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ufactured by thousands, as they now are, and sold at almost every store. Then, if a person wanted a plough, he first went to the blacksmith and ordered the irons; then carried the irons to the plough-maker and ordered the wood-work; then again to the blacksmith to have the wood sheathed with plates of iron—all the work being usually performed without the aid of steam or water power. Many of them were of inferior quality, although there were ploughs made that would compare favorably in field work with the ploughs of the present day, but more team was required to use them.
There has also been great improvement in instruments for pulverizing the soil and clearing the field crops of weeds. The cultivator, horse hoe and improved harrow were formerly not known. Experience shows, however, that the plough, in the cultivation of the field crops, should not be wholly laid aside. One advantage, however, the cultivator of the soil had in those days—the Yankee boys would perform more labor, hoeing in the field, than the foreigners necessarily employed at the present time.
It is hardly necessary to say anything in regard to the depth of ploughing, as it is generally understood that deep culture is beneficial to the growth of plants. It depends, however, on the sub-soil, on the amount of manure applied on the crops cultivated, and various other things; therefore there is no general rule to be applied, but every cultivator of the soil must be governed by the circumstances in which he is placed.
There were eight entries for premium—but seven, however, appeared on the ground as competitors. The teams appeared in fine order, well disciplined, and performed the work well. The time occupied in ploughing was from thirty to forty-five minutes. As to the ploughs, there were as many kinds as competitors, no two being alike.
The Committee would recommend the following premiums : 1st premium, of $10, to Richard T. Jaques and R. S. Bray of
2d prem., $9, Franklin Alley and Andrew Smith, Marblehead. 3d $8, Hazen Ayer, South Danvers. 4th $7, Jacob Farnham, North Andover. 5th "
$6, D. L. Goodridge and M. H. Poor, W. Newbury. 6th "
$5, Wm. Foster and Joseph Kittridge, N. Andover.
J. Longfellow, of Newbury, ploughed a lot with a Michigan plough, but is not entitled to the Society's premium, in consequence of not having entered according to the rules of the Society. But as Mr. Longfellow has shown himself an expert at ploughing, as he is accustomed to do on like occasions, the Committee would have been glad to have recommended a premium, had he complied with the rules of the Society.
[The above report was amended, by vote of the Society, awarding Mr. Longfellow a gratuity of $5.]
PLOUGHING_WITH SINGLE TEAMS.
The Committee on ploughing with single teams, would make the following report, viz :
There were but four entries for premiums. The ploughing was very well done. The time of doing the work varied from forty-three to forty-nine minutes. The Committee have awarded the premiums as follows, viz :
The first premium, of seven dollars, to Richard T. Jaques of Newbury.
The second premium, of six dollars, to J. C. Newhall of Lynnfield.
The third premium, of five dollars, to Franklin Alley of Marblehead.
The fourth premium, of four dollars, to Elijah Pope of Danvers.
Respectfully submitted by
The Committee on Ploughing with Horses submit the following report :
Seven teams were entered for premium, but five only ploughed. The land selected was better adapted to test the skill of the ploughman and the training of the team, than to show really handsome work. On some of the lots, sharp gravel and pebble stones rendered it impossible either to keep the plough to the required depth, or to turn an unbroken fur
Yet a part of all the lands were sufficiently free from obstructions to enable the Committee to judge that on smooth, level land, the work would have come quite up to the average ploughing at our shows.
The lots, one-sixth of an acre, were ploughed in from 33 to 45 minutes, quite soon enough for good work.
Most of your Committee thought that if Moody S. Dole, who finished in the shortest time, had not taken quite so wide a furrow, he might have taken the first instead of the second premium.
Your Committee were nearly unanimous in the following award of premiums :
1st premium, of $9, to Jacob Farnham's team, of North Andover, W. Winslow ploughman ; work done with Lion plough, No. 61, in 36 minutes.
2d premium, of $7, to team of Col. Colman of Newbury
port, Moody S. Dole, ploughman ; Doe's Concord plough, No. 3, in 33 minutes.
3d premium, of $5, to David L. Goodrich of West Newbury; Prouty & Mears, No. 155, in 45 minutes.
4th premium, of $3, to James Cary and Franklin Alley of Swampscott; Lion plough, No. 61, in 44 minutes.
The Committee on Working Oxen, having attended to that duty, would respectfully report :
There were eleven pair of oxen entered for premiums. All were present and performed their work. There were not as many entered as is usual at our shows.
Your Committee were well pleased with the work of the oxen. Praise is also due to the teamsters, in being so quiet in the performance of their part of the work.
In deciding which oxen were best entitled to a premium, it was a difficult task where all did so well.
As the rules of the Society require the age and weight of the cattle, and weight of load exclusive of wagon, we have inserted below the full particulars of the same :
Names of Persons.
Residence. Age Oxen. Wt. Osen. Wt. Load.
4 2400 lbs 4000 Lynnfield, 7
6000 6 3048
6000 5 2815
6000 4 2130
4000 Hamilton, 7 3070
4000 South Danvers, 6 3100
6000 North Andover, 5 3000
6000 5 3425
The Committee awarded the premiums as follows :To Hazen Ayer of South Danvers, first premium, $10 To Joseph Longfellow of Newbury, second premium, $8 To Elijah Pope of Danvers, third premium,
$6 To Richard S. Bray of Newbury, fourth premium,
$1 As the premiums are now offered, no distinction being made between large and small cattle, committees differ in that respect. Some are for all of the large cattle, others for the small cattle, which sometimes causes some feeling among competitors.
Your Committee would suggest the propriety of dividing the premiums, so that the large cattle shall have their share, and the small or younger ones theirs. All is respectfully submitted.
JEDEDIAH H. BARKER,