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The examination is both written and microscopic and I take the liberty of appending a most recent one.
Miscroscopical. — The following specimens were given the class un-labeled and a diagnosis of disease required: diphtheria swabs, tubercular and pneumonic sputum, pus from abscess, erysipelas and gonorrhæa.
Unlabeled cultures of the following were given for identification : Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus, Staphylococcus pyogenes albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Micrococcus tetragenous, Bacillus pyocyaneus, Bacillus tetanus., Bacillus Anthrax, Bacillus Mallei, Bacillus Typhosus, Bacillus Coli commune and Spirillum choleræ. The written questions were as follows:
1. Define bacteriology and bacteria.
2. Name and define two general classes and give role each play in nature.
3. Give morphological divisions of bacteria: (b) Subdivisions of each.
4. Define Aerobe, anærobe, facultative, spore and flagella.
6. Define (a) Septicæmia, Toxemia, Sapremia. (b) Auto-intoxication. (c) Infectious, contagious, miasmatic disease.
7. Give steps in staining for tubercle bacillus and reasons for each step.
8. Give steps in the method of determining the organisms present in a given specimen, e. g., pus.
9. By what characteristics would you recognize the following organisms: Streptococcus pyogenes, gonococcus, Bacillus Typhosus, Spirillum Choleræ ?
10. Name the organisms causing (a) Septicemias. (b) Toxemias. (c) Define disinfectant, antiseptic and deodorizer; give examples of each. (d) Name good disinfectants for houses, autopsy rooms, urine and dejecta of cholera and typhoid fever patients and tubercular sputum.
The text-book used is Williams' supplemented by special lectures upon the cause of disease, infection and immunity, serum preparation, and Pasteur's treatment. The reference books are Abbott, McFarland, Crookshank, Brooks, and Stengel.
It will become a matter of wonder that there should ever have existed those who thought it admirable to enjoy without working, at the expense of others who worked without enjoying.
THE CLEVELAND CITY HOSPITAL.
Cleveland Homeopathic Medical College. Three years ago through the kindness and generosity of the present city administration the Homeopaths of Cleveland, after years of useless effort, were admitted to the City Hospital on practically equal terms with their Allopathic brethren. We were given a full quota of visiting and consulting members, six representatives upon the voting staff and two resident physicians. In keeping with the sense of justice which dictated the policy in the first place the term of service was divided into a winter and summer term, the former being given over to the Cleveland Homeopathic Medical College that the students might benefit thereby, and the summer term devoted to men who were not represented in College work.
A brief resume of the work done will show the value to the profession of the concession received. During the winter term three clinics are held regularly each week, the general medical clinic, a surgical clinic, and an eye, ear, nose and throat clinic. Another hour each week is filled at different times by a neurological or a dermatological clinic, or by visiting the wards. The old objection that the two schools could not work together in a hospital has never been better refuted than right at these clinics. There has been the utmost courtesy on the part of each, interesting cases being freely loaned by one school to the other. Here in a modern hospital it is possible to present and demonstrate to a class cases which could not be handled in a dispensary or College clinic. Typhoids, pneumonias, pleurisies, appendicitis, mastoids are brought before them.
The contagious wards present numerous cases of diphtheria, scarlet fever, erysipelas, and occasionally small-pox. Under the latter head two interesting cases have recently been presented, one under our school and one under the old school. By common courtesy both cases were utilized freely by both schools. One was a fatal case of hemorrhagic small-pox, the other a case of severe secondary syphilis so closely resembling variola as to have been diagnosed as such by two expert diagnosticians and sent to the contagious department. The credit for clearing up the diagnosis is due to Dr. Martin Friedrich, Health officer of the city. Several cases of laryngeal diphtheria have demanded intubation, and whenever possible this has been done before the students.
The tubercular sanatorium, which the city now operates, also offers good opportunities for the student and practitioner to familiarize himself with this disease in all its stages and forms. The various heart and kidney lesions are common and offer opportunity for study to the man who is willing to exert himself. Our house surgeons here have opportunities which cannot be obtained outside of a large metropolitan hospital. To the man who can appreciate an opportunity, who is willing to work, who earnestly strives to get out of it all there is in it, it is a golden field. It brings him into intimate contact with good men of the other school, it puts him on his mettle, it gives him a chance to draw comparisons, he is made a broader and better man. We do not fear to suffer in this comparison. Our forefathers became Homeopaths because they demanded for themselves the right to depart from the established routine when they found something better. We demand the same right. Whenever the study of pathology or bacteriology, or chemistry has shown us something better than our law of cure, as the serum therapy of diphtheria, we have not hesitated to embrace it. But it must be proven better. We are not chasing the April Fools of medicine. The best American in the world is the man or woman who has visited the monarchies of the old world, so the best, broadest and truest Homeopaths are the men who have had a chance to make an unprejudiced comparison between the therapeutic resources of the two schools. Distance lends enchantment, but the glamour often disappears on close association.
Again, through courtesy, he often has opportunity in the many difficult cases to witness the careful and painstaking diagnosis of the old school, an art in which they are popularly supposed to excel. He learns here from the fact that his work is open to sharp criticism to be accurate and careful.
The rules of the institution demand that perfect records of the history, diagnosis and treatment be kept and this tends to make him methodical. We know of no better opportunity to-day than is offered here to the right kind of a man.
In closing we wish to say, that the Homeopathic profession and Homeopathic students owe to Mayor Johnson and Director Cooley a debt of gratitude which they can never adequately repay for this recognition in the face of so much opposition. They owe much to Supt. Emde for his courteous and fair treatment. The world admires men whose sense of justice leads them to do things which may sometimes seem unpolitic. We only wish there were a few such men at the head of the big life insurance companies which yearly take millions of dollars from Homeopathic physicians and Homeopathic clients and yet whose sense of justice is so dulled that a most despicable discrimination is permitted in their medical appointments.
The arrangements at the hospital are not perfectly ideal. We
could wish that we might be wholly independent of the other school, have a wholly independent staff, have our own wards, in other words, have a Homeopathic department. Neither an individual nor a collection of individuals can do their best work under a handicap. At the same time, we realize that to secure these conditions we must prove ourselves worthy. The personnel of the staff is receiving special attention. The present administration is determined to bring it to the highest point of efficiency possible. Men who will not attend to their duties are being rapidly eliminated and their places filled by the best and most energetic men obtainable. But a thing is perfected only in time. We are thankful and appreciative, and at the same time are working.
THE OBSERVATION OF SYMPTOMS IN CHILDREN.
By Julia C. Loos, M. D., Harrisburg, Pa. The children, God bless them! Is there anything more interesting or more varied? In all the world there is no more important or enchanting business than the making of children, in the light of the highest present knowledge, and no art more worthy the medical profession than making over those children which are handicapped by disordered vitality. The children are to be the men and women of the future and the stamina and health of these grown-ups depend upon their state of health in childhood.
A healthy child represents the sweetest, happiest, most beautiful, aye, and most powerful creature on earth, for these little ones can do with the hearts of their elders what commands of kings and penalties of rigorous laws have tried in vain to accomplish. A healthy child is good, joyous, sweet-tempered, and loves to be active, playing and working in the day-time, sleeping quietly when at rest. The appetite calls for the kinds of food that are best for its nutrition, at regular intervals. Without fear, without pain, regular in habits, such an one grows steadily, in beauty of form and feature.
"Then,” some one will say, “there are few healthy children.” That does not detract from the truth of the standard for any deviation from this, is so far an expression of disorder within. It is our present aim to investigate the occasions and expressions of such deviations as mark children, disordered or diseased.
Even our professional brethren of the old school are coming to a recognition of the truth publicly voiced by one prominent in their ranks, that disease action is expressed by subjective symptoms long before any objective changes can be detected. The homeopathic
physician is not well trained who does not know that the most favorable time to cure a patient is before his sickness has developed so far as to be named, according to current nosology – before it has reached the stage of expression in morbid tissue changes.
The children who are threatening to have consumption, rickets, marasmus, hip-joint disease, spinal curvature, epilepsy, St. Vitus' dance, paralysis, hydrocephalus, and so on, if seen early, should be started on the curative track before these dread forms appear. Otherwise the physician has failed in his art. Yes, even the full development of measles, scarlet fever, whooping cough, diphtheria and meningitis may be prevented by the application of Homeopathy in the early stages, so that no diagnostic picture is developed.
Our beloved science of healing has higher claims to supremacy than allowing patients to recover from, or “pulling them through”' the self-limited disease, which, as we are often told, would naturally end in recovery. What other method of treatment can prevent the development of the successive stages after an acute disease has been contracted and has started on its course, and deliver the patient as well as, or better than he was before the attack? What other science will shorten the disease of weeks' duration to a few days or convert a malignant form into a mild one, as can Homeopathy rightly applied ?
No one will believe this (and how could he from observation of other means) unless he has learned the importance of careful observation of symptoms in each individual case. The image, presented by the characteristic symptoms of the child, is the basis of the prescription which is to act as the magic wand of royal Homeopathy. No fairy tale of childhood, no deed recorded of giant, gnome or fairy god-mother is so fascinating as the transformations seen under the influence of the properly selected and properly administered remedy in the diseases of children.
What are these symptoms upon which so much depends? They are peculiarities which often would not be voluntarily mentioned to a physician because people do not know the difference between signs of health and those of disease. They are traits for which many children are punished (without avail, it is true). Some are those things which render children troublesome to their attendants and difficult to manage. Mostly they are queer traits or variations from the normal, for which there seems no satisfactory explanation. Because of their importance, it is often worth several hours of the physician's time to observe, personally, the patients, whose attendants have not learned how to report them.