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murdered Aristobulus. Gives his kingdom to the care of his uncle Josephi. Charges him in case he is condemned, to put Mariamne to death, that she might not be possessed by Antony. Joseph informs her of the charge of Herod, and is imprisoned on his return.

30. Ananel, high priest the second time.
War between Augustus and Antony. Herod sides with Antony.

Antony gives to Cleopatra the most fertile part of Judea, but Herod agrees to pay her a yearly tribute of two hundred talents.

Cleopatra visits Herod at Jerusalem, and attempts, in vain, to entangle him in her

Antony makes war on Armenia. Appoints Cæsario son of Julius Cæsar by Cleopatra, king of Egypt. Makes his eldest son, Alexander, king of Armenia and Parthia.

27. Herod makes war with the Arabians, at the command of Antony. Is defeated near Cana. A great earthquake in Judea.

27. The Battle of Actium between Antony and Octavianus, which decides the destiny of the Roman world. Antony is defeated.

26. Antony and Cleopatra kill themselves.

26. Hyrcanus, then 80 years of age, attempts to escape, and Herod gladly embraces this opportunity to put him to death. Goes to Rome to pay court to Augustus, and to conciliate his favour. Places Mariamne and her mother, Alexandra, in the castle of Alexandrium, with orders to the keepers to put them to death if he is slain. Confesses to Augustus all that he had done for Antony, and is confirmed in his kingdom.

25. Augustus visits Judea, and is magnificently entertained by Herod.

24. Mariamne becomes irreconcilably opposed to Herod. Herod becomes jealous. Orders the most faithful servant of Mariamne to be put to the torture. Accuses Ma. riamne of adultery before judges of his own selection. She is condemned, in accordance with the wishes of Herod, and immediately executed. Herod, filled with remorse, loses all self-command.

23. Herod puts to death the sons of Babas, at the instigation of her sister Salome, and thus cuts off the last remains of the Asmonean race. They were the descendants of Hyrcanus, and Herod now felt himself secure from any claimant to the throne.

21. Plague and famine in Judea. Herod lays the foundation of a palace on Mount Zion.

He marries Mariamne, the daughter of the priest Simon.
21. Augustus is made emperor. He was the nephew of Julius Cæsar.

19. Herod builds Cæsarea in Palestine, and fortifies Samaria. Sends to Rome his two sons, Alexander, and Aristobulus, whom he had by the murdered Mariamne. Agrippa the favourite of Augustus, is made governor of the east.

18. Augustus visits Antioch, and at the request of Herod, raises his brother Phe roras to the dignity of a tetrarch.

17. Agrippa comes into Asia. Herod visits him.

16. Herod, in order to conciliate the affection of the Jews, resolves on rebuilding the temple in a style of much greater magnificence than the former temple. Tvo years are spent in collecting materials. The old temple is taken down by degrees as fast as its parts could be replaced by the new building. The main body of the edifice completed in nine years and a half. But the whole not completed until long after the death of Herod. Notes on John ü. 20.

13. Herod goes to Rome. Takes his two sons with him on his return, and man ries them ; the one to a daughter of the king of Cappadocia, and the other to a daughter of his sister Salome.

12. Agrippa visits the east, and is magnificently entertained by Herod, at Jerusalem.

8. Herod goes to Rome, and accuses his two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus, of a design against his life. To this he is instigated principally by his brother, Pheroras, and his sister Salome, on account of their hatred of Mariamne.

7. Cæsarea, a city built in honour of Augustus, is dedicated with great pomp.

Herod is finally reconciled to his sons by the influence of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, whose daughter Alexander had married. He goes into Arabia, takes the fortress of Repta, and puts the garrison to the sword.

5. He breaks open the tomb of David, and takes out a large amount of trea

sures.

3. The suspicions of Herod are again excited against his two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus. They are arrested, tried, condemned, and sent to Samaria, where they are strangled, by order of their father.

1. Pheroras, the brother of Herod, and Antipater, the son of Herod, form a conspiracy against his life. The plan is to poison him. Pheroras is taken sick and dies. Antipater at the time is in Rome. The whole plot is discovered by the widow of Pheroras, and Herod divorces his wife, Mariamne, daughter of Simon, for being an accomplice, strikes the name of Antipater from his will, deposes Simon from the High Priesthood, and puts many persons to death. All this is kept secret from Antipater at Rome, and Herod sends for him to come home, with many expressions of his paternal love.

Augustus the Roman emperor. The temple of Janus shut, as a sign of universal peace.

The birth of Christ four years before the common Christian era. That era began to be used about A.D. 526, being first employed by Dionysius, and is supposed to have been placed about four years too late. Some make the difference two, others three, four, five, and even eight years. He was born at the commencement of the last year of the reign of Herod, or at the close of the year preceding. Herod had been king thirty-seven years ; Augustus emperor about sixteen.

Antipater returns from Rome. Is accused and convicted of a design to murder Herod, and is put to death by his order. The flight into Egypt. Matt. ï. 13-15. The murder of the Innocents at Bethlehem. Matt. ii, 16.

Herod dies at Jericho, five days after his son Antipater, in the seventieth year of his age, of a most loathsome and painful disease. He called around him the principal men of the nation, and charged his sister Salome and her husband to confine them in the hippodrome, and to massacre them as soon as he had breathed his last, that the Jews might have some cause to mourn when he died.

By the will of Herod, Archelaus is appointed his successor in the kingdom ; Herod Antipas made tetrarch of Perea and Galilee; and Philip, tetrarch of Batanea, Gaulonitis, Trachonitis, and Paneas. To his sister Salome he gives Jamnia and some other places. As soon as Herod was dead, his sister Salome dismissed all the jewish nobles who had been confined in the hippodrome, and who had been ordered to be put to death.

AFTER CHRIST. 2–11. ARCHELAUS, goes to Rome to obtain the confirmation of his title as king from Augustus. The decision of Augustus is delayed. Archelaus takes the High Priesthood from Joazer, and gives it to Eleazer.

Great tumult in Judea. The nation in arms against the Roman power. The temple is attacked, but the Romans are repulsed.

Augustus confirms Archelaus in the kingdom, but with the title of ethnarch, instead of king. Archelaus rebuilds Jericho. Is accused by the Jews and Samaritans of tyranny, before Augustus, and is banished to Vienne, in Gaul, in the tenth year of his reign.

A.D. 12—26. JUDEA a Roman Province. In 12 A. D., Augustus united Judea and Samaria to Syria, and appointed Publius Sulpitius Quirinus Cyrenius, Luke ii. 2, governor of the province. At the same time Coponius is made procurator of Judea.

14. The temple at Jerusalem is polluted by some Samaritans, who entered it by night, and strewed there the bones of dead men.

17. Augustus dies at Rola, in Campania, in the 76th year of his age, and the 57th year of his reign. He is succeeded by Tiberius, the son of his wife Julia.

18. Valerius Gratus made procurator of Judea by Tiberius. He deposes Ananus, and makes Ismael High Priest. Afterwards he gives the office to Eleazer, son of Ananus, then to Simeon, and at last to Joseph, called in the New Testament Caiaphas.

Herod Antipas builds the city of Tiberias.
26–38. Pontius Pilate made Procurator of Judea by Tiberius.

He attempts to set up Roman colours and ensigns in Jerusalem, but is opposed by the Jews.

29. John the Baptist begins to preach.
30. Jesus is baptized by John.
Tiberius banishes all who professed the jewish religion from Rome.

About this time hostilities existed between Herod Antipas, and Aretas, king of Arabia. Herod Antipas had married a daughter of Aretas. On his way to Rome, he saw and fell in love with Herodias, the wife of his brother, and agreed to marry her, and to put away the daughter of Aretas. She hearing this, fled to her father, and the consequence was a war, in which Herod was defeated, and his army dispersed.

30. John the Baptist declares this marriage unlawful, and is imprisoned by Herod.

31. John the Baptist in prison. Sends a deputation to Jesus to know if he was the Messiah.

32. Is slain by the order of Herod, at the instigation of Herodias.

33. Jesus is crucified on Friday, April 3. Supposed to have been at about thre o'clock, P.M.

34. Stephen put to death. Paul converted on his way to Damascus.

35. Agrippa the younger being involved in debt, resolves to go to Rome. Attaches himself to the party of Caius, and incurs the displeasure of Tiberius. This year Philip, tetrarch of Trachonitis, &c., a son of Herod the Great died. He was mild and equitable in his government, and had ruled thirty-seven years. The countries over which he had presided were at his death united to the province of Syria.

37. Tiberius dies, a most profligate and abandoned man. He is succeeded by Caius Caligula.

37. Pilate is recalled by Caligula, and banished to Vienne, in Gaul, where he is said to have put an end to his own life.

38—45. AgripPA THE Younger King of the Jews. He was the son of Aristobulus, and grandson of Mariamne. Shortly before the death of Herod the Great, his grandfather, he goes to Rome, squanders his property there, and is reduced to want. Goes to Idumea, and resolves to commit suicide. Persuaded to abandon his plan by his wife. Obtains the government from Tiberius. Is accused by his halfbrother, Aristobulus, and goes again to Rome. Is favourably received by Tiberiis. Is accused, however, of having made a treasonable remark respecting Tiberius, and imprisoned till the death of that emperor. Is released by Caligula from prison, and made king of Gaulonitis, Batanea, and Trachonitis.

42. Herod Antipas, at the instigation of Agrippa, is banished to Lyons, and his tetrarchy given to King Agrippa.

Caligula orders Petronius to place his statue in the temple at Jerusalem. It is delayed at the instance of Agrippa.

42. Caligula is assassinated at Rome, and succeeded by Claudius.

42. Agrippa is raised by Claudius to the rank of Consul. Samaria and Judea are given him, and thus he obtains the entire kingdom of Herod the Great.

42. Agrippa arrives at Jerusalem. 43. Deprives the high priest, Matthias, of the Priesthood, and bestows it on Elio

Causes the apostle, James the Greater, to be put to death, Acts xü. 1, and imprisons Peter. Soon afterwards dies at Cæsarea, in great misery. Acts xü. 21-23.

A famine at Rome. 45. Cuspius Fadus is sent into Judea as governor or procurator. He continues in the office two years. A great famine in Judea.

neus.

Fadus demands that the vestments of the high priest should be placed under Roman custody. Longinus comes to Jerusalem to enforce this order.

Claudius places Herod, the brother of the deceased Agrippa, over the temple and the treasury.

A celebrated false Messiah appears. He persuades the people to follow him to the Jordan. Promises to stop the river by a word, and to lead them over on dry ground. Is pursued by the Roman cavalry, and beheaded.

A second famine in the reign of Claudius. This was in Palestine. Acts xi. 28.

46. Fadus is recalled. Tiberius, an apostate Jew, is made governor of Judea in his place.

47. Claudius takes away the authority of Herod, and gives it to Agrippa, the son of king Agrippa, who died at Cæsarea. This was the Agrippa before whom Paul afterwards appeared. Acts xxvi.

47. Tiberius is recalled, and Cumanus is made procurator of Judea. Violent disturbances in Judea.

53. Cumanus is recalled and expelled from Rome. Claudius appoints Felix procurator of Judea. Felix was a freedman of Claudius. Claudius gives to Agrippa the tetrarchy which had formerly belonged to Philip, Gaulonitis, Batanea, and Trachonitis.

Claudius expels the Jews from Rome, because, in expectation of the Messiah, they are constantly exciting disturbances.

55. Claudius dies, being poisoned by the empress Agrippina, the mother of Nero. Nero succeeds him. Nero soon puts many persons to death, and among others his own mother.

56. Nero gives to Agrippa the cities Tiberias, Tarichæa, Abila, and Julias, and the districts belonging to them.

Felix captures a number of robbers and crucifies them.

The sicarii, or robbers with short swords, appear and abound in Judea. Felix hires one of them to assasinate the High Priest, Jonathan. Many false prophets appear in Judea.

58. Paul goes into Judea to carry contributions. Is seized in the temple at Jerusalem, and sent to Cæsarea. Ishmael made high priest. Paul makes his defence before Felix (Acts xxiv.) at Cæsarea. Is imprisoned two years.

60. Portius Festus made governor of Judea. Felix is accused at Rome.

Paul appea's to the emperor. Makes his speech before Agrippa, (Acts xxvi..) and is put on shipboard to be sent to Rome. Is shipwrecked at Malta.

Festus finds the country overrun with robbers. A false Messiah is taken and slain. Agrippa at Jerusalem builds a high apartment in the palace of Herod, by which he can overlook all that is done in the temple. The Jews build a high wall on the west side of the temple, to intercept his view. The case is submitted to Nero. Nero allows the wall to stand.

63. Festus dies in Judea, and ALBINUS made his successor.

64. Martyrdom of James the Less at Jerusalem. According to Josephus he was stoned.

64. Herod's temple at Jerusalem is completed and about 18,000 workmen are discharged from employment, many of whom become robbers.

65. GESSIUS FLORUS made procurator of Judea,-a man worse than any of his predecessors. He was cruel, tyrannical, and insatiably avaricious.

Josephus says that at that time there were 3,000,000 Jews in Jerusalem.

Rome set on fire, probably by order of Nero. He charges it on the Christians, several of whom are put to death by being enclosed in pitch, and set on fire to illuminate the gardens of the emperor.

66. Beginning of the jewish war. The year usually mentioned as that of the martyrdom of Paul and Peter at Rome.

An edict of the emperor is issued, by which the Syrian and Greek inhabitants of Casarea are raised above the Jews. The dissatisfaction which this occasions is the first cause of the war. The Syrians and Greeks at Cæsarea sacrifice birds on the

bottom of an earthern Vessel, in order to irritate the Jews. * A tumult is excited. Florus demands seventeen Talents from the temple for the use of the emperor. The Jews are exasperated, and take possession of the lower city. They attack the castle of Antonia, and take it after two days.

The Christians in Jerusalem, seeing that a war is about to break out, retire to Pella, beyond Jordan, in the kingdom of Agrippa.

67. Vespasian is appointed by Nero to prosecute the jewish war. Comes to Antioch, and forms a numerous army. Division in Jerusalem, and general revolt in Judea. Titus, the son of Vespasian, is sent to Alexandria, to collect an army and to proceed to Palestine in aid of his father. Vespasian subdues Galilee.

Josephus besieged in Jotapata. Jotapata taken, and Josephus surrenders to Vespasian.

The Zealots in Jerusalem seize the temple, and depose Theophilus from being High Priest, and put Phannias in his place. They send for the Idumeans to aid them.

68. Vespasian takes all the places of strength in Judea, around Jerusalem. Nero dies. Galba succeeds him,

69. Josephus set at liberty.

Eleazer, son of Simon, forms a third party, and makes himself master of the inner temple.

Galba dies. Otho declared emperor. Otho dies. Vitellius proclaimed emperor by the German legions. Vespasian proclaimed by the army in the east. Vespasian secures the throne.

70. Titus marches against Jerusalem to besiege it. Approaches it some days before the passover.

The factions in Jerusalem at first unite against the Romans, but afterwards divide again. The Romans make a wall all round Jerusalem to reduce it to famine. July 17. The perpetual daily sacrifice ceases.

A Roman soldier sets the temple on fire, notwithstanding the orders of Titus to the contrary.

71. Titus demolishes the temple to its foundation, and also the city, reserving the towers of Hippicus, Phazael, and Mariamne.

Titus returns to Rome, to his father, Vespasian. A triumph decreed them, and the arch erected in Rome, which is still standing.

The jewish war ended. Bassus sent into Judea as lieutenant, and Judea is subdued.

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