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creatures around us are in want, when it is in our power to relieve them, without inconvenience to ourselves.

When we take a survey of nature, we view man, in his infancy, more helpless and indigent than the brutal creation: he lies languishing for days, months and years, totally incapable of providing sustenance for himself, of guarding against the attacks of the wild beasts of the field, or sheltering himself from the inclemencies of the weather.

It might have pleased the great Creator of heaven and earth to have made man independent of all other beings; but, as dependence is one of the strongest bonds of society, mankind were made dependent on each other for protection and security, as they thereby en better opportunities of fulfilling the duties of reciprocal love and friendship. Thus was man formed for social and active life, the noblest part of the work of God; and he that will so demean himself as not to be endeavouring to add to the common stock of knowledge and understanding, may be deemed a drone in the hive of nature, a useless member of society, and unworthy of our protection as masons.

The Book of Constitutions, guarded by the Tyler's Sword,

Reminds us that we should be ever watchful and guarded, in our thoughts, words and actions, particularly when before the enemies of masonry; ever bearing in remembrance those truly masonic virtues, silence and circumspection.



in the Grecian language, signifying, I have found it; and upon the discovery of which, he is said to have sacrificed a hecatomb. It teaches masons to be generat lovers of the arts and sciences.

The Hour-Glass

Is an emblem of human life Behold! how swiftly the sands run, and how rapidly our lives are drawing to a close. We cannot without astonishment behold the little particles which are contained in this machine, how they pass away almost imperceptibly, and yet to our surprise, in the short space of an hour, they are. all exhausted. Thus wastes man! to-day, he puts forth the tender leaves of hope; to-morrow, blossoms, and bears his blushing honours thick upon him; the next day comes a frost, which nips the shoot, and when he thinks his greatness is still aspiring, he falls, like autumn leaves, to enrich our mother earth.

The Scythe

Is an emblem of time, which cuts the brittle thread of life, and launches us into eternity. Behold! what havock the scythe of time makes among the human race: if by chance we should escape the numerous evils incident to childhood and youth, and with health and vigour arrive to the years of manhood, yet withal we must soon be cut down by the all-devouring scythe of time, and be gathered into the land where our fathers have gone before us.


The Three Steps

Usually delineated upon the master's carpet, are emblematical of the three principal stages of human


"Your zeal for the institution of masonry, the progress you have made in the mystery, and your conformity to our regulations, have pointed you out as a proper object of our favour and esteem.

"You are now bound by duty, honour and gratitude, to be faithful to your trust; to support the dignity of your character on every occasion; and to enforce, by precept and example, obedience to the tenets of the order.

"In the character of a master mason, you are authorized to correct the errors and irregularities of your uninformed brethren, and to guard them against a breach of fidelity. To preserve the reputation of the fraternity unsullied, must be your constant care; and for this purpose it is your province to recommend, to your inferiors, obedience and submission; to your equals, courtesy and affability; to your superiors, kindness and condescension. Universal benevolence you are always to inculcate; and, by the regularity of your own behaviour, afford the best example for the conduct of


Remarks on the Fourth or Mark Master Mason's Degree.

THIS degree of masonry was not less useful in its original institution, nor has it proved less beneficial to mankind, than those which precede it..

By the influence of this degree,, each operative mason, at the erection of the temple of Solomon, was known and distinguished by the Senior Grand Warden.

By its effects, the disorder and confusion that might otherwise have attended so immense an undertaking were completely prevented; and not only the craftsmen themselves, who were eighty thousand in number, but every part of their workmanship, was discriminated with the greatest nicety, and the utmost facility. If defects were found in the work, by the help of this

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