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came not to

45 And he that seeth me, that judgeth him: the word that seeth him that sent me.

I have spoken, the same shall 46 I am come a light into the judge him in the last day. world, that whosoever believeth 49 For I have not spoken of on me should not abide in dark- myself; but the Father which

sent me,

gave me a command47 And if any man hear my ment, what I should say,

and words, and believe not, I judge what I should speak. him not: for I

50 And I know that his comjudge the world, but to save mandment is life everlasting : the world.

whatsoever I speak therefore, 48 He that rejecteth me, and even as the Father said unto me, receiveth not my words, hath one so I speak. without referring to any one occa- instructions, being disregarded, would sion, John intended to present a inevitably be followed by an awful brief summary of our Lord's instruc- doom. The Saviour's teaching, if tions.

perverted or neglected, would be a 45. He that seeth me; he that be savor of death unto death. Compare comes acquainted with me.

2 Cor. 2 : 15, 16. 46. A light; one who bestows 49. Of mijself; by my own authorknowledge and bliss, a Saviour. ity, independently of the Father, || A || Darkness; ignorance and misery. commandment ; a direction. Compare

47. ! judge him not. The word 8: 26, 28. judge is here equivalent to the word 50. His commandment is life evercondemn, or the phrase adjudge to lasting; the commission, or direcmisery. In this verse and the follow- tion, which the Father gave me, was ing, Jesus makes a distinction be intended to secure men's eternal haptween himself and the word, that is, piness. It was salvation then for the instruction, which he had commu- which Jesus was sent into the world. nicated. He says, It is not I that will The instructions which he imparted

a person's misery; his final were in accordance with this design; doom cannot be ascribed to me as its but if they are rejected, they will procuring cause. || Not to judge; not issue in the condemnation of men. to condemn to misery.

To make men miserable was no part of the TOPICS FOR REFLECTION. 1. The Saviour's office. Whatever misery death of Jesus Christ was a part of would result to men by occasion of the divine plan for the salvation of his coming into the world, must not men. To the suffering of death Jesus be imputed to him as a part of his de- voluntarily submitted. v. 24. Comsign, but must be ascribed to the per- pare Luke 24 : 26. Acts 2: 23. Rom. verseness of men in slighting and 5:8. rejecting him.

2. Great will be the glory and bliss 48. Hath one that judgeth him. of the Saviour's followers. v. 26. How The word one here does not relate to cheerfully, then, ought we to choose a person, but to the term word, which Christ as our teacher and example ! follows. The idea would be better 3. Whatever sorrows we may be expressed by the term that. The called to endure, and however we thought would then be expressed in may shrink from the anticipation of a manner somewhat like the follow- sufferings, we ought to cherish a su ing : Whoso rejecteth me, and receiveth preme regard to the glory of God. A not my instructions, hath that which solicitude to honor him will strengthen will condemn him to misery. These us for duties and for trials. vs. 27, 28.



CHAPTER XIII. his own which were in the world, TOW before the feast of the he loved them unto the end.

passover, when Jesus knew 2 And supper being ended, that his hour was come that he (the devil having now put into should depart out of this world the heart of Judas Iscariot, Siunto the Father, having loved mon's son, to betray him,)

4. While our privileges are con- eaten on the evening which introtinued, let us beware of neglecting duced the fourteenth day. The next them. v. 35. How dreadful the doom evening, which commenced the fif. which must result from abusing teenth day, the festival of unleavened them! v. 48. Compare Matt. 11 : 23. bread, or, as it came to be also called,

5. Fear of human censure is ex- the passover, commenced. See Lev. ceedingly injurious to our best inter- 23 : 6. The name unleavened bread ests. v. 43. Compare Prov. 29 : 25. came afterwards to be applied to the If we possess the approbation of God, whole time; namely, the day of eathow lightly ought we to estimate ing the lamb and the seven following both the applause and the frown of days. Thus this supper, though it man. Compare 1 Cor. 4: 3.

was, strictly speaking, the paschal,

or passover supper, was really a day CHAPTER XIII.

before the festival called the passover, The evangelist, having furnished or feast of unleavened bread. That so many specimens of our Lord's pub- it was the supper of the paschal lamb lic instructions, now, in several suc- which Jesus was eating with his discessive chapters, directs our attention ciples, is plain from Matt. 26: 2, 17 to him in private with his disciples, -20, &c. It has sometimes been preparing them for the last sad scenes thought that the expression before of his earthly career, and for their the feast of the passover,” shows that subsequent duties.

Jesus ate the paschal supper on this 1. Before the feast of the passover. occasion before the usual time. But The word passover sometimes refers the view above presented removes the specially to the supper when the pas- difficulties which have been felt, and chal lamb was eaten; and at other shows that the statement of John is times to the festival of seven days in perfect agreement with those of which followed the day of this sup- the other evangelists. Compare Matt. per, and which was called the festival | 26 : 17. Mark 14: 12. Luke 22: 7. of unleavened bread. In this latter|| His own; the disciples, who were sense, the word is here used. The peculiarly his friends and objects of supper which is mentioned in the fol- his regard. || Unto the end ; to the lowing verses, was the paschal supper, end of his life. He persevered in when the lamb appointed by the law giving them proofs of his love. was eaten. This paschal supper was 2. Supper being ended. The word one day before the festival of unleav- which is here translated being ended, ened bread. The law of Moses pre- is used in several places to signify not scribed that the paschal lamb should the end, but simply the being, or the be eaten on the fourteenth day of the progress, of an affair or an event. In first month [called Nisan] at even. Mark 6:2, the word translated was See Lev. 23: 5. The evening, ac- come is the same as is here employed; cording to the Jewish mode of in Matt. 26: 6, the word rendered reckoning, was not the end, but the was is the same. In the Greek of beginning, of a day; so that the even- Matt. 13: 21, is a similar instance. ing of the fourteenth day was the | By the aid of this remark, we pertime immediately after sunset of the ceive that the phrase under considthirteenth, and the lamb was to be eration might have been translated


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3 Jesus knowing that the unto him, Lord, dost thou wash Father had given all things my feet ? into his hands, and that he was 7 Jesus answered and said come from God, and went to unto him, What I do thou know. God;

est not now; but thou shalt 4 He riseth from supper, and know hereafter. laid aside his garments; and 8 Peter saith unto him, Thou took a towel, and girded him- shalt never wash my feet. Jeself.

sus answered him, If I wash 5 After that, he poureth wa- thee not, thou hast no part with ter into a basin, and began to me. wash the disciples' feet, and to 9 Simon Peter saith unto him, wipe them with the towel where- Lord, not my feet only, but also with he was girded.

my hands and my head. 6 Then cometh he to Si- 10 Jesus saith to him, He

Peter: and Peter saith that is washed needeth not save


while supper was going on, or during The thought of being separated from supper. This agrees with what is his Master, and of not enjoying the stated in the fourth verse He riseth bliss which he could bestow, was too from supper ; and in the twelfth painful to be endured. Peter, also, verse, he was set down again [he had probably perceived the meaning of again reclined at the meal).

Jesus in respect to an inward purify3. All things into his hands. Com- ing, and instantly expressed his wish pare 17: 2. Matt. 11:27.

to be cleansed throughout from moral 6. Dost thou wash my feet? Peter defilement. objected, because the act seemed too 10. He that is washed; more strictlow a service for his Master to per- ly, according to the original, a person form. The washing of a guest's feet that has been bathed. The word in was a servant's work.

the original is a different one from the 7. Thou knowest not now; thou word translated wash in the preceding dost not now understand the meaning verses and in this same verse, and it of this act. || Hereafter ; by and by: signifies a general washing, or bathing. Jesus was intending to explain this The other word is applied to a slight act, and to enforce the lesson he was washing, as of the hands or feet. thus emblematically teaching, as soon | || Needeth not save to wash his feet; has as he should have finished the wash- no need of an entire washing, or baing.

thing; he needs only to wash his feet. 8. If I wash thee not. Jesus im- | || Clean every whit; clean through. mediately used the word wash in a out. The bathing of a person would metaphorical sense, as signifying in- impart entire cleansing ; but in com. ward, moral purifying. I Thou hast ing to a friend's house, the feet would no part with me; thou canst not be a become soiled, and would therefore partaker with me of the blessings of need to be washed anew. As sandals the divine government. Without the were worn, and the foot was often moral cleansing which proceeds from for the most part uncovered, it would Jesus, Peter would be destitute of be exposed to the dust; and, therefore, the favor of God and the final bliss before the person took his place among of heaven.

the guests, it was necessary that his 9. Not my feet only, but, &c.; that feet should be washed. By this illusis, wash me all over, from head to foot. tration Jesus would convey to Peter

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to wash his feet, but is clean | Master, have washed your feet; every whit: and ye are clean, ye also ought to wash one anothbut not all.

er's feet. 11 For he knew who should 15 For I have given you an betray him: therefore said he, example, that ye should do as 1 Ye are not all clean.

have done to you. 12 So after he had washed 16 Verily, verily, I say unto their feet, and had taken his you, The servant is not greater garments, and was set down than his lord ; neither he that is again, he said unto them, Know sent greater than he that sent ye what I have done to you? him.

13 Ye call me Master, and 17 If ye know these things, Lord : and ye say well; for so I happy are ye


do them.

18 I speak not of you all ; I 14 If I then, your Lord and know whom I have chosen; but the thought, that his moral condition 20: 20–28. 23: 10, 11. And, at might be compared to the condition the close of his life, he wished to of a man who had been bathed, and make an indelible impression respectwho afterwards would need only the ing it on the disciples' minds. Acwashing of his feet. The work of cording to Luke's account of this last thorough moral purification, to which supper, the disciples were still indul, Peter's desire had reference, had al- ging ambitious views, and still needed ready been performed, and Peter did special instruction concerning mutunot need that general cleansing: He al condescension and love. See Luke did need, however, cleansing in re- 22: 24–30. gard to the daily moral defilement It has sometimes been thought that which he might contract. || Ye are our Lord meant to enjoin the washing clean ; ye have this general right of feet as a religious ordinance to be state of moral feeling. || But not all. perpetually observed among his folThere was one exception. This is lowers, as the Lord's supper is to be mentioned in the next verse.

perpetually observed. But the apos12. Was set down again; had re-iles did not so understand the Saclined again at the supper. ll Know viour; and hence, in the Acts of the ye? do ye understand ?

Apostles, in which book we so fre13. Master and Lord ; Teacher and quently meet with accounts of bapMaster.

tism and of the Lord's supper, we 14, 15. If I then, &c. Jesus ex- no where read of the washing of feet plained the design of the act which performed as a religious ordinance. he had been performing. He wished This consideration unites with our to impress the minds of his disciples Lord's explanation of the act in with the duty of condescension and showing that he meant to inculcate benevolence. With such an example the duty of mutual condescension and before them, they ought not to ac- love. count any kind acts too mean for 16. The servant is not greater, &c. them to perform for each other; If the Master has condescended to they ought cheerfully to render the perform such an act, surely the serlowest services which circumstances vant ought not to think it beneath might require and which the spirit him. of love might dictate. This lesson 18. Whom I have chosen ; whom 1 our Lord enjoined on every proper have selected as true friends, my real, occasion. Compare Matt. 18:4, 5. chosen followers. || That the Scrip

that the Scripture may be ful- 20 Verily, verily, I say unto filled, He that eateth bread with you, He that receiveth whomsome, hath lifted up his heel ever I send, receiveth me; and against me.

he that receiveth me, receiveth 19 Now I tell you before him that sent me. it come, that when it is come 21 When Jesus had thus to pass, ye may believe that I said, he was troubled in spirit,

and testified, and said, Verily,

am he.


ture might be fulfilled. It had been 20. He that receiveth, &c. The foretold in the Scripture that the connection of these words with the Messiah would suffer and die. See preceding is not very obvious. PerIs. 53 : 2–9. As a circumstance lead- haps our Lord spoke more at length, ing to that result, he would be be- reminding the disciples of the greattrayed; and one who had been on

ness and solemnity of their office, and intimate terms with him, was to be the assuring them that, notwithstanding means of his coming into the power the sorrows through which he was to of his adversaries. This thought our pass, and in which they were to parLord expressed in the words of Ps. ticipate, they would find friends who 41 : 9. || He that eateth bread with me; I would give them a welcome recephe that "has enjoyed my hospitality tion, and that those who should reand been on terms of friendship with ceive them would be regarded as reme. || Lifted up his heel ; to attack ceiving him. Thus he mingled consoand injure me. The ungrateful, un-lation with his predictions of evil, and provoked conduct of a who kept constantly before their minds the should rise up against one who had thought that they were the representabefriended him and admitted him to tives of the Messiah, while at the same his table, would well illustrate the time they ought to cherish the spirit conduct of Judas in betraying his which would make them willing, Master.

each to be the servant of all. 19. Ye may believe that I am he; that I am the Messiah. The treach- REFLECTIONS. 1. The betraying ery of Judas might naturally have a of Jesus might well be traced to the bad effect on the disciples, in suggest influence of Satan. It was truly a ing the suspicion whether he had not diabolical act. v. 2. But instead of discovered something that had de- cherishing indignation against the stroyed his confidence in Jesus, and, memory of Judas, let us, each, watch therefore, whether they had not com- against the wiles of the adversary. mitted a mistake in following him as 2. We cannot too highly estimate the Messiah. And when, in conse- the spirit of mutual condescension quence of this treachery, Jesus should and kindness. vs. 14, 15. Compare be taken by the Jews and put to vs. 34, 35. 15: 12. death, their confidence would be put 3. We need both an entire purificato a severe test, as they were not ex: tion of our moral natures, and cleanspecting such an event. But, amid ing from our daily sins. v. 10. Comthese perplexities, if they should con- pare 1 John 1: 7–9. Rev. 1: 5. sider that Jesus foretold what was to Have we been cleansed from the de. take place, and foretold that one of filement of sin ? their own number was to be the criminal instrument of such a result, they 21. Troubled in spirit; enduring would perceive, in this knowledge of painful emotion. || Testified; dethe future, an additional evidence of clared. || Shall betray; will betray. his being what he had claimed to be. See on Matt. 26 : 23.

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