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A.-2. The saine Gelechian has another foe of a larger build (Trychosis tunicularubra, Fyles) Fig. 31, which intrudes a solitary egg into the gall. From the egg comes a larva with a good-sized mouth, the upper lip of which has a beak-like formation for cutting and tearing, (Fig. 32). This larva assails the rightful inhabitant of the gall and devours it. I have found it making its last meal of the fragments of the chrysalis, (Fig 33).

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Fig. H. Larva of T. tunicula-rubra, mouth and terminal segment,

greably magnified, (orginal).

Fig. 33. Chrysalis of T. tunicula-rubra, greatly

magnified, (original).


B.-1. In our walks in the fall and winter we sometimes notice under the cross-bars of fences and in other sheltered spots a fluffy white or yellowish ball, that looks like a wad of cotton batting. On examination we find that it is made up of delicate cocoons. The larvæ which spun these cocoons lived inside a forest tent-caterpillar (or one of some other species) till it ceased to feed. Then they broke through the skin, and “ spun up” over the remains of their host. They belong to the species Apanteles longicornis, Prov. I have a mass of such cocoons before me, and the flies that came from it—they number 95. What a brood of larvæ an unfortunate caterpillar must have carried within it! How rapid under favorable circumstances must be the increase of this Apanteles!

B.-2. At St. Joseph, about a mile from Levis, there is, beside the Intercolonial Railway, a bold escarpment of great height, which forms a conspicuous object in the view from Quebec. It is erowned with a tangled growth of shrubbery. Its summit is the only spot in the neighbourhood, that I know of, in which the scented Lady's Slipper, (Cypripedium parviflorum, Salisb.) is to be found. Last year while digging up some roots of this, I unearthed a climbing cut-worm, that evidently had been feeding upon the leaves of the plant. I took the caterpillar home, and it went into chrysalis ; but from the chrysalis came-not a moth as I had expected, but—a fine active specimen of Ichneumon lotus, Brullé. The creature had undergone its changes within the body of its host.

Examples might be multiplied of insects belonging to the several classes above mentioned. Numbers of such insects are of economical importance, as attacking the depredators upon various growing crops. Enough however has been said to show that a vast army of minute assistants are working in favour of the husbandman ; and that, as regards the different modes of their operations, good is undoubtedly the final goal of (seeming) ill.





A. Attacking the Roots and Base of Canes. 1. Large grub over 2 inches long, boring large tunnels in the woody portions of main root. The canes suddenly die.

Giant Roos-Borer (Prionus laticollis), Fig. 34.

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2. Canes at base of main root girdled by a yellowish white caterpillar, in late summer and autumn.

Branble-crown Borer (Bembecia marginata). B. Attacking the Canes : 1. Longitudinal row of punctures on canes.

Snowy Tree-Cricket (Ecanthus niveus), Fig. 35. 2. Tips of raspberry canes wilting in early summer, due to a girdling of the canes inside the bark.

Raspberry-Cane Maggot (Phorbia sp.).
3. Tips of shoots of raspberry wilting ; two rows of punctures one inch

apart at base of wilted portion, with a small hole between. Canes
are burrowed to the base before autumn.

Fig. 33. Tree

Raspberry Cane-Borer (Oberea bimaculata).

4. Swellings on canes of raspberry and blackberry.

Red-necked Cane-Borer (Agrilus ruficollis), Fig. 36. C. Injuring the Buds : 1. A small snout-beetle, puncturing the flower-stem close

to the buds, and also the buds.

Strawberry Weevil (Anthonomus signatus). 2. A small yellowish beetle eating the flower-buds,

which fail to open, or wither. Fig. 36. Red-necked Cane-borer: b, grub; a, horns at anal extremity ; c, beetle

Pale Brown Byturus (Byturus unicolor). --all magnified.

3. A small brownish caterpillar eating the opening buds. Bud Moth (Tmetocera ocellana). Fig. 37. D. Attucking the Leaves : 1. Insects sucking the sap of young growing parts, and arresting their development. Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus pratensis).

Fig. 37. Bud-moth

and larva.

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Fig. 39. Raspberry Saw-fly.

Fig. 10. Raspberry Geometer: a, larva, natural size, on fruit ; b, segment, magnified, shewing hairs, etc.; c, moth

natural size ; d, pair of wings enlarged-color pale green.

GROSELLE INSECTS. A. Attacking the Canes : 1. Tips of canes girdled and wilted ; pith tunneled.

Currant Stem-Girdler (Janus integer). 2. Centre of canes tunneled by a white caterpillar.

Fig. 41. ClearImported Currant-Borer (Sesia tipuliformis), Fig. 4!.

winged moth of Currant-borer.

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3. Small, flat, circular scales, black or gray, with a depressed ring about a central nipple

in black forms.

San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus). 4. Oval, hemispherical scales.

Currant Lecanium Lecanium ribis). B. Attacking the Leuves : 1. Larvæ, 20-legged, dull white when young, then greenish with black spots, finally greenish-yellow, eating holes in the leaves in early spring. Imported Currant Worm (Nematus ribesii), Figs. 42 and 43.

2. Leaves curled, blistered, and with a reddish

appearance on upper surface, caused by yel. lowish plant lice.

Currant Plant-Louse (Myzus ribis). 3. Leaves turning brown and dying.

Four-Lined Leaf-Bug (Poecilocapsus

4. Measuring worm feeding on leaves of goose-

berry and black currant.
Currant Span-Worm (Diastictis ribearia),

Figs. 44 and 45.
5. White spots on leaves, produced by a pale

green sucking insect occurring on the under surface.

Currant-Leaf Hopper (Empoa albopicta). C. Attacking the Fruit : 1. Greyish caterpillar boring into young fruit,

and eating out its contents. Fig. 44. Currant Span-worms; 3, the chrysalis,

Gooseberry Fruit Worm (Zophodia

grossularize) 2. Purplish spots surrounding small circular scales.

San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus). 3. Yellow oval maggots, eat ng the Gooseberry.

Gooseberry Midge (Cecidomyia grossularize). 4. Small white grub eating the currant and gooseberry, causing the fruit to turn red and fall. Currant Fly (Epochra Canadensis).

Fig. 45. Currant Span-Form Moth

(pale yellow with dusky spots). GRAPE INSECTS.

A. Attacking the roots :
1. Producing little irregular spherical

galls on rootlets and larger roots,
causing death.
Grape Vine Phylloxera (Phyll-

oxera vastatrix), Fig 46.
2. Large borer, cutting a tube through
the root near the surface.
Broad-necked Prionus (Prionas

laticollis.) 3. Grub eating the bark of both the large and small roots.

Grape-vine Fidia (Fidia viticida.) Fig. 46. Grape-vine Phylloxera.-a galls on rootlets ; b young

B. Attacking the Branches : louse ; e, f, g, more matured lice; c, antenna ; d, leg.

1. Young shoots suddenly break off or




droop in spring; a small hole just above the base of
the shoot leads into a burrow.

Apple Twig-Borer (Amphi-
cerus bicaudatus), Figs. 47

and 48.

2. Canes show roughened longi. Fig. 48. Apple Twig borer, c hole made by borer, Dig. 47. Apple Twigborer, the beetle.

tudinal rows of perforations in the bark.

Snowy Tree-Cricket (Ecanthus niveus).

d burrow.

3. Canes exhibiting white cottony masses attached to a reddish brown scale.

Cottony Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis.)

4. Canes exhibiting white frothy masses which resemble spittle.

Spittle Insect (Aphrophora, sp.)

J. Attacking the Leaves :


1. Leaves riddled with irregular hcles about midsun mer, by a little
Grape Vine Fidia (Fidia viticida), Fig. 49.

2. Boring into buds in
spring, also eating

Fig. 19. Grape vine
small holes in expand-
ing leaves, small shining blue beetle.

Grape Vine Flea-Beetle (Haltica

chalybea,) Fig. 50. 3. Long legged, brownish beetles eating the blossom, leaves and fruit.

Rose-Chafer (Macrodactylus sub

spinosus). 4. Greenish caterpillar, feeding within a

folded leaf and skeletonizing it, about midsummer.

Grape Leaf-Folder (Desmia ma

culatus), Fig. 51. 5. Leaves blotched and scorched, finally

curling up and falling, by little jumping Fig. 50. Grape vine Flea beetle and larvæ.


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Grape Thrips or Leaf
Hopper (Typhlocy-

ba vitifex.)
6. Large greenish cat-

erpillar, with a pale
yellow strip down
each side, and a horn
near tail.

3 Fig. 51. Grape Leat-Folder; 1 caterpillar in fold of leaf ; 2 Head much enlarged

chrysalis ; 4 and 5 the moths.



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