in this country. You who are carrying on these experiments do not know perhaps how much value there is in your work, and you will not know for years to

It is a work that requires a great deal of thought, and there are yet many things for you to take up which will be of increasing usefulness as the years go by.

I have just returned from the International Exhibition at Chicago, the largest of its kind in the world. I saw great things there, for it is a country of great wealth and great resources, and everything is on a very extensive scale. But when I come back here and visit the Union and the Winter Fair, and listen to the reports and discussions, I see the working machinery running, as it were. It is doing wonders for us, and I feel proud of my country, for I feel when I see this machinery in operation that, although they on the other side of the line have many things that are far superior to ours, yet we shall be able to hold our own with them, and to send our products wherever theirs will go; and it is because of the educational work that is being done by this Union and other similar institutions in this Province. I wish you every success. Anything I can do shall be done, but the best way that a Government, or a Minister of Agriculture, or a President of a college can help you is to try to find out some way whereby you can help yourselves. I do not believe in spoon-feeding the people. If I could only inspire our young men with the thought that they can help themselves by co-operation in their work, I should be doing far more than by shovelling out money for them to spend. Work along those lines, and you are assured of great success.



By W. R. Graham, B.S.A., Guelph.

This year

we had six successful incubator experiments. This work requires a great deal of detailed information, and we find difficulty in getting experimenters to fill out the charts properly. We find that, while the charts that were used are good as far as they go, they do not go far enough, and that we should have a great deal more information. They should indicate, for example, how many chickens are alive on the tenth

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day. Those who have operated incubators will understand that it is a comparatively easy matter to hatch a large percentage of chickens, but it is a very different matter to hatch a large number that are sure to live. The difficulty we have is that the .chickens take diarrhoea at about the age of ten days. This is a form of indigestion, and is largely due to imperfect incubation. The temperature is too high, or the humidity is too high, or it is not high enough. We want a chart that will show this. To give the desired information properly, some knowledge of embryology will be necessary on the part of the experimenters. We therefore wish to get about a dozen men who are willing to devote any amount of time to this work, and examine the eggs every day, and in that way we may be able to come to some' conclusion.

We have had a larger number of chickens from our incubator experiments this year than last. Şix experimenters hatched 7,057 chickens, the incubators holding 197' eggs on an average. There was an average of 135 good germs in each machine, or 68.7 per cent. of the eggs set. The machines made an average hatch of 58 per cent. of the eggs set. The greatest trouble in connection with artificial incubation is the handling of the incubator during the first ten days. · liyou run the machine at 105 degrees, and at the same time leave the ventilators wide open you will find that the greater number of the chickens hatched will have bowel trouble. The way we found this out was by the introduction of pure oxygen gas. We found that, while this may be of some value towards the end of the hatch, at the beginning it was a bad thing. It seemed to stimulate the heart action, and the chickens grew too fast, and on examination the eggs showed a blood ring following around the embryo. When you see that indication at the eighth day, you may at once come to the conclusion that you have run the incubator at too high a temperature or have given too much air, probably both, and you may be sure that you will have trouble with those chickens after they hatch.

In our experiments this year we found that while an experimenter would succeed in hatching from 80 to 90 per cent. of the living germs, and that the chickens seemed to do well for five days, at the end of that time in many cases a lot of them died. In the next batch, perhaps all would live. The reason for this is the point upon which we want to get more detailed information.

Q.: Would there be any ill-effects from running the machine at a little lower perature at the beginning?

A.: If you hold the machine at 101 or 102 degrees, not higher, and keep the ventilators shut, you will get good results. After the twelfth day you may open the ventilators a very little, and also air the eggs. During the first eight days I would put the eggs back into the machine as quickly as possible.

Q.: In early spring hatches, which month is the best ?

Mr. Graham: We find it practically useless to hatch February eggs. If you have mild weather towards the end of January, and can get the hens out to exercise, and give them plenty of clover hay and meat food, not mashed food, you will get eggs that will give good chickens. Our experiments show that it takes three December eggs, four January eggs, and from five to six February eggs to produce on an average a good marketable chicken.

Q.: What is the cause of chickens failing to break through the shell? I notice that sometimes they succeed in getting the beak through and then die.

Mr. Graham: It may be due to weakness in the breeding stock. Another cause for this is lack of moisture in the machine towards the finish of the hatch,

Q.: The incubator had plenty of moist ure.
Mr. Graham: At what season was it?
A.: A February hatch.
Mr. Graham: Then it was probably due to defective stock.


Mr. R. Thomson, St. Catharines: I had the same difficulty with March and May hatches, and my hens were allowed out.

Mr. Graham: It is not always an easy matter to explain these things.
Q.: What is the proper time to close the ventilator for good?

Mr. Graham: From the night of the eighteenth day. I do not think you can air the eggs too much during the last week. If the outside temperature was 60 degrees, I would not be afraid to let the eggs air for half an hour, but I would not do it at the start.

Table Showing Digestible Constituents
Also Total Indigestible Matter and Water

in 100 lbs.
Corn & Co) Meal. EL
Flar Seed
Soja Beans
Horse Beans_
Millet seed.
Cotton Seed Meal
Oil Cake, (old)..
Oil Cake, (New)
Gluten Meal
Wheat Bran.
Wheat Middlings..
Low Grade Flour.
Dat Dust
Oat Hulls.
Malt Sprouts.-
Brewer's Grains, Ory).
Brewer's Grains, (Wet)
Starch Feed, (Wet).QYT
Skim Milk

2 Digestible Protein WINX Digestible Carbohydrates.

Digestible Fat

Indigestible Dry Matter.

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