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come to the other side, they had 10 Neither the seven 5 loaves of forgotten to take bread.

the four thousand, and how many 6 4 Then Jesus said unto them, baskets


took up ? 1 Take heed and beware of the 11 How is it that ye do not unleaven of the Pharisees and of the derstand that I spake it not to you Sadducees.

concerning bread, that ye should ĩ And they reasoned among beware of the leaven of the Pharithemselves, saying, It is because sees and of the Sadducees ? we have taken no bread.

12 Then understood they how 8 Which when Jesus perceived, that he bade them not beware of the he said unto them, 3 () ye of little leaven of bread, but of the docfaith, why reason ye among your trine 6 of the Pharisees and of the selves, because ye have brought no Sadducees. bread ?

13 | When Jesus came into 9 Do ye not yet understand, nei- the coasts of Cæsarea Philippi, ther remember the five + loaves of he asked his disciples, saying, the five thousand, and how many Whom 7 do men say that I the baskets ye

Son of man am ?

took up? i Luke xii. 1. 2 1 Cor. v. 6-8. Gal. v. 9. 2 Tim. ii. 16, 17. 3 Ch. vi. 30; viii. 26; xiv. 31. 4 Ch. xiv. 19-21.

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is, had forgotten to lay in a sufficient supply of their wants. They should not supply. They had, it seems, not more have supposed, after the miracles that he than one loaf. Mark viii. 14.

had wrought in feeding so many, that he 6—8. Take heed, &c. That is, be cau- would caution them to be anxious about tious, be on your guard. The leaven procuring bread for their necessities. It of the Pharisees and Sadducees. Leaven was improper, then, for them to reason is used in making bread. Its use is to about a thing like that, but they should pass through the flour, and cause it to have supposed he referred to something ferment or to swell, and become light. It more important. The miracles had been passes secretly, silently, but certainly full proof that he could supply all their None can see its progress. So it was with wants without such anxiety. the doctrines of the Pharisees. They were 12. Then understood they, &c. After insinuating, artful, plausible. They con- this explanation, they immediately saw cealed the real tendency of their doctrines, that he referred to their doctrines. Errothey instilled them secretly into the mind, neous doctrines are like leaven in the foland they pervaded all the faculties, like lowing respects: 1. They are at first slight leavens They reasoned, &c. The dis- and unimportant in appearance. 2. They ciples did not understand him as referring are insinuated into the soul unawares and to their doctrine, because the word leaven silently, and are difficult of detection. 3. was not often used among the Jews to de- They act gradually. 4. They act most note doctrines, no other instance of the certainly: 5. They will pervade all the use of the word occurring in the scrip- soul, and bring in all the faculties under tures. Besides, the Jews had many par- their control. ticular rules about the leaven which might 13-20. See also Mark viii. 27-29; be used in making bread. Many held | and Luke ix. 18-20. [Cæsarea Phi. that it was not lawful to eat bread made lippi. There were two cities in Judca by the Gentiles ; and the disciples, called Cæsarea. One was situated on the perhaps, supposed that he was cautioning borders of the Mediterranean, and the them not to procure a supply from the other was the one mentioned here. It was Pharisees and Sadducees. Oye of also called Paneas, was greatly enlarged little faith! Jesus, in reply, said that and ornamented by Philip the tetrarch, they should not be so anxious about the son of Herod, and called Cæsarea, in

14 And they said, Some say and said, 2 Thou art the Christ, the thai thou art John the Baptist : Son of the living God. some, Elias ; and others, Jeremias, 17 And Jesus answered and said or one of the prophets.

unto him, Blessed art thon, Simon 15 He saith unto them, But Bar-jona : for 3 flesh and blood hath whom say ye that I am ? 16 And Simon Peter answered ix. 20. Heb. i. 2, 5. 31 Cor. ii. 10. Gal. i. 16. I Ch. xiv. 2. Luke ix. 7-9.

Eph. ii. 8.

2 Ch. xiv. 33.

Psa. ii. 7. John i. 49.


honour of the Roman emperor, Tiberius i. 1. The Son. That is, the Son by Cæsar. To distinguish it from the other way of eminence, in a peculiar sense. Cæsarea, the name of Philip was added to Note, Matt. iii. 17. This appeilation it, and called Cæsarea Philippi, or Cæsarea was understood as implying divinity, John of Philip. It was situated in the bounda- x. 29–36. 1 of the living God. The ries of the tribe of Naphthali, near mount term living, was given to the true God, to Lebanon, and was in the most northern distinguish him from idols that are dead, part of Judea. It now contains about or lifeless—blocks and stones. He is also two hundred houses, and is inhabited the source of life, temporal, spiritual, and chiefly by Turks. When Jesus came. eternal. The term living is often given The original is, When Jesus was coming. to him in the Old Testament, Josh. iii. Mark says, ch. vüi. 27, that this con- 10. Sam. xvii. 26, 36. Jer. x. 9, 10, versation took place when they were in &c. In this noble confession, Peter exthe way, and this idea should have been pressed the full belief of himself and his retained in translating Matthew. While brethren that he was the long expected in the way, Jesus took occasion to call | Messiah. Other men had very different their attention to the truth that he was opinions of him, but they were satisfied, the Messiah. This truth it was of much and were not ashamed to confess it. consequence that they should fully believe 17. And Jesus answered, Blessed art and understand; and it was important, thou, &c. Simon Bar-jona is the same therefore, that he should often learn their as Simon son of Jona. Bar is a Syriac views, and establish them if right, and word, signifying son. The father of Peter, correct them if wrong. He began, there therefore Jona, or Jonas John i. 42 ; xxi. fore, by inquiring what was the common 16, 17. Blessed. That is, happy, report respecting him. Whom do men honoured, evincing a proper spirit, and say, &c. This passage has been variously entitled to the approbation of God. rendered. Some have translated it, Whom For flesh and blood.

This phrase do men say that I am? The Son of man? | commonly signifies man. See Gal. i. 16.

hers, Whom do men say that I am-1, Eph. vi. 12. And it has been commonly who am the Son of man-i. e. the Mes- supposed that he meant to say that man wh! The meaning of all is nearly the had not revealed it. But Jesus seens

He wished to obtain the senti- rather to have referred to himself. This nents of the people respecting himself. truth you have not learned from my lowly

11. And they said, &c. See Note, appearance, from my human nature, from Batt. xi. 14. They supposed he might my apparent rank and standing in the be John the Baptist, as Herod did, risen world. You, Jews, were expecting to from the dead. See Matt. xiv. 2. He know the Messiah by his external splenpertonned many miracles, and strongly dour, his pomp and power as a man. But embled John in his manner of life, and you have not learned me in this manner. in the doctrines which he taught.

I have shown no such indication of my Mes16. And Simon Peter answered, &c. siahship. Flesh and blood have not shown Peter, expressing the views of the apostles, it. In spite of appearances in my lowly with characteristic forwardness answered state, my want of resemblance to what you the question proposed to them by Jesus : have expected, you have been taught what I

Thou art the Christ, the Son of the am by God. This they had been taught living God.” I The Christ. The Mes by his miracles, his instructions, and the diah, the Apointed of God. Note, Matt. rect teachings of God on their minds. To


not revealed it unto thee, but 1 my this rock I will build my church ; Father which is in heaven. and the gates * of hell shall not

18 And I say also unto thee, prevail Sagainst it. That thou art Peter,


4 Deut. xxi. 19. Psa. ix, 13. Lam. y. 14. 11 John iv. 15; v. 20. 2 John i. 42. 3 Eph. Zech. viii. 16. Isa. liv. 17.

ii. 20. Rev. xxi. 14.

reveal is to make known, or communi- Upon thee will I build it. Thou shalt be cate something that was unknown, or highly honoured; thou shalt be first in secret.

making known the gospel to both Jews and 18. And I say also unto thee, That thou Gentiles. This was accomplished. See art Peter. The word Peter, in Greek, Acts ü. 14—36, where he first preached to means a rock. The name was given to Simon the Jews; and Acts x. where he preached by Christ when he called him to be a disci- the gospel to Cornelius and his neighple. John i. 42. Cephas is a Syriac word, bours, who were Gentiles. Peter had thus meaning the same as Peter—a rock, or the honour of laying the foundation of the stone. The meaning of this phrase may church among the Jews and Gentiles. be thus expressed : •Thou, in saying that And this is the plain meaning of this I am the Son of God, hast called me by a passage. See also Gal. i. 2. But Christ name expressive of my true character. I, did not mean, as the Roman Catholics also, have given to thee a name expres- say he did, to exalt Peter to supreme sive of your character. I have called you authority above all the other apostles, or Peter, a rock, denoting firmness, solidity, to say that he was the only one on whom and your confession has shown that the he would rear his church. See Acts xv., name is appropriate. I see that you are where the advice of James, and not of worthy of the name, and will be a distin- Peter, was followed. See also Gal. ii. 11, guished support of my religion. | And where Paul withstood Peter to his face, upon this rock, &c. This passage has because he was to be blamed; a thing given rise to many different interpreta- which could not have happened if Christ, tions. Some have supposed that the as the Roman Catholics say, meant that word rock refers to Peter's confession; Peter should be absolute and infallible. and that he meant to say, upon this rock, More than all, it is not said here or any this truth that thou hast confessed that where else in the Bible, that Peter should I am the Messiah, and upon confessions have infallible successors who should be of this from all believers, I will build my the vicegerents of Christ, and the head of church. Confessions like this shall be the the church. The whole meaning of the test of piety, and in such confessions shall passage is this: I will make you the homy church stand amidst the flames of noured instrument of making known my persecution, the fury of the gates of hell. gospel first to Jews and Gentiles, and Others have thought that he referred to will make you a firm and distinguished himself. Christ is called a rock, Isa. preacher in building my church. I will xxviii. 16. 1 Pet. ii. 4–8. And it has build my church. This refers to the cusbeen thought that he turned from Peter tom of building in Judea on a rock or to himself, and said: Upon this rock, other very firm foundation. See Note, this truth that I am the Messiah-upon Matt. vii. 24. The word for church, is myself as the Messiah, I will build my literally, those called out, and often means church. Both these interpretations, though an assembly or congregation. See Acts plausible, seem forced upon the passage vii. 38; xix. 32, (Greek.) It is applied to to avoid the main difficulty in it. Ano- Christians as being called out from the ther interpretation is, that the word rock world. It means, sometimes, the whole refers to Peter himself. This is the ob- body of believers. 1 Cor. x. 32. Eph. i. vious meaning of the passage ; and had it 22. This is its meaning in this place. It not been that the church of Rome has means, also, a particular society of belier. abused it, and applied it to what was ers, worshipping in one place. Acts viï. l; never intended, no other would have ix. 31. 1 Cor. i. 2. Sometimes, also, a been sought for. Thou art a rock. Thou society in a single house, as Rom. xvi. 5. hast shown thyself firm, and prepared to In common language, it means the church receive the foundation of the church. I visible, i. e, all who profess religion; or 19 And I will give unto thee 20 Then 3 charged he his dis. the keys of the kingdom of hea- ciples that they should tell no man ven.1 and whatsoever thou shalt that he was Jesus the Christ. bind on earth shall be bound in 21 From 4 that time forth beheaven : and whatsoever thou shalt gan Jesus to shew unto his disloose on earth shall be loosed in ciples, how that he must go unto beaven.

Jerusalem, and suffer many things I Acts ii. 14, 38–41; X. 44–48;

* Luke ix. 22; xviii. 31 ; * Ch. xvii. 18.

xxiv. 6, 7. 1 Cor. xv. 3, 4.

XV. 7.

3 Mark viii. 30.

invisible, i. e. all who are real Christians, they said about gathering wood on the professors or not. And the gates of hell, sabbath-day: “ The school of Shamma &c. Ancient cities were surrounded by binds it ;" i. e. forbids it ;_" the school 67 walls. In the gates, by which they were Hillel looses it ;" i. e. allows it. When entered, were the principal places for Jesus gave this power to the apostles, he bolding courts, transacting business, and meant that whatsoever they forbade in the deiberating on public matters. The word church should have divine authority; gates, therefore, is used for counsels, de- whatever they permitted, or commanded, signs, machinations, evil purposes. I Heil should also have divine authority ; that means, bee, the place of departed spirits, is, should be bound or loosed in heaven, particularly evil spirits. And the mean- or meet the approbation of God. They ing of the passage is, that all the plots, were to be guided infallibly in the orstratagems, and machinations of the ene- ganization of the church, 1. By the mies of the church, should not be able to teaching of Christ; and, 2. By the teachmercome it; a promise that has been ing of the Holy Spirit. merr arkably fulfilled.

This does not refer to persons, but to 19. And I will give unto thee, &c. thingswhatsoever, not whosoever. It A key is an instrument for opening a refers to rites and ceremonies in the door. He that is in possession of it has church. Such of the jewish customs as the power of access, and has a general they should forbid were to be forbidden; care and administration of a house. and such as they thought proper to Hence, in the Bible, a key is used as a permit were to be allowed. Such rites symbol of superintendence, an emblem of as they should appoint in the church power and authority. See Isa. xxii. 22; were to have the force of divine authority. Rer. i. 18 ; i. 7. The kingdom of Accordingly they forbade circumcision keeren, here means, doubtless, the church and the eating of things offered to idols, in earth. See Note, Matt. iii. 2. When and strangled, and blood. Acts xv. 20. Christ said, therefore, I will give unto They founded the church, and ordained thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven, he its rites, as of divine authority. meant that he would make Peter the in- 20. Then charged, &c. That is, he grumeat of opening the door of faith to the then commanded them. Mark, ch. viii. #orid--the first to preach the gospel to 30, and Luke, ch. ix. 21 (Greek), say, both Jews and Gentiles. This was done. that he strictly or severely charged Acts ii. 1436, and x. The power of them. He laid emphasis on it, as a the keys was given to Peter alone, solely matter of much importance. The reason for this reason; the power of binding and of this seems to be, that his time had not joosing on earth was given to the other fully come; he was not willing to rouse apst es with him. See Matt. xi. 18. the jewish malice, and to endanger his The only pre-eminence, then, that Peter life, by having it proclaimed that he was had was the honour of first opening the the Messiah. The word Jesus is wanting doors of the gospel to the world. What in many manuscripts, and should probably bever thou shalt bind, &c. The phrase, be omitted. Then he charged them to bind and to loose, was often used by the strictly to tell no man that he was the Jers. It meant to prohibit and to per-Christ or Messiah. mit. To bind a thing was to forbid it; 21-23. See also Mark viii. 31-33. to loose it, to allow it to be done. Thus | Luke ix. 22. From that time forth. This

? Pity

of the elders and Chief Priests and 'thou art an offence * unto me: for scribes, and be killed, and be raised thou savourest not the things that again the third day.

be of God, but those that be of 22 Then Peter took him, and men. began to rebuke him, saying, "Be 24 | Then said Jesus unto his it far from thee, Lord : this shall disciples, If any

man will come not be unto thee.

after me, let him deny himself, and 23 But he turned, and said unto take up his cross, and follow me. Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan:

32 Sam. xix. 22 * Rom. xiv. 13. 5 Ch. x. 38

Mark viii. 34. I Ch. xxvi. 51-53.

Luke ix. 23; xiv. 27. Acts xiv. John xiii. 6-8.

22. 1 Thess. iii. 3. thyself. was the first intimation that he gave that 23. Get thee behind me, Satan. The he was to die in this cruel manner. He word Satan means literally an adversary, had taken much pains to convince them or one that opposes us in the accomthat he was the Messiah ; he saw by the plishment of our designs. It is applied confession of Peter that they were con- to the devil commonly, as the opposer or vinced ; and he then began to prepare adversary of man. But there is no evitheir minds for the awful event which was dence that the Lord Jesus meant to apply before him. Had he declared this when this term to Peter, as signifying that he he first called them, they would never was Satan or the devil, or that he used have followed him. Their minds were the term in anger. He may have used it not prepared for it. They expected a in the general sense which the word bore temporal, triumphant prince, as the Mes- as an adversary or opposer ; and the siah. He first, therefore, convinced them meaning may be, that such sentiments as that he was the Christ ; and then, with Peter expressed then were opposed to great prudence, began to correct their him and his plans. His interference was apprehensions of the proper character of improper. His views and feelings stood the Messiah. | Elders. The men of in the way of the accomplishment of the the great council, or Sanhedrim. See Saviour's designs. There was undoubtedly Note, Matt. v. 22. 1 Chief Priests and a rebuke in this language ; for the conduct Scribes. See Note, Matt. ii. 4.

of Peter was improper ; but the idea 22. Then Peter took him. This may which is commonly attached to it, and mean, either to interrupt him, or to take which, perhaps, our translation conveys, him aside, or to take him by the hand, as implies a more severe and barsh rebuke a friend. This latter is probably the true than the Saviour intended, and than the meaning. Peter was strongly attached language which he used would express to him. He could not bear to think of Thou art an offence. That is, a his death. He expected, moreover, that stumbling-block. Your advice and wishes he would be the triumphant Messiah. are in my way. If followed, they would He could not hear, therefore, that his prevent the very thing for which I came. death was so near. In his ardour, and I Thou savourest not. That is, thou confidence, and strong attachment, he thinkest not. You think that those scized him by the hand as a friend, and things should not be done, which God said, “ Be it far from thee.” This phrase wishes to be done. You judge of this might have been translated, God be matter as men do, who are desirous of merciful to thee; this shall not be unto honour ; and not as God, who sees it best thee. It expr

Peter's strong desire that I should die, to promote the great that it might not be. The word rebuke interests of mankind. here means to admonish or earnestly to 24-28. This discourse is also recorded entreat, as in Luke xvii. 3. It does not in Mark viii. 34-38; ix. l; and Luke mean that Peter assumed authority over ix. 23—27. Let him deny himself. Christ; but that he earnestly expressed That is, let him surrender to God his his wish that it might not be so. Even will, affections, body, and soul. Let him this was improper. He should have been not seek his own happiness as the supreme submissive and not have interfered. object, but be willing to renounce all, and

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