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APRIL. May. June. JULY. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. MARCH. APRIL. May.
Amount of Milk. 1
gts. 1 qts. 171
47 000 314
406 345 290
320 427 273
305 395 231
279 357 171
41 2102 1 3000 | 3565 ||
Quarts per day. 1 1 2 . 3
9 1-2 10 1-8 11 1-8 19 1-4
13 1-2 18 91-3 10 1-3 13 4-5 8 5-6 9 5-6 12 5-6 7 2-3 10
11 1-6 6 1.4 9
11 1-2 5 2-3 8 2-3
9 7-8 3 1-3 8
10 1-2 6 5-6 10 1-2 3
8 2-3 5 2-3
Average amount per day during whole time :-No. 1, 6.2; No. 2, 8.5; No. 3, 9.4. The milk was sold at wholesale and actually brought, - No. 1, $52.47; No. 2, $79.71; No. 3, $97.57. The keeping in each case was precisely alike and consisted of a few roots or shorts, with as much hay and other fodder as they would eat; - during the summer months nothing but good pasture. It was thought at the time that Cow No. 1 barely paid the cost of keeping and a fair interest on her market value. Taking this for granted, then No. 3 paid a profit over cost of keeping — sufficient to buy a good cow at that time.
Dr. Loomis, in a paper published in the Patent Office Report of 1861, estimates the average annual amount of milk produced over a large extent of territory, at only 1800 quarts per cow.
If this is correct, or even if 2100 quarts per year be the average, then it follows that many farmers are making milk at little or no profit. It also follows that, with better stock, the same expense in keeping will yield a larger return than in almost any other branch of agriculture. Doubtless it is practically impossible for all to obtain extra cows; but when farmers are convinced that they cannot afford to keep a medium cow, the demand for better stock will increase, and the supply will increase with the demand. Another impor
tant consideration is, that every part of this county is so near a market that all kinds of fodder fit for cattle will always command their value in money. Hence there is no necessity for keeping stock to eat up our fodder, as there is in towns farther back. The kind and amount of food most economical and suitable for milch cows during winter, is a matter scarcely less important to the milk producer than the kind of stock.
The whole subject affords a wide field for investigation and experiment, and we hope that next year some of our farmers will observe and make note of what they are doing, not only for their own but the public good.
Joseph S. Howe, for the Committee.
STATEMENT OF SARAH L. RIDGWAY. I present for premium three cheeses made as follows:
The milk was strained into the tub as soon as brought in. In the morning the cream on the night's milk was stirred in, and a part of it warmed and set with rennet sufficient to form the curd. In one hour the curd was cut, drained and scalded, then ground and salted to the taste, and pressed about two days.
STATEMENT OF D. P. NELSON. I present for your inspection four new milk cheeses, one of which is sage. Each cheese contains the milk of four days. The manner of making is as follows:
Strain the milk into a tub as soon as drawn from the cows at night; add rennet in sufficient strength to form a curd in an hour; slice it and let it remain in the tub until morning; repeat this process with the morning's milk; scald the curds with water, drain thoroughly and grind fine ; salt with Liver
pool salt, allowing half an ounce to a pound of curd, and press twenty-four hours.
STATEMENT OF DANIEL SILLOWAY. The cheeses that I present for your inspection and premium were made in the following manner :
The milk is strained into a tub as soon as drawn from the cows, with a sufficient quantity of rennet to bring a curd, which will require about an hour ; then slice the curd and let it stand till morning, and treat the morning's milk in the same manner; then slice and drain the curd and warm it with hot water and grind in a curd mill; salt with blown salt, half an ounce to the pound of curd, and press twenty-four hours, turning two or three times.
The cheeses are an average lot of fifty-four cheeses made in fifty-four days, with the milk of eight cows.
STATEMENT OF SARAH J. SEARLE.
The milk for this butter was kept in the cellar and skimmed the third day, adding salt to the cream when first skimmed. We churned the sixth day, working the butter without washing. One ounce of salt is added to a pound of butter, and it is worked into lumps as presented. We use Davis' churn.
STATEMENT OF JONATHAN BERRY. I present for your inspection sixteen pounds of September butter, made in the following manner :
The milk is strained into pans and placed in a cool cellar,
to stand from twenty-four to thirty-six hours; it is then skimmed into tin pails and stirred once a day for four days, when it is churned, washed in cold water, and salted ounce of rock salt to the pound. After standing from six to eight hours it is worked over and left until the next morning, when it is again worked into lumps as presented.
STATEMENT OF SARAH L. RIDGWAY. I enter for premium fifteen pounds of September butter, made in the following manner:
The milk was strained into tin pans and allowed to remain thirty-six hours in a ventilated cellar ; then it was skimmed into tin pails, end stirred morning and evening for three days. When churned, the butter was immediately rinsed in cold water and salted to the taste with rock-salt ; then set away in the cellar until evening, when it was worked with the hands, and in the morning worked again and made into balls as presented.
BREAD AND HONEY. Fourteen specimens of Bread and two of Honey were entered. Our examination of bread, with a view to gratuities, was restricted to five specimens, the other nine being accompanied by no statement of the process of making, as the rule of the Society requires. We award to Miss L. Jane Kimball, of Boxford, for the best (statement) bread, $2.00 To No. 1-no name,
1.00 “ Mrs. Jane Bailey, of Andover,
1.00 “ Mary Curtin, of Lawrence,
1.00 “ Mrs. M. S. West, of Haverhill,
Miss M. A. Poor, of Lawrence, presented four loaves of bread, beautiful to the eye and sweet to the taste, but unfortunately no statement appeared. The same should be said of a beautiful loaf of Brown Bread, exhibited by Mary A. Smith, of Methuen.
To John F. Kimball, of Boxford, 1 box of honey,
STATEMENT OF MISS L. JANE KIMBALL. The loaf bread offered for premium was made in the following manner :
About seven pounds of sifted flour are taken, with twothirds of a tea-cup of hop yeast, and thoroughly mixed with warm milk; no other ingredients are added. The mass is left to rise in
warm room, usually from twelve to sixteen hours. When well risen, it is baked in tins, in a moderately quick oven, about one hour. The above amount will make three loaves of bread, of about the size of the one presented.
The following statement, with one loaf of bread, was entered as No. 1, no name appearing :
RECIPE.—Make a small batter of flour and hot water (nearly boiling,) and one-half a teaspoonful of salt, one-half a teaspoonful of sugar. Set it in a warm place to rise (about sis hours ;) then add one quart more of warm water, and flour to make a stiff batter; rise again (about one hour,) after which knead it and put it in the pans ; rise again and bake.
STATEMENT OF MARY CURTIN. To one quart of four, wet with milk and water one-half