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manner of punishment to be spoken of,"* are so many convincing proofs of what we have asserted, but if more were wanting, we need only quote his estimate of English rule to show that he regarded it as far preferable to that of any other government of the period. "My poor purse, from my youth," he says, was always spent to serve the crown of England, as of nature and duty I was bound, knowing and declaring in divers places the joyful life that Irishmen have under England, (nothing so plucked of their goods as by sundry ways other princes' subjects are oppressed in other countries,) if they were good and true in themselves."† Again, where could we expect to find, even at the present day, a declaration of loyalty so emphatic as that contained in the memorial he addressed to the queen, after he had spent eight years in duresse. “If her Majesty's pleasure so be," thus runs the memorial, "I am content to depart her Highness's dominions, and not return again without her gracious leave, during her reign-neither by word, writing, or otherwise will I attempt the disturbance of the same, but by all means seek to persuade the obedience of the realm of Ireland to the crown of England; and if any matter be brought unto me tending to the disturbance of her majesty's quiet government, I will not enter into it, but rather contrarywise, forthwith, give her Majesty notice thereof, and faithfully discover the same." Here, indubitably, there is the clearest proof of a loyalty and devotion to England, greater than which even Miler Magrath himself could not possibly pretend. Nevertheless, it did not open the Tower gates to the unhappy archbishop, for, as we have already said, he was doomed to close his days in misery and utter privation.

He himself has left us a long and detailed narrative of all he had to endure, and as the document is not accessible in any printed collection that has come under our notice, we give it here in extenso, without altering its quaint diction.

Richard Creagh to the Privy Council.

"December 31, 1575.

"RIGHT HONORABLE LORDS-Whereas I have been sundry times charged with many lies, as well against my bounden duty to my natural prince and country, as also contrary to that I was sworn to in my youth, (according to the custom of Limerick,) to behave myself as my said duty requireth, I trust your honors shall well accept to be here truly informed concerning such reports, not only for that all honesty doth require me so to do, (though hitherto I have held my peace therein, chiefly for avoiding suspicion of catching vain praise and other the like things,) but that also no mean man would gladly be or remain misinformed. Herein, then, discharging once my conscience in telling, as aforesaid, the truth, my long silence shall be no further occasion that any others should from henceforth through such tales offend God. But where, as commonly chances, that each one esteems his own doings, (nam suum cuique pulchrum,) better or less ill than they be, I humbly crave your honorable lordship's patience. both in hearing and forbearing with my rude writing, (which yet shall be as brief and plain as possibly I can,) so that your own wisdoms, and not any of my corrupt favor towards myself, may esteem thereof as your lordships will think

Creagh's answers to interrogatories delivered to him by Mr. Secretary, in the Tower, 22nd February, 1564.

† Ibid.

best, for though my great sins, otherwise committed against God's exceeding majesty, have deserved often also, eternal punishments, yet touching my behaviour concerning my prince and country, with all reverence I can take God to witness, (esteeming those words an oath,) that to my remembrance, I will here write nothing but the truth, (though the self things for the most part be manifest, either by reason, or else by experience and witness ;) and if the contrary will be at any time truly known, I am fully content to be without further ado, therein dealt withal as the Queen's majesty and your right honorable lordships will have it.


First, then, your honors may know that for no presumption of myself against her Majesty's proceedings, I was made bishop, for before her reign I refused to be made bishop of the city I was born in, and also archbishop of that province, viz., of Cashel; but at last, being straitly commanded, I did, for discharge of my conscience obey, being afore sworn in Louvain to such obedience; the inability of Irish scholars being causes of such commandment rather than any ability, that in truth I do or did see in myself also for that office. Being then in Rome offered also then the archbishopric aforesaid of Cashel, (where my kinsfolk and native country is;) I yielded rather to be sent to Ulster, (a barbarous and bare country, and I having never a living body there of mine acquaintance,) wherein cannot, or, at the least, could not then, any appointed bishop by the Queen's majesty remain, or get out of it any profit, Shane O'Neill spending with his rebellion all that did belong then to the archbishop, yea, almost to all other prelates and curates, causing also the self churchmen and priests to help him with their weapons in the field. Wherefore, guessing indeed what might fall out at last of my coming to the country, desired the very first day he saw me, that I should make me ready to go with his errand beyond seas, to whom, when I answered I came for no such purpose to the country, told no further what that errand should be; but taking another way for keeping to himself the aforesaid aid of church lands, prayed I would preach the next Sunday, and encourage his men to fight against his enemies; all the lords his retainers, and 600 of his warmen being present, straightway, after preaching was ended, rose up, and in a very rage, amongst other his threathening and most angry loud talk, did sware or affirm to destroy that cathedral church of Ardmagh, which thing he made to be performed within five days aftercausing all the roofs to be burned, and some of the walls to be broken; but perceiving that neither for that, nor for fear of any other things threatened by him, in despite and revenge of that preaching, I did shrink from doing my duty owed to God, and sworn to my prince, (for also I wrote to my lord-deputy Sydney, requesting his honor to command me any service I might with conscience do, of the which letter Shane did know,) but also I came to the open reld to curse him; then began he to try me with gifts, promising, or also swearing afore the like company abovesaid, that for mine own houses and men I should enjoy more of Ulster commodities than ever did any archbishop there since St. Patrick's time, if I would be content he might keep for his aid the helps aforesaid, which, when I did utterly refuse, he sought an earnest way to undo me as an heretic, both for letting him from aid to war (as he did pretend), to be against heretics (so naming the Queen's subjects), as also for refusing to set my hand to his letter, which he said he would cause to be written to the Spanish king; but I, being soon after privily warned that he sought thereby only means to undo me as aforesaid, departed privily out of this country, all also church and churchmen being sore, (by Shane), oppressed for my being there, for I was yet, moreover, warned, that going to bed he swore that there was none living he hated more than the Queen of England, (said he), and our primate, (meaning my poor body); for the which his hate towards me would never, from that first preaching, hear any other of my preachings afterwards, though I preached once in his own house, he absented himself, but not so O'Donnell, which soon after that first preaching left Shane, (giving high thanks to the preacher,) and held with the Queen's subjects. The more I tarried in mentioning this preaching, that also

clave, contrary to all expectation, I was burdened here in England, (but never in Ireland I heard of) that I have cursed therein the Queen's majesty, the which tale being rehearsed by my lord treasurer's careful wisdom, (who was then Mr. Secretary) in her majesty's affairs, I answered that his honour, receiving all my letters and writings, knew I had no delegative authority thereto, and of mine ordinary power I could curse none that was without Ireland, or also Ulster; and he that curses without any of those authorities doth fall himself in the curse rather than any other body; but, for conclusion, remembering my oath and offer, made in this writing's beginning, it is sure that I did neither so, nor yet said in any of my preachings in Ulster (to my remembrance,) any word that, perhaps, by any of your own honors, might be misliked of; wherefore your noble wisdoms may also, by consideration of the premises, perceive what tale was it that I have conspired with Shane, at Lifford, the fifteenth of December, as mine indictment in Dublin did contain; and also her majesty's letter at my said trial, partly read, did seem to mention some the like thing, so that I ween nothing now needful to rehearse, how Captain Herne told me the lord-deputy Sydney to have been well informed of the contrary things, or, also, how the lord chancellor, chief justice, chief baron, and others in that trial sitting in commission, would not have the quest to pass for that part of the indictment; for thereto I have also myself largely answered, showing, moreover, that within Lifford I was never 20, or also 30 miles, and saw not Shane six weeks afore that 15th day of December, nor after till Christmas-eve, when, being warned of his purposed enterprise, to begin, (according to his cursed custom) on Christmas-day, (viz., to go kill, burn, and spoil the English Pale,) I did, by God's assistance, stay him thereof, so that also neither afterwards (as I am remembered) he took any such enterprise in hand during my being in the country.

"To omit the rest of such my dealings with Shane to some witness I come, touching briefly some other my behaviours; for my preaching, done_afore my lord of Sussex, (being her majesty's worthy lieutenant,) and Sir Henry Sidney, treasurer (if remembrance fail not), going by Limerick upon Sir Donill O'Brien, as I had many thanks of his honor's gentlemen, so I lost for ever after a certain Irish lord's great favour, which being then present, did, till that preaching, favour me still. At my coming to Ireland, bishop to Ulster, and bearing and hiring a ship at my own charges, so that they should be bound to deal but as I would, I was poisoned by them twice for withstanding and staying them from invading at seaboard Englishmen, and so might take, therefore, such stuff as I had in the ship myself, and also the gold which they supposed I had, and thinking nothing but that I should die, brought me to Blaret, in Britayne, there to have a testimonial, (as I ween) that I should be there buried, for otherwise having no such witness, nor yet that I landed in Ireland, they should set themselves in present danger, chiefly by reason of countrymen that knew and saw me shipped with them in Biscay. When I came to Ulster (hiring thereto another ship, and foregoing the other, with giving them whole payment) I wrote, according my duty to the lord deputy Sidney, requesting his honor to command me any service as aforesaid; doubting also nothing at my departure from Ulster but his lordship would grant me a protection to live among my friends, her majesty's subjects, seeing I have been so sore persecuted for doing my duty against her enemies. Mr. Tremayne may declare further of my dealings, which took a very exact examination in writing of, perhaps, all my doings straight after I went out with the keeper of Dublin castle, which my going away I think no man would wonder that should know well how I was dealt therein withal, first in a hole, where, without candle, there is no light in the world, and with candle, when I had it, it was so filled with the smoke thereof, (chiefly in summer,) that had there not been a little hole in the next door, to draw in breath with my mouth set upon it I had been perhaps shortly undone; but the two gentlemen that have chiefly elected me to go out with themselves, and the said keeper, thought I should be much sooner undone in the second lodging

with cold, being thereto toward winter removed, where scant was light, and could be, without hindrance, no fire. My dwelling in this tower the first time, for more than a month's space, might, may chance, make a strong man to wish liberty, if for his life he could, though God is witness that I did not by myself or other, procure that escape, but rather much grudged at it the self hour, till a little upon mine unworthy prayers, (desiring God to give the best), my mind was clean changed, as I have often afore in sundry examinations showed it; but foregoing further rehearse of bearing almost this eight years, angryness with one of my legs (to the beholders judgment) lost by the same of my manifold sickness, (colics, stones of the raynes, such breaking down as Latins call Grumia, and also exitus fundamenti, loss of all my big teeth, save two, and daily sore runnes, &c.,) and many other like miseries; as also, how I was accused in Rome by Magrath, (now appointed by her majesty archbishop of Cashel,) and by others also in Spain of heresy, and other the like things, and inobedience and rebellion against the Pope, in my foresaid dealings with Shane, this, I say, and many the like mine unhappiness, miseries, and wretchedness, foregoing to rehearse larger; seeing (as I said first,) that my private affection towards myself, may make me to think better of my dealings, and care more for my griefs than in truth they be (my sins undoubtedly deserving sore punishment of God, whom I thank most humbly for not reserving them to everlasting pains. I commit, with as good will as I can, all to your honors' wisdom and discretion, beseeching, with all the veins of my heart, the goodness of God to forgive, if I have, or shall further be dealt with otherwise than I have deserved, and thus wishing her majesty, your honors, and all the realm as much wealth and prosperity of soul and body as ever had any prince, lords, or realm, I take my leave as humbly as I can-Your said honorable lordships' unprofitable and unworthy servant in Christ,


To the right honorable the lords and others of the Queen's majesty's honorable Privy Council.

Before closing this paper, which cannot but prove useful to those who take an interest in the study of our ecclesiastical history, we may be permitted to observe, that the Irish catholic has good reason to congratulate himself on the liberty which the Church of our forefathers enjoys at the present moment, and the total disappearance of the prelate and priesthunter, whose occupation is gone for ever. Intolerance, it is true, will raise its head from time to time, but it never can attain that baleful ascendancy which it achieved in the days of queen Elizabeth, and her immediate successors. Centuries of persecution have only served to consolidate the foundations of the ancient Irish Church, and as long as she can command the services of even a few laymen like the Right Honorable Thomas O'Hagan, blessed with grand genius, and practically religious, her privileges and independence will be secured against all assaults, no matter by whom made in the Senate or from the judicial Bench.



PRECOCITY, from its supposed frequency, may, perhaps, excite little other emotion now-a-days than that of contempt, and, indeed, in this enlightened age, when we have, or which is the same thing, are said to have, got rid of many ancient anomalies in the matter of early education, there is some

reason why a phenomenon, which in many instances was the mere flickering of soul for a moment, and then death, should be viewed by any one interested in the object, rather with apprehension than with the pleasure which it is only natural friends should find in the promise of their friends of great intellectual powers. We do not, of course, understand by precocity the

fruits of that forced cultivation which enables Miss Louisa to dabble in the piano, when only seven, or Master Edward, by a year riper, to enumerate mineralogy, geology, botany, and acoustics, amongst his legitimate pursuits, for, after all, the labour of mind required for these extraordinary coruscations is not such as will leave Miss L. less beautiful than she deserves to be, or Master E. less gifted than Nature intended what time she placed him in the world. The precocity of Pascal was of a different kind, and rather more curious in the preternatural development of mind which led him, at the age of seven, to invent the science of geometry; nor is Louisa to be for a moment placed in comparison with the young gentleman of three— Mozart; composing for the piano, which Louisa, no matter what Mrs. Pepper may assert to the contrary, cannot play, nor will play for many years to come, so as to afford any gratification to the listener. Of Tasso, too, who (crede Tiraboschi) delivered verses of his own composition at the age of seven (which seems to be the magic number here as well as in witchcraft), and with such manner and effect as harbingered the great destiny he was to accomplish by-and-bye. These verses we have not seen, but our readers will, no doubt, be gratified with the following lines, which he is said to have composed in his ninth year :—

Ma dal sen de la madre empia fortuna
Pargoletto divelse, ah di' que' baci
Ch' ella bagnò di lagrime dolenti
Con sospir mi rimembra, e de gli ardenti
Preghi che sen portar l'aure fugaci,

Che i' non dovea giunger più volto à volto
Fra quelle braccia, e si tenaci,

Lasso, e segui con mal sicure piante,

Qual Ascanio, o Camilla, il padre errante.

The allusions to Camilla, and puer Ascanius, in the last line, prove that by this time Torquato had been conducted through the Eneid; indeed, so early as his fourth year, he had made great progress in the Latin and Greek languages, the latter of which had not been very long revived amongst the Italians, and was, in the time of Tasso beginning to regain the prestigè it held amongst the later Romans. Turning to our own literature, we find numerous instances of this same psychological phenomenon; a very large name, but in exact keeping with the times, is this psychological phenomenon. Cowley's poems, published, I think, at eleven, are remarkable for their correctness of versification, and the indication they afford of acquaintance with classic literature; but in other respects they fall short of Pope's early productions, or even those of the ill-starred Dermody. The history of this infante perduto is less generally known than that of the two former, and we have often opened the Hibernian expecting to find some

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