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rights are granted away to

private corporations.

stitution, the best and largest interests of a free and industrious Public
people like ours, in this State, would be protected. Without it
we have not much faith in the ultimate results, for as we are car-
ried forward by the political maelstrom, we shall find that our
political rights will be swallowed up by granting special privi-
leges to soulless corporations. Now, sir, what sort of justice, I
ask, can there be that will allow the law-making power in this
State to change, at each and every session of the Legislature, some
act, because a few favored citizens desire it; this ought not to be
tolerated for one moment. Necessary legislation is greatly re-
tarded, the expenses to the Commonwealth are greatly enlarged,
the assumption of such rights degrades the dignity of any legis-
lative body, and withall impairs the efficiency of legislation for
good to the whole people. If you restrict any by law, restrict all
under like circumstances.

37. Recent Tendencies in Constitutional Development

Among the novel features of the new state constitutions are modifications in the traditional modes of Anglo-Saxon procedure, such as indictment by grand jury and trial by jury; strict limitations on the rights and privileges of corporations; and provisions in favor of the working class. In this respect the recent constitution of Oklahoma deserves careful study because its framers have embodied in it practically all the newer inventions of American politics, among which the following are the most striking:

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall never be suspended by the authorities of this State.

Habeas

corpus

and jury

No person shall be prosecuted criminally in courts of record for felony or misdemeanor otherwise than by presentment or in- trial. dictment or by information. No person shall be prosecuted for a felony by information without having had a preliminary examination before an examining magistrate, or having waived such preliminary examination. Prosecutions may be instituted in courts not of record upon a duly verified complaint.

Injunctions.

Publicity

for corporations.

A grand jury shall be composed of twelve men, any nine of whom concurring may find an indictment or true bill. A grand jury shall be convened upon the order of a judge of a court having the power to try and determine felonies, upon his own motion; or such grand jury shall be ordered by such judge upon the filing of a petition therefor signed by one hundred resident taxpayers of the county; when so assembled such grand jury shall have power to investigate and return indictments for all character and grades of crime, and such other powers as the Legislature may prescribe. Provided, That the Legislature may make the calling of a grand jury compulsory.

The right of trial by jury shall be and remain inviolate, and a jury for the trial of civil and criminal cases in courts of record, other than county courts, shall consist of twelve men; but, in county courts and courts not of record, a jury shall consist of six men. This section shall not be so construed as to prevent limitations being fixed by law upon the right of appeal from judgments of courts not of record in civil cases concerning causes of action involving less than twenty dollars. In civil cases, and in criminal cases less than felonies, three-fourths of the whole number of jurors concurring shall have power to render a verdict. In all other cases the entire number of jurors must concur to render a verdict.

The Legislature shall pass laws defining contempts and regulating the proceedings and punishment in matters of contempt: Provided, That any person accused of violating or disobeying, when not in the presence or hearing of the court, or judge sitting as such, any order of injunction, or restraint, made or entered by any court or judge of the State shall, before penalty or punishment is imposed, be entitled to a trial by jury as to the guilt or innocence of the accused. In no case shall a penalty or punishment be imposed for contempt, until an opportunity to be heard is given.

Any person having knowledge or possession of facts that tend to establish the guilt of any other person or corporation charged with an offense against the laws of the State, shall not be excused from giving testimony or producing evidence, when legally called

upon so to do, on the ground that it may tend to incriminate him under the laws of the State; but no person shall be prosecuted or subjected to any penalty or forfeiture for or on account of any transaction, matter, or thing concerning which he may so testify or produce evidence.

The records, books, and files of all corporations shall be, at all times, liable and subject to the full visitorial and inquisitorial powers of the State, notwithstanding the immunities and privileges in this Bill of Rights secured to the persons, inhabitants, and citizens thereof.

The right of the State to engage in any occupation or business for public purposes shall not be denied nor prohibited, except that the State shall not engage in agriculture for any other than educational and scientific purposes and for the support of its penal, charitable, and educational institutions.

Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of a free Monopolies. government, and shall never be allowed, nor shall the law of primogeniture or entailments ever be in force in this State.

No private corporation shall be created nor foreign corporation licensed to conduct business in the State, except by general law.

No corporation shall issue stock except for money, labor done, Stock watering. or property actually received to the amount of the par value thereof, and all fictitious increase of stock or indebtedness shall be void, and the Legislature shall prescribe the necessary regulations to prevent the issue of fictitious stock or indebtedness. The stock and bonded indebtedness of corporations shall not be increased except in pursuance of general law, nor without the consent of the persons holding the larger amount in value of the stock first obtained at a meeting to be held after thirty days' notice given in pursuance of law.

No corporation organized or doing business in this State shall be permitted to influence elections or official duty by contributions. of money or anything of value.

No corporation chartered or licensed to do business in this State Mergers. shall own, hold, or control, in any manner whatever, the stock of

Books of corporations to be open.

Monopolies

and discrimination.

any competitive corporation or corporations engaged in the same kind of business, in or out of the State, except such stock as may be pledged in good faith to secure bona fide indebtedness acquired upon foreclosure, execution sale, or otherwise for the satisfaction of debt. In all cases where any corporation acquires stock in any other corporation, as herein provided, it shall be required to dispose of the same within twelve months from the date of acquisition; and during the period of its ownership of such stock it shall have no right to participate in the control of such corporation, except when permitted by order of the Corporation Commission. No trust company, or bank or banking company shall own, hold, or control, in any manner whatever, the stock of any other trust company, or bank or banking company, except such stock as may be pledged in good faith to secure bona fide indebtedness, acquired upon foreclosure, execution sale, or otherwise for the satisfaction of debt; and such stock shall be disposed of in the time and manner hereinbefore provided.

No corporation, foreign or domestic, shall be permitted to do business in this State without first filing in the office of the Corporation Commission a list of its stockholders, officers, and directors, with the residence and postoffice address of, and the amount of stock held by each. And every foreign corporation shall, before being licensed to do business in the State, designate an agent residing in the State; and service of summons or legal notice may be had on such designated agent and such other agents as now are or may hereafter be provided for by law. Suit may be maintained against a foreign corporation in the county where an agent of such corporation may be found, or in the county of the residence of plaintiff, or in the county where the cause of action may arise.

Until otherwise provided by law, no person, firm, association, or corporation engaged in the production, manufacture, distribution, or sale of any commodity of general use, shall, for the purpose of creating a monopoly or destroying competition in trade, discriminate between different persons, associations, or corporations, or different sections, communities, or cities of the State, by

selling such commodity at a lower rate in one section, community, or city than in another, after making due allowance for the difference, if any, in the grade, quantity, or quality, and in the actual cost of transportation from the point of production or manufacture.

on behalf

Eight hours shall constitute a day's work in all cases of employ- Provisions ment by and on behalf of the State or any county or municipality. of labor. The contracting of convict labor is hereby prohibited.

The employment of children, under the age of fifteen years, in any occupation, injurious to health or morals or especially hazardous to life or limb, is hereby prohibited.

Boys under the age of sixteen years, and women and girls, shall not be employed, underground, in the operation of mines; and, except in cases of emergency, eight hours shall constitute a day's work 'underground in all mines of the State.

The Legislature shall pass laws to protect the health and safety of employees in factories, in mines, and on railroads.

The defense of contributory negligence or of assumption of risk shall, in all cases whatsoever, be a question of fact, and shall, at all times, be left to the jury.

The right of action to recover damages for injuries resulting in death shall never be abrogated, and the amount recoverable shall not be subject to any statutory limitation.

Any provision of a contract, express or implied, made by any person, by which any of the benefits of this Constitution, is sought to be waived, shall be null and void.

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