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CONTENTS

Hull, William I. Monroe Doctrine: National or Interna-

tional? American Society of Internationl Law. Proceedings 108

AFFIRMATIVE DISCUSSION

Root, Elihu. Real Monroe Doctrine....

t..... American Society of International Law. Proceedings 123

Taft, William H. Monroe Doctrine: Its Limitations and ·

Implications

Independent 137

Roberts, W. Carman. Vitality of the Monroe Doctrine....

Craftsman 141

Callahan, J. M. Modern Meaning of the Monroe Doctrine.

.Journal of Race Development 143

Scruggs, William L. Monroe Doctrine-Its Origin and

Import

North American Review 150

Stanwood, Edward. Moral Aspects of the Monroe Doctrine.

Outlook 154

Chester, Colby N. Present Status of the Monroe Doctrine.

..Annals of the American Academy 160

MacCorkle, William A. Monroe Doctrine and Its Applica-

tion to Haiti.. .Annals of the American Academy 167

Notable Pan American Addresses..

Bulletin. Pan American Union 174

NEGATIVE DISCUSSION

Bingham, Hiram. Should We Abandon the Monroe Doctrine ?

.. Journal of Race Development 179

Dole, Charles F. Right and Wrong of the Monroe Doctrine.

Atlantic Monthly 199

7 Bingham, Hiram. Monroe Doctrine: An Obsolete Shibbo-

leth......

Atlantic Monthly 210

Tucker, George F. Monroe Doctrine.

.. Journal of Race Development 224

Commercial Side of the Monroe Doctrine. Review of Reviews 228

Wellman, Walter. Shall the Monroe Doctrine Be Modified ?

... North American Review 230

Shuster, W. Morgan. Is there a Sound American Foreign

Policy?

Century 238

Brooks, Sydney: Some Aspects of the Monroe Doctrine.

Fortnightly Review 246

BRIEF

Resolved, That the Monroe Doctrine should be continued as part of the permanent foreign policy of the United States.

INTRODUCTION

1. The Monroe Doctrine has been the subject of considerable

discussion in the past few years, A. In conferences which have convened for the special

study of our international relations. B. In the press, on the platform, and by the people, not

only in the United States, but also in Europe and

in Central and South America. C. It has been condemned by some and vigorously

reasserted by others as part of our foreign policy. II. The Monroe Doctrine, as formulated in President Monroe's

message of 1823, was the result of two circumstances. A. The claim of Russia to occupy territory in the North

west. B. The threatened intervention of the Holy Alliance

to restore to Spain her former South American

colonies. III. President Monroe's declaration was A. That the American continents were thereafter not to

be considered open to colonization by European

Powers.
B. That any intervention in South American affairs would

be regarded as unfriendly toward the United States. IV. It is generally admitted that the Doctrine has been extended

to include
A. That the United States has à paramount interest in

American affairs.
B. That it will resist, forcibly if necessary, all European

agression.

The acquisition of new territory. 2. Political intervention.

I.

3. The extension of existing boundaries.
4. The transfer of sovereignty or territory, if against

the interests of the United States.

AFFIRMATIVE

I.

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I. Both reason and authority support the Monroe Doctrine

as part of our foreign policy. A. It is based on the right of self-defense which is

supported by international law. Nih B. It is also based on the duty of preserving the peace

and safety and the desirability of maintaining the

republican governments of our weaker neighbors.
C. It has been declared and followed by the United States

ever since it was first stated.
It has been declared and acted upon again and again

by the executive branch of our Government.
2. Although it has never been enacted into 'law by

Congress, every resolution relating to it has been

in its support.
D. It has been supported by other nations.
1. European Powers have acquiesced in its' mainte-

nance.
2. Every Latin-American republic hàs at some time

or other affirmed it.
E. The argument that it has been extended, and without

justification, beyond the limits set by Monroe is

unsound.
Ir. The underlying principle is the same.
The extensions have been in harmony with the de-

velopment of the interests of the United States. F. It is not true that the Monroe Doctrine prevents Euro

pean Powers from enforcing their just claims against

Latin-American republics.
1. European Powers have every right to intervene in

behalf of their own interests or that of their
subjects so long as they do not contemplate
permanent occupation of Latin-American terri-
tory.

2.

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