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force. Wilkison in “Ancient Egyptians” and Lane in “Customs of Modern Egypt” testify to the employment of this force during the entire history of Egypt down to the present day. Ancient writers certify to the same knowledge and practice among other nations. The process of initiation into the mysteries of the occult arts which have employed this vital force reveals the necessity for strong will power and nervo-electric tension to develop this force to its utmost in the special direction desired.

This vibratory action is said to be received by all within its reach and spends itself by transplanting in the mind of the recipient the will energy of the giver. This nerve force is an electro-magnetic influence and expends itself in the action of eye, voice and touch. When science shall have laid bare the secrets of life it will be known what is the difference between all these energies. Prof. Elmer Gates, the Wizard of Washington, says of some experiments made by himself, “If I confine my attention to my thumb and inhibit my attention from all other sensations and feeling in other parts of the body, I soon have an increased amount of feeling in the thumb with a sense of fullness on pressure. A delicate thermo-electric thermometer will record a fraction of a degree higher than the temperature of the other thumb and a measurement shows that it is also larger. By placing a surface thermometer on any part of the body I can from five to twenty-five minutes raise the temperature of that part of the body by persistently looking at and keeping the mind upon the part. I can also alter the character of the perspiration of that part.” Prof. Gates demonstrated the effect of the emotions upon the body by experimenting on the breath. His subject was roused to the gladdest conditions. He thought of his most joyous experience, of his happiest memories and while he thought he breathed into a glass tube and his breath condensed into drops of water which was carefully analyzed without finding the slightest trace of poison. The moisture was injected into the body of human beings and animals, producing conditions that naturally result from healthful foods and beneficial chemicals. Then the subject was led in feeling to the most sorrowful emotions of his life and again breathing into the tubes, an analysis proved that the moisture was detrimental to the health of the cells and injection into the blood was like poison and depressed all the bodily functions. Prof. Gates has analyzed and classified forty different depressing emotions, every one of which produces different chemical compounds. Doctor Anderson, Director of the Yale University Gymnasium, in a recent lecture made an exhibition of a very sensitive and accurate mechanism known as the “Muscle Bed.” The fine mechanism registers the rush of extra blood supply to some organ or extremity in response to concentrated thought. Any serious problem tips the bed in the direction of the head. The experience of the muscle-bed shows that man's body, is but “clay in the hands of the potter." It is never the actor, but moves because it is acted upon. Pliny, the great naturalist, wrote, “There surely exists in man a certain power of attracting and of finding whatever he desires or wills to attract, change, bind or impede.” One familiar example of this power is the soothing or inspiring effect of music. The band is as necessary to the army as its other equipments. In olden times King Saul could only be decoyed from madness by the soothing strains of David the Harpist. The value of music as a conductor of this force is referred to by one of the best known Greek writers as having been successfully employed upon man and beast from the earliest times. A German writer of high authority says of this force, “Of its nature we are as ignorant as we are of light and electricity.” Long before Plato it was believed that there was one great pervading, embracing, universal, spirit filling immensity. The celebrated Dutch astronomer, Huygens, who developed the wave theory and whose research perfected the pendulum and the air pump, adopted the theory and called this all pervading substance ether. It is also called extra-chemical because analysis cannot conquer it. It can only detect its presence and know of its necessity. It is omnipresent in air, earth, water, flesh, blood and brain. Every thought and feeling of the mind is a generator of ether waves. It is now recognized that thought is as real in its operations as light or sound and may become as perceptible. It is impelled as a force having every conceivable degree of strength and is capable of taking complete possession of its owner, displacing sleep, impairing health and remodeling life. A force having such energy might be supposed to exert an influence beyond the narrow compass of the skull which contains it. A prominent scientist recently said, “Telepathy is the forerunner of many other faculties now gradually unfolding, that mind action, functions in etheric matter, and thought waves, will be just as demonstrable as sound waves, and thought pulsations felt by as many persons as are tuned to their particular vibrations.” It is a common occurrence of every day life to send thoughts into other persons' heads and to receive thoughts originated by them. To understand the laws by which they operate is to regard them as a part of the wonderful mechanism of life. Thought under the microscope will show that the gray matter of the brain is a deposit of phosphorous. When a person uses the mind in its most intelligent process, the excretions of the body contain an excess of phosphorous showing its waste by the law of supply and

use. Phosphorous is akin to light and produces a certain effect which resembles light and necessarily follows the law of vibration or wave motion. Thought exists not in the substance of phosphorous but in its use. All cases of telepathy show intense thinking as the propelling power of the words transmitted. Telepathy is everywhere attracting attention, societies are established and leading scientists are at work. All universities include the subject in their studies. It is dawning on the intelligence of the world that a mind educated only in its reasoning sense faculties, is not fully developed. In the pathology of healing there are two classes. The first method is the one employed by all schools that advocate drugs. The nerves are stimulated that communicate through certain centers with certain superficial mental vibrations inharmonious in disease and causing the inharmonious vibrations to become harmonious. The second method is by superficial thought vibrations passing direct from one individual to another and by greater intensity of motion overcoming the more undesirable and less harmonious vibration and thereby restoring harmony. One of the leading English scientists speaking of telepathy after years of research declares that it is a faculty long since stunted through disuse or else in evidence of a more splendid capacity yet to be developed.

The various methods of mind cure, faith cure, laying on of hands and similar processes that have come down to us from remote ages have each some fundamental verity. One view of the truth has been seen but it is generally allied with many practices and beliefs and is seldom scientifically applied. Experiments prove that mind activities create the structure which it manifests and the modern psychologist will exert an important influence upon individual life, as “mind is the path to the goal of all possibilities.”

SEVEN RADICALS.

By Howland M. Flower, M. D., Toledo, Ohio. I appreciate that in Seven Radicals for Otitis Media Suppurativa Chronica and some of its mastoid complications, I have not added materially to the subject. But it is to be hoped that the cases that I have the honor to report may excite your interest and worthy comment. Time will not permit me to give the technique of the operation. I have written upon that subject before, besides those of you who are working in the field of otology are familiar with it and those who are not can readily find it in any of our modern works upon oral diseases. It is from the daily grind of experience that our wisdom comes as well as conclusions drawn, and it is with this idea in mind that I present the cases that are to follow, hoping that we may all be benefited by the discussions.

Mrs. H., aged 30, consulted me March 17, 1904. Pain suddenly began in the right ear early last December, followed by rupture of the drum membrane, the discharge lasting several weeks, only partially disappearing under treatment. There were constant and severe pains radiating from the mastoid process to the temporal and parietal regions.

The patient gave no history of trouble with her ears until the present attack. Examination revealed a tender, inflamed, and swollen mastoid, the greatest point of tenderness being over the antrum.

The auricle stood out and away from the head in a characteristic manner. The canal was hot and red, but no discharge. The posterior superior wall was very sensitive to the touch, the drum was entirely gone and neither of the ossicles could be seen. The mucous membrane of the promontory was a bluish red, boggy to the touch and filling the space of the drum membrane. Posterior-rhinoscopy disclosed adenoids in the naso-pharnx.

Temperature 101, pulse 100. Patient was ordered to bed, ice poultices applied over the process, with one to five thousand hot bichloride irrigations in the canal every two hours.

The attending physician was advised as to the seriousness of the case. My prediction that no treatment other than surgical would afford relief was verified at the end of 48 hours, when I found the swelling behind the ear no less with the addition of fluctuation. There was a distinct sagging of the posterior-superior wall of the canal, still no discharge, temperature and pulse 100. However, in spite of these serious symptoms, patient felt more comfortable than at any time during her illness, doubtless due to the ice applications. The patient was sent to the Toledo Hospital, and the radical operation, performed. There was found a subperiosteal abscess with a fistula leading to the antrum.

The entire mastoid process was full of pus and granulation tissue. The dura was exposed in the epi-tympanic space. Excessive hemorrhage complicated the usual difficulties at time of operation.

The first dressing was done on the ninth day. Where I had used sutures, the wound had healed by first intention, the dressings were sweet and dry. On the tenth day patient left the hospital to return twice a week to be dressed, which she did for twelve weeks, when the ear cavity was firmly and completely covered by epidermis, including the eustachian orifice. The hearing is better than at any time since the original trouble began, she being able to hear a watch eighteen inches

away. The only unfortunate feature in the recovery of this case is a fistula behind the auricle, due to my fear of the exposed dura and the resultant prolonged packing.

My second case is a Mrs. M., aged 55, admitted to the Toledo Hospital March 29th, 1904. Operation the following morning.

In this case there was a history of suppurative otitis media 30 years prior to the present disturbance, the drum membrane being wholly destroyed at that time, the ear discharging freely, the discharge gradually stopping, and since then no history of discharge, pain, swelling or any discomfort whatever excepting an occasional “full feeling” during attacks of cold.

On the 15th day of February last, during an attack of Grippe, there was pain in and discharge from the ear. The discharge becoming very profuse, peroxide and irrigations were ordered by the medical attendant.

At this point the history is not clear, but I take it that the old trouble took on renewed vigor, a physician being in charge some days before I saw the case. Upon examination I found an intensely swollen and inflamed mastoid, the swelling extending over the tip and the jugular; there was a profuse, foul discharge, the patient was dull and apathetic, and appeared to be suffering from great mental depression, but answering questions rationally. Temperature 100 1/5, pulse 108.

The first thrust of the knife was followed by a flow of ichorous, stinking pus. When the cortex of the mastoid was uncovered, it was found to be blackened and pus discharging from numerous fistulæ. Using a bone spoon I simply scooped out the entire process, exposing the facial nerve and sigmoid sinus. In following up the diseased bone, I uncovered an epidural abscess extending from the bulb along the lateral sinus for two-thirds of its length. There was an extensive osteomyelitis above and below Reed's base line. With rongeurs I cut away the diseased bone until I reached the limiting adhesions.

Roughly speaking the dura was exposed the size of the palm of my hand. The wound was sterilized, carefully packed with iodoform gauze and bandage applied. The next day there was a pronounced facial paralysis, temperature 101 3/5, pulse 80. Patient expressed herself as feeling much better than before the operation. After the second day the highest temperature was 99 3/5, pulse 82. The eye soon began to improve and now she can close it. When seen last, over two months ago, her mouth was still twisted, but the wound had entirely filled in and the auricle was in good position. The hearing power in this ear is practically nil, otherwise she complains of no discomfort.

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